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( Chapters I to X ) 
( With Index & Appendices ) 


Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Sir Ganganatha Jha, 

M. A , D. Lut , LL. D , Vidya-Sagara, Ex Vice-Chancellor 

Allahabad University 


VARANASI-l (India) 

Published by * 

Ktshore Chand Jain, 



P B No 108, Kachami Gall, 


(CJ Dr. Achtyanatha Jha 

Price Rs ^jfcffcT PlOT 5^1*1$, 
August m7|^3 ^ -^\^- 

Printers : 

Bhargava Bhushan Press, 

Gai Ghat, V&anasi. 


The famous English "Translation" of Kavya-Prakasha by late 
Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Sir Ganganatha Jha had been out of print 
for the last several years and the scholars from all over the world 
have been persistently craving for its re-issue. The same is being 
done with the concurrence f^ Dr. Adityanath Jha, Vacaspati, I. C S. 
Lieutenant-Governor of Delhi, the only surviving son of the illus- 
trious translator. 

Although Sir Ganganatha Jha called his work merely a translation 
in all humility, it is really a highly learned commentary as well, since 
attempt has been made here not only for reproduction m English 
of the Sanskrit text and commentary, but also towards their further 
elucidation, and for this the illustrious savant has supported his 
stand by references to different authorities and by providing supple- 
mentary notes. Although the work, as published hitherto, did not 
contain the text in the present edition the same has been added for 
the convenience of the readets. Dr Jha had said m the previous 
editions that he had followed the text of Vamani, but at so many places 
it is not so", and so effort has been made to present the readings as 
followed by the learned translator, and not that by Vamanacharya. 

In the meantime a copy of the manuscript of the Kavya Prakasha- 
Kanka was discovered in the Saras^ati Bhavana Library, Varanasi. 
Its opening stanza is significant in as much as it mentions expressly 
that Mammata wis the Vtttikara, without mentioning about his 
being the author of the Karika In addition the stanza, in which 
Santa is mentioned as a Rasa ( 31 ), is missing in this manuscript. 
The writer of this manuscript has in another stanza, where Santa 
( 26 ) is mentioned in other manuscripts, a text that does not have 
the word bant a. In the present edition not only the Kankas have been 
reproduced, but the readings where this manuscript differs from 
those of Vamanacharya have also been mentioned. 

While effort has been made to preserve the method of trans- 
cription of the translator, a deviation has been m^de^especially in 
respect of the anusvara. Dr. Jha had m for both H and ahusvara, but 


in the present edition, anusvara is being indicated by m. Certain 
misprints of the text, particularly m the Prakrit passages, have been 
rectified. Readers will find that % is tianscnbed in some places by 
sh and at others by /. 

The work is being issued in two parts, Part I consisting of the* 
first seven chapters and Part II of the remaining chapters with 
indices including a biography of Dr. Sir Ganganatha Jha. 

Dr. Adityanatha Jha has left to the charge of this humble student 
the honourable task of arranging for republication of the works of 
his father. In consequence thereof through the interest taken in 
the project by the energetic proprietor of Messess Bharatiya Vidya 
Prakashan Shri Kishore Chand Jain the first work of Dr. Jha 
that he had originally written as a university student is being 
published presently. It is now for scholars to see how far success 
has been attained in the matter of faithful reproduction of the work 
of the master. If this edition receives approbation of scholars, 
other works of Dr. Jha will follow in succession, and the second 
work to be published is the Prabhakara School of Purva-MImamsa. 

In execution of this work Pt. Shri Ahi Bhushan Bhattacharya, 
Principal. C. M. Anglo Bengali College, Varanasi, the worthy son of 
one of the greatest Sanskntists of the time, namely late j&ahamaho- 
padhyaya Pandit Phambhushan Bhattacharya, has ungrudingly co- 
operated in correcting the proofs, although for all shortcomings the 
responsibility rests with 

Subhadia Jha. 
Varanasi, 13. 12. 1966, 

sft^rfer^ foftSifirid^ tooth H ii 

5RT? I 

■II * II 


It mas at yom instance that this h ablation was done m 1 891 , and it 
: s at jour persistent insistence that ?t has been re-wrttten m 192 V f ' May 
yen find it mote satifactoty than its predecessor — is the f& vent hope of 

Your own, 



' Light of Poesy ' 


It was in a fit of juvenile enthusiasm that I permitted the first 
edition of my translation of the Kdvyaprakdsha to appear m the 
c Pandit * of Benares ; otherwise, under ordinary circumstances , it 
would be sheer audacity on the part of a boy of eighteen to put 
himself forward as the interpreter of a book which, apart from its 
subject-matter, is regarded, in point of style and expression, as one 
of the tersest, and hence the most difficult, in the Sanskrit language. 
The boy of eighteen, however, had his justification; he had written 
out a rough translation of the work in course of his preparation for 
the M A. Examination ; and when, on passing that examination, he 
had his ambition for authorship aroused by the example and precept 
of his late lamented tutor, Dr. Arthur Venis of Benares, he sent his 
aforesaid translation to him and asked him if he thought it fit for 
publication. Apparently with a view to encouraging his pupil, the 
doctor wrote to him — " room could be found in the Vandit for your 
translation of the Kdvyaprakdsha *', and the work was allowed to go 
forth to the public. The boy of eighteen has since grown to be an 
old man of fifty, and numerous have been the volumes with which 
he has thrust himself before an indulgent public ; and after all these 
years, when he came to look into his earlier work, he felt that he owed 
it to the public to revise at least such of his works as had secured a 
number of readers. Foremost among these appeared to be the 
Kdvyaprakdsha, the translation of which, imperfect as it is, has had to 
be read, more or less, by numerous candidates for the M. A. degree, 
for whom the original is prescribed by almost every University in 
India Thus it is m the spirit of repaying a debt long over-due that I 
am setting my hand to doing what is practically the rewriting of the 
translation of the work which, during all the centuries that have 
elapsed since it was written in far-off Kashmir, has held the supreme 
position in the world of Sanskrit rhetorical liteiature. 


With a view to interesting the modern reader, I requested my 
son, Amaranatha Jha of the University of Allahabad to add some 
notes, which would help the comparative study of this interesting 
subject After he had done this work over Chapter I, it was found 
that matter available for these notes was so abundant that if it were 
to appear in the form of foot-notes, the original work would become 
hugely encumbered. He has therefore decided to incorporate all 
this material for comparative study in a separate book that he is 
writing on the subject, and to include in this volume only a ~ few 
notes. — My own notes on the text I have embodied m the Text itself, 
distinguishing them from the text eithei by using square brackets (m 
the case of short notes) or by employing a smaller type (in the case 
of longer ones), 

I hops the reader will find this revised translation less defective 
than its forerunner. 

Th^JJniver^ity : 


February 22, 1924. 

.Preface to the First Edition 

This is the second Sanskrit work on the Science of Poetry tfeat . 
is being offered to the English-reading public m an English garc— 
if we do not count the Bhasha-Bhushana, a Hindi work on the same 
subject, which was rendered into English ard published m the pages 
of the Indian Antiquary in 1894, by Dr. Gnerson, whose labours 
m the cause of Hindi literature rival those of the late Mr. Growse. 
The first was the Sahitya-Darpana of Vishwanatha Kavwaja, \shch 
was placed over twenty years ago before the public by Rai Bahadur 
Pramada Dasa Mittra, m an English form, that still remains a ircdel 
of scholarly and excellent translation. It is t^rne that another woik 
on the subject, expounding more or less different views on impoi- 
tant points, should be published. Irdeed it js suipiisjrg that fo hWe 
attention should have been directed to this department of J&nsknt 
learning by Oriental Scholais. For, as it seems to the piesent writer, 
the Sahttya hteratute of India is remaikably full and complete, ard 
contains perhaps as many useful ideas worth the acceptance of' 
foreign scholars as the literature of philosophy. 

With the growth of interest and study m metaphysics ard psy- 
chology there has undoubtedly grown on parallel lines, m Europe, 
interest in and study of the philosophy of other sciences. And we 
see excellent books issued from the press day after day, ^hich seek 
to clear up the fundamental ideas of Law, of History, of Politics, of 
the Physical Sciences and of the various branches of Art. In shcftt 
there has been a general growth of introspective " Intelligence " on 
all matters , an,d an effort is perceptible everywhere to locate every 
portion of knowledge in its proper place m a universal scheme- 
There has been no philosopher worthy of the name, who has left an 
impress other than merely ephemeral on subsequent literature, and 
has not endeavoured so to organise the whole of human knowledge 
into one complete whole, or not matured ideas on all matters interest- 
ing to humanity. But it must be confessed that the literature on the 
science and philosophy of poetry is not excessively rich in English. 
Works on poets, dramatists, novelists, and on the history of literature 
abound ; and naturally many of such works, principally biographical, 


critical, appreciative, or descriptive, yet incidentally, enunciate 
directly, or indicate indirectly, very useful and instructive ideas on 
trie basic questions of the subjects concerned. But scientific works, 
professedly confining themselves to the principles which underlie all 

. literature (in the special sense of the term, viz. belles lettres\ are few. 
Prof. Bain's works on Rhetoric and Composition and On Teaching 
English are what might have been expected from him, a clear thinket 
and philosopher and scholar of " encyclopedical learning " in the 
well-judged language of Mill But they stand almost by themselves , 
Prof. Bam himself says in his prefaces, with reference to the depart- 
ment of Figures of Speech, that « never before has that branch 
received so large a share of attention ", and again, adverting to the 
emotional qualities of style, that his " is the fiisi attempt at a 
methodical and exhaustive account of these qualities ". And they are 
not final nor complete, as the Professor himself admits beforehand. 
Thus, though it would probably be presumptuous at this date, to 
hint that India had anything new to teach Europe, still it may per- 
haps be excusable to say that Indian books on Sahitya might help to 
clear up ideas if only by afFording the occasion for a further and 

» deeper study of the subject. 

The first and most important question of the science is as to what 
constitutes the essence of poetry. The long accepted answer in Tndia 
is that Emotion constitutes that essence— a conclusion which British 
investigators are only now approaching, and with still hesitating 
steps ; as Dr. Bain tentatively says (On Teaching English, p. 214)— 
"to emotion we must come at last, in any precise definition" of 
pcetry. Of course there are more or less slight differences in the 
details as discussed by different writers. The author of the work 
now translated has formulated his answer to the question m language 
which may appear at first sight to be even radically different from 
the accepted view ; and students will find interesting points of re- 
semblance in his treatment of the subject and Prof. Bain's, who also 
at least in the form of his book on Rhetoric, treats of all connected 
questions as subsidiary to Style. But this innovation of our author's 
too is only apparent ; and is perhaps due to nothing else than an exagge- 
rated desire to be original. He tacitly reverts to the general position 
m his treatment of the auxiliary subject-herein again offering a 
point of resemblance to Dr. Bain. And this is the essence and the 

net result of the teaching of the Sahtya Siastra : vi^ that the ex- 
pression of the emotions, in their infinite forms and their combi- 
nations developed by the infinite forms and situations of human life, 
is the business of literature; and that those writers are the greatest, 
and those works the most permanent and the most prominent that 
have seized and embodied the most permanent and prominent emo- 
tions of humanity in the most lemarkable manner. 

It is interesting and instructive to compaie Dr. Bain's class 1 - 
fication of the emotions admissible into poetry with those of the 
Sanskrit authors, and their respective arguments in support of them. 
The secret of the true reason, why Pathos plays such an important 
part in all literature, why ^3 Ef^nff ^r: ( " amongst the poetical 
emotions the supreme is Pathos ") in the words of the ancient Indian 
poet, and why " our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest 
thought " in the words of the modern English poet, is still to seek. 
Neither Mammata nor Bain, etc., are quite satisfactory on this point. 
The student might try and invent an explanation for himself. If 
he can, further, satisfy himself as to why "the Furious " "the Terrible" 
and " the Disgusting " should find a place in poetry, he will 
have discovered a deeper reason than Dr. Max Nordau, for the 
amazing outbreak of these in the literature, whose aberrations he so 
trenchantly, if not sufficiently deeply, exposes in his book entitled 
" Degeneration ". 

Another notable point is that the jorm of the Kavya is assigned a 
very secondary place in Sahttya. While m the West, metre, and to 
a less extent, rhyme, have been held to be essentials, they are of very 
minor importance in India. Prof. Bam and J. S. Mill before him {vtde 
his Dissertations), apparently approximate to the Indian view which 
allows of such famous %adya-kavyas (prose-poems) as Kddambarh 
Vasavadatta, &c, and of courss includes the drama under poetry at 
large, as one of its species , Walt Whitman and his imitators also 1 
recognise m practice the accuracy of it. It must be confessed, how- 
ever, that this view is only correct in principle and a? a theory. In 
practice the powerful additions made to the pleasures of poetry by 
metre and rhyme have checked the growth of prose-poems consider 
ably, and thrown into the shade all but the very best. For similar 
reasons, just as the metrical poem is an advance upon the prose- 

poem, so <c recited poetry " and the drama constitute an advance upon 
the metrical poem ,to the musical effects of metre and rhyme which 
enlist the services of the* ear in furthering the pleasures of poetry, 
the drama adds the scenic effects, which engage the eye also. And 
hence the dictum 3^3 5fla* 8*1 (of poems the drama is the 
highest). Thus it appears that Sahtya treats of the principles of poetry 
and it treats of Words and Style only in so far as they express more 
fitly or otherwise the appropriate emotion The treatment of the 
metre form it leaves to Prosody for metre and rhyme, and to Nafja 
Shastra for dramaturgy. Sanskrit Prosody has little interest for the 
general English reader ; but the science of Mirnetics obviously has, 
and there is no work on the subject yet, for a wonder, in the land of 
Shakespeare, — the one or two books like Hammerton's " The Actor's 
Art, " that are just beginning to come out, being scarcely entitled 
to rank as scientific books. If opportunities are favourable, the 
present writer hopes to bring out some day a translation of Bharata's 
Nfitya Sbastra, the oldest work available on the subject. 

The history of the science of poetry in India, like that of all others, 
is lost in antiquity. Tradition speaks of original aphorisms by 
£auddhodani, by Bharata and by Vamana These aphorisms too 
are lost for the present, except the last which has been recently printed 
by the enterprising publishers of the Kavyawdla. Vamana's Sutras 
are not old, that is to say, not much older than 800 A. y C Fragments 
of the other two are met with in the form of quotations by later writers. 
It is possible and to be hoped that they may be recovered some day ; 
for not very old authors refer to them as having formed the subject 
of their studies, before they began their own works ; and it is very 
much to be desired that they may be so recovered, for the Sutra — 
literature shows a finality of statement, so far as general principles 
are concerned, which could result only from a perfect grasp of the 
completed "circle of knowledge ," and it is not likely that any 
future races will succeed in improving upon these statements of final 
principles, however much they may and will make fuller the contents 
of the general ideas in consequence of more varied experience in larger 
circles of life. 

Shauddhodani appears to have been one of the first to definitely 
formulate the view that emotion is the essence of poetry— 


3FR TOTHpra; ^RT 5 ^— -(utterance embodying emotion is poetry), apcord- 
mg to a quotation in Alamkara Shekhara. It is only a matter of con- 
jecture whether he belonged to the genuine Sutra period of Sanskrit 
literature — the period immediately following Vyasa, the great or- 
ganiser of Sanskrit learning 

The outlines and the elementary principles of Sahitya are given ' 
in the Agni Purana also as now extant , but as to the authorship, 
authenticity and antiquity of the work grave doubts are entertained 
by those learned in these matters. 

As legards Bharata, a tradition says that the Kaiikas (memorial 
verses), of the Kavya-Prakaca, themselves are the work of Bharata, 
and that Mammata wrote only the prose portion of the text m the 
form of a commentary. But another tradition, as also the fact that 
Mammata refers to Bharata in one place, in the fourth Chapter of the 
work, in support of the doctrine stated m the Karika, goes against this. 
The truth, as usual, probably lies between, and Mammata seems to 
have made large use of the Sutras of Bharata m fashioning his verses, 
and has perhaps incorporated therein large pieces of them boculy, 
thus giving rise to the first mentioned tradition. 

Mammata himself was undoubtedly a Brahmana of Kashmir and 
lived and wrote his famous work certainly before the 12th century 
A. C , about the time when English literature was just beginning to 
be born. The earliest commentary on his work now available and 
apparently the earliest m fact also, is, that of Manikya-Chandra, and 
that is expressedly dated by Manikya-Chandra himself, in the colophon, 
"with the Samvat year 1216, corresponding with 1159 A, C. At the 
same time there is no reason to believe that the author of the Kavya- 
Prakasha lived earlier than the eleventh century A. C. ; for he quotes 
a verse in his 10th Chapter from Bhoja, who reigned in the earlier 
"half of that century , for a tradition has it that his younger brother 
Uwata attended the court of this very Bhoja at his capital Avanti 
for some time; and he was probably the medium of the quotation. 
It is easy to understand that the Court-Pandit should have gladly 
seized on the first opportunity that offered of paying an elegant com- 
pliment to the literary merits of his really deserving master, by securing 
for a production of his a gratifying reference and quotation in the 
masterpiece of his famous brother, and of, at the same time, and by 
the same stroke of policy, obtaining for that masterpiece an introdu- 


ctiotl under the most favourable circumstances to the court of his 
royal patron. 

Mammata was a member of a true Pandit family ; he was the son 
of Jayyata, the joint author with Vamana of the celebrated grammatical 
treatise, the Kashika; and the brother of Kayyata, the author of the 
standard gloss on Patanjah's Great Commentary and of the above- 
mentioned Uvvata, the author of a Bhashya on the Vedas and other 
Vedic works, which, however, have been superseded by ihe later 
works of Sayana and Madhava. Mammata is said, by Bhimasena in 
the opening verses of his commentary on the Kavya-Prakasha to have 
travelled to Benares for purposes of study. The times of Mammata 
seem to have been times of a general outburst of literature and learn 
mg in Kashmir, which had most likely something to do with the 
Buddhist literature and learning, then on its way out of India to its 
present Tibetan home across the Himalayas. A lot of literary names 
ending with the characteristic syllable ta are to be found m the books 
of this period, Vajjrata, Rudrata, Bhallata, Vabhata, Allata, &c. How 
these outbursts and revivals travel about from place to place is a phe- 
nomenon which is observable in the literary history of ancient and 
modern Europe also. Sahitya in India appears to have passed on 
from Kashmir to Mithila, and thence to Bengal ; it is 'now almost 
'confined to the Deccan. 

The mention of Allata leads us to the fact that the Kavya-Prakasha 
1 could not be completed by Mammata, notwithstanding the inevitable 
mangalacharaw % the propitiation of the appropriate Goddess of 
Speech. Apparently in accordance with the very satisfactory ex- 
planation of the ingenious Naiyayika, the past evil katma of Mammata's 
previous births was too voluminous to be dispelled by the amount 
of mangalacharaffa he made, and so the thread of his life broke short 1 
But it broke short when he was in sight of his goal ; and he has prac- 
• tically completed his work. About a third of the last chapter on 
Figures,— or rather as they are more becomingly named in Sanskrit, 
Ornaments of Speech — which third amounts roughly to a tenth of 
the whole work,-— was written by Allata, from the second half of the 
118th verse onwards, (page 244 of the translation*). This is expressly 
.stated by Anand in his commentary entitled the Ntdarshafta on the 
Jiattya-Prakasha, who again, in explaining the last verse of the work 

*Not in the present edition. 


refers to the same fact in this wise, " although this 10th chapter has 
been written by two authors, still the appreciating I will miss no 
pleasure of true excellence , indeed the general experience is that the 
mango fruit bred out of crossed varieties is even more luscious 
{than the fruit of either of its original parents)." Other comir^eqtja- 
tors also interpret the shloka above referred to, to the same^effect 

Of commentaries and glosses on the 'Kdvja Prakasha the number is 
legion. Verses current amongst the Pandits refer to this fact thus — 

(commentaries on the Kavya-Prakasha have been done up in every 
house, and yet it remains as difficult to understand as ever I) 
Or again— 

^scrspfn^j- fearo. *r^f srf% ^rarPr i 

(although there are thousands of glosses on the Kavya-Prakasha 
still, &c. Sec). There is no other Sanskrit work so much be-commen- 
ted, except perhaps the Partbhashendtt-Shekhara of Nagesha Bhatta It 
might be worth mention m this connection that Vishwanath*: Kaviraj a, 
the author of the other most famous work on Sahitya, referred to 
at the outset of this preface, thought fit to write an elaborate com- 
mentary on the Kavya-Prakasha ajtet composing his own independent 
work, as is evident from the frequent references to the latter in the 
former. Indeed the work seems to have excited a most singular 
emulation amongst all classes of writers to show their appreciation 
of it by means of comments; famous Naiyayikas like Jagadlsha and 
Gadadhara, leaders m Vyakarana like Nagesha Bhatta, renowned 
Tantnkas like Gokula-Natha and Kalyana Upadhyaya, have all fcaed 
their hands at it. This gives us an idea of the high honour m which 
the Kavya-Prakasha has * always been held throughout India, as an 
authority on its subject, and as a work, the careful study of which 
is indispensable to every Pandit who aspires to be regarded as a 
*' Sahityacharya ". 

A very full account of principal commentaries* on the work is 

*Though no less than forty-sis commentaries are enumerated, 
there 3 three more commentaries have been found of which no men- 
tion is made : (1) By one " Pandita-Raja " (identified by Pandits 
With Raghunandana Raya, the renowned disciple of Mahesha Thakk- 
ura. This commentary begins thus : HgefopsRsfa^ ^I^<fct4l0^ I 

X V 

to be found in the elaborate Sanskrit Introduction (from which 
many of the facts stated above have been taken) to his edition of it. 
(with his own — the latest, perhaps the best, and certainly the fullest 
commentary), by the eminently learned Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit 
Vsm*>nacharya Zhalkikar of Poona. 

In bringing the above remarks to a conclusion, I have to thank 
the gentlemen who have, in one way or another, helped me in the 

^^gfew^jftg^s^i^ <$&§ ii * ii w&\ few <TFft *n%rfe*( ^f^r i qfr^er- 
KT3- w& ^' 3fl*roircw ii ^ ii *qarefa sfeRp^r^i^ ^^ ^i«^d««Wt«m: i 
«?R^g ^^s°w^ftaT^^: ^Tftiwnffi mm \\\\\ srterRfir tor: gfe^Kfir 

Sfira. I Hciif^f^t^fTTCOT^l^K^ fa^Fg 11 h ii srora. ^m^W^^ 

=ETFCra: ^F^JFTHR ... ^H^WTcirc^cr 3RTW tftf IJ and ends thus : 

q i HM4>ra«fl c lOT ^tRt^STRT: II The MS. found is dated ^ t Vt* (A. C 
1637) (2) *By Mahamahopadhyaya Gokula-Natha Upadhyaya. This 

begins thus • w&x TOnarri ^WgraRPRnkr i$m i sBiwprafein^^ R>ar 
s^g^fo spfaiiRwi sratfl^d i a#ww^* ^n^ . •• n 

The MS. found does not extend to the end. 1 (3) By Kallyana 
Upadhyaya — only fragments of this work have been found. 

In a foot-note in connection with commentary No 25, the Sanskrit 
Intrpduction says that it is by Vachaspati Mishra, the " flsfcFW '* 
I venture to point out that this is an oversight : because the Vachas- 
pati Mishra, who is generally styled ' floras ' — the author of " Bha- 
mat! " &c. — is much older than Mammata, and further, this author 
has enumerated all his works at the end of " BhamatI " where no 
mention is made of any commentary on the Kavya-Prakasha. The 
Vachaspati Mishra who wrote a commentary on the Kavya-Prakasha, 
is the legist^ the author of a series of Dharmasashstra works — Achara- 
chintamani, &c. 

[ 1, Fragment extending up to the chapter V edited by Kavi- 
shekhara Badarinatha Jha and published by the Sanskrit University^ 
Varanasi 1961. ] 


translation. First among these comes Pandit Jayadeva Mishra, 
Professor of Vyakaranain the " Darbhanga Pathashala," Benares, from 
whom I got my first lessons m Kavya-Prakasha, and then Rai Bahadur 
Pramada Dasa Mittra of Benares, already mentioned, who not only 
encouraged me in the work, but also took upon himself the/tfytBte 
of correcting -an important portion of it. My thanks are also due to 
my honoured tutor, late Mr. Arthur Venis, M. A , Principal of the 
Queen's College, Benares, without whose encouraging words and 
example, I should probably have never ventured upon literary work, 
and to whose kind help is due the publication of the present trans- 
lation. The last person, but not the least, whom I cannot leave un- 
mentioned, is Babu Govinda-Dasa of Benares, who has ever been the 
guiding spirit of literary life 


April 1918 



Text with translation, etc. 


rferrTTs: ?-« 


Invocation *sNsmwif : • • * 
Contrast between the Creation of Brahma and that of 

the Poet's Speech. ^rf^Tf^M^f^^ • 1 

Effects of Poetry : Fame Etc iffT^aftsRST 2 

Cause of Poetry : Genius, &c tfrM^KW . ._ 3 

Definition of Poetry +|o4M$T T PT . . A 

Divisions of Poetry ■ (a) " Dhvani "^r^T (^) ^ft. ■ 6 
(b) Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion (^r) ijfllJ^T^i^+M^ 7 

(0 Third Class Poetry— " Fanciful" (ir) fr^T^ .. 7 


Three kinds of Words 3T3SFT -pf* #5T 3T^^fe<^*Hi: . • 9 

A Fourth Kind (according to some) ^5# diqH*t W . . 9 

Suggestion belonging to all meanings fl#!T czrssjeflcsnT . . 10 

Expressive Word defined "^N^SPPT . . ..12 

Fourfold Convention ^pHfe. tf%3\ ■ . . . 12 
The " Individualistic " and " Class " Theories Contrasted 

Divisions of Upadhi ^TTftrWt • • • • ^ 

* Denotation » Denned ^^Ff^W . . . 17 

Indication Defined ^TWT*r$r*PT • * . . 17 

Examples of Indication 5Ri«n*n: vwi^vuPt . . . 17 

Different Kinds of ' Indication * SrsHUH'+KI": . . . . 19 

What is. Pure Indication ^TgT^FiT • • • • ^ 


Inclusive Indication '^KRsTSPnT • • • • 19 

Indicative Indication ^TW^T . . .21 

Superimponent Indication HRfTT STSPTT . ' .22 

Intro -susceptive Indication WlWfcRiHl ^r^tTjT . 23 

Quj&itative Indication ?mft ^rSFP^TT . 23 
Difference between Pure and Qualitative Indications 

Six Kinds of Indication ygffcsu STOTT . . 27 
Indication based on Motive is endowed with Suggestive 

Meaning. SpftoH^r ^TSPJIW. sj^rcrcrftplc^J . . .27 

' Suggestion ' either Abstruse or Explicit 3jq^K^^c«PT . 27 

Examples of both gTft S^lfWrfr . 28 

' Indication ' of three kinds 5TOT13T. tfaszpT . . 29 

Indicative Word Defined 5iTOpT«fnil*q. . 29 
Suggestion in the comprehension of the Motive sreT miq^ e fro^ o ^i - 

ssra^nwr 30 
Reasons for admitting of such Suggestion s^^ff^ qff |g: . , 30 
It cannot be Denotation srfirsrr ?r . . * . . 30 

It cannot be Indication STSTJIT «T . . 31 

Why not Indication ? ^q* T WOTT . . 31 

Admission of Indication leads to a Regress&s ad infinitum 

*nrasmtasn^ 32 

# Motive does not accompany the Indicated Meaning 

wfom g%r «ran»ftf ?r 33 

Reasons for the Assertion cT%: .. 33 

Definition of Suggestion based on Denotation srf^EfppTT e^^Hl 34 
The Different Causes of Suggestion 043-^1^4; . . 34 

Examples ^|$<uitfa . . ..35 

The Suggestive Word Defined sqo^R^R^g^r^ .. ..39 

Meaning Auxiliary to Suggestion ^^T ^s^R^WTR'qFr flflfrlftdl 39 


Suggestiveness Defined a^^dRRfnW „ m . 40 


Suggestion Defined ^©^HltfSTJPT . . 40 

Suggestion due to the special character of the Speaker, &c. 

(1) Of the Speaker to* . 41 

(2) Of the Person Spoken to *fl4 c W * " 4x 

(3) Of Intonation sprat 42 

(4) Of the Sentence 4(4*1*4 . . .43 

(5) Of the Expressed Meaning ^T^TT^^ . 43 

(6) Of Presence of another Bprcrfira" : 44 

(7) Of Context iHdW4 . . . 44 

(8) Of Place ^wr .. 45 

(9) Of Time &c. ^TWT^rT'T • 45 
Suggestiveness of a Combination of the aforesaid specialities 

^JT^TT fa*T.*Rfft . . 47 
Words help the Suggestiveness of Meaning 

Sp Mb^dWI '^^ ^TfF^T . . 47 

Justification of taking up Divisions of Poetry ^q^fa^STTfcPT 48 
Two kinds of Suggestive Poetry ^i«ji!^t • - 48 

(1) Suggestive Poetry based on Indication, where the 
Direct Meaning is transferred to another 

^4kr^mrf5Tcr^T3^: 48^ 

(2) Where the Direct Meaning is altogether neglected . . 

^njRr<**<Krszr 49 

Suggestion based on Denotation farfaai^sv*!-**. .. 50 

The two kinds of " Vivakshitanyaparavachya " %$$$[ . . 50 

I That in which The Order of Sequence is not perceptible . . 

WRWsb*M"^r: 51 

Rasa Defined. W^4 . . .52 

Bharata's Sutra TTCT^^T .. 52 

Bhattalollata's Interpretation of Bharata ^tflc^d^d'^ • • 52 

Shankuka's Interpretation of Bharata 3T3^pTOPT . . 53 




Bhattanayaka's Interpretation of Bharata *rg«iN**Km . . 56 

Abhinavagupta's Interpretation of Bharata SfffoficMr-a+ia^ 57 

The Eight Rasas Enumerated W&t WT. . * 

^(a) The Erotic *J^TT 

Erotic in Enjoyment snffa'^rc 

Of Privation f^Rr^ ^. 

Of Longing lift vim. 

Of Separation f%^ 

Of Jealousy fsqf 65 

Of Residence Abroad srSTST. 65 

Of Curse smi: 65 

(b) The Comic ^q- 66 

(r) The Pathetic ^m 66 

(d) The Furious xfc . 67 

(0 The Heroic sfft: 67 

(/) The Frightful wm* . - 67 

(^) The Disgustful ^TRS" • 68 

(£) The Marvellous ^T^JcT. # • • 68 
The Permanent Emotions Underlying the Rasas ^fsffiWr: 68 

The Thirty-Three Accessary Emotions Enumerated 

wrf*Hlfoll3FT . 69 

The Ninth Rasa— The Quietistic tjcrit W — STRf . . 70 

► Bhava (Emotion) Defined ^cf: . . . 70 

The Aberrations of Rasa and Bhava ^PRT^T^PRWT' . 72 

Allayment. Manifestation, Mixture and Variegation of 

Emotions. mw& Jt||Pd<ri4. tffsr. 4|«Hdi ^ . 73 

(1) Allayment of Emotion sn^nfe , . .73 

(2) Manifestation of Emotion ?rr^T. . . .74 
(3) j Conjunction of Emotion TTPTCrfa. . . .75 
(4) Admixture of Emotion m^H^l _ . . 75 
Allayment, etc. sometimes the Predominent Factor 

^T^nwcftar wfa^ st^t^ 75 


II Suggestive Poetry of Perceptible order of Sequence 

is Tbiee-fold H^WsbH^'^^^rPr: 76 
Suggestion arising from the power of the Woid ^o^fi^T^f^rPr: 77 
Of figtue of* speech by Word JtWiH4d^tfW&*l<H(H. 77 

Of fact by word ^TS^i^^^q^PFg^fN": . . 80 

Suggested Meaning arising from power of Meaning . ~ 

I The Self-Existent ^r: gr*Rft - . . 81 

II That created by the Poet's Imagination sfifW^tfiKrfTO • • 81 

III Created by a character portrayed by the Poet 

Example of the first ldnd of the Self-Existent ^cT U«if«M: 

SST^nfa 82 

— Fact suggested by Fact c|3grif 

^s^fr: 82 
„ „ 2nd land „ Figure suggested Matter ^R^=TT 

„ ,; „ 3rd king „ Fact by Figure *|<Ach|^u| 

SRtjjssrfjr: 83 
„ „ 4th kind „ Figure by Figure !M^«bR u l . . 

Example of the 1st kind of that which is established by the 
Poet's Assertion. cbftMlilPklRl^Nl^l^llPl — 
Fact by Fact c^pT ^^f: . . 84 

„ „ „ 2nd king „ Figure by Fact q^n K&m&fa: 84 
„ 3rd kind „ Fact by Figure i|<Hi^u| zrq.. 

«lftt 85 
„ 4th kind „ Figure by Figure 3H?H>r^T . - 

*l*HKsarffr. 85 
Example of the 1st kind of that created by a character portrayed 
- by the poefc — *ft(H^4HW+1f«Cd^cti^<o||pi 
Fact by Fact TOpr «Kffa|pT : 86 


„ „ „ 2nd kind „ Figure by Fact ^^TT U<4«bK- 

^rfir 87 

„ „ „ 3rd kind „ Fact by Figure 4W*R<J| TOJ- 

s^rfa 87 
„ 5> 4th kind „ Figure by Figure ^^+|>| ^^^i <- 

«^T. 88 
Only one kind of Suggestive Meaning due to both Word and 

Meaning *WT*ffaw ^sfaMc^ffc: . 89 

Eighteen-foidness of Suggestive Poetry s^^SET^F ?tep . . 90 

Rasa and other forms, etc. counted as one <^|cfhi qsfr irq- ^ 90 
In a Sentence, we have Suggestion due to both Word and 

Meaning zpffq ^ffi. . . . 91 

In Words, these and others q^pq" . . 91 

(1) Having the Expressed Meaning transferred to another . 

^^f^rar^ftcr^T^^Pr* 92 

(2) Having the Expressed Meaning Entirely Ignored . 

*M^(d<*$a^ar^ 92 

(3) Having the Suggestion of imperceptible sequence 5RT5TW- 

SRSflgOT^rfr: 92 

(4) Suggestion of perceptible process by Words #5T^**M§OT- 
Scfft"; founded on the power of a Word ^TS^f^TR^r. : of 

Figure by Fact ci^TT 4H+K«rf?T . 94 
'(5) Suggestion of perceptible process : by Words : founded 
on the power of Word • of Fact by Fact c|^H|' 3^S5rpT 94 

(6) Suggestion of perceptible sequence : by Word SPTsrf^JeT : 
founded on the power of Sense ^Rr^F^t:, Self-Existent 

of Fact by Fact cf^r 4*fl*|fi 95 

(7) ' „ of Figure by Fact spEfTT ST^+KHft . . 95 

(8) „ of Fact by Figure Sf^rt*T «K$s*lPr . . 96 

(9) ,> of Figure by Figure sW^j^uj *|<&«H<**lft . . 97 
{10) Suggestion of perceptible process : by Words : founded 

on the bold assertion of the Poet : «frfaMWlftdPw*U • • 

Fact by Fact w^TT 4*^*1 ft : .. 97 


(11) „ Figure by Fact mftfft HgtoK sqfr: •• 98 

(12) „ Fact by Figure 4M<hAu| ^s^r: . . 98 

(13) » Figure by Figure i|*»<h|^J| fl<rfc|> K fec|ft: . . 99 

(14) Suggestion of perceptible process : by Word : founded 
on the assertion of a character portrayed by the Poet : spf^- 

Pt«l^«l%iS^WlRd(H^^: Fact by Fact ^g?fT 

cRg^fir: 99 

(15) ' „ Figure by Fact ^TT ^^rft"- 100 

(16) „ Fact by Figure ildcfrl^l sTRJScrfJr . . 101 

(17) „ Figure by Figure *!<?** |tyv q^TRS^r: 102 
Suggestion in a Prabandha-Context sra^T ^rqin^^R^ft' 103 
Suggestiveness of the Particles of Words qf^^rs^ft- 105 

(1) Suggestion by the base of a Word STfcTT 

(2) „ of Inflexion and Declension fegft: 

(3) „ by the Genitive Case-termination ^c^^FT 

(4) „ of Number 4tM*4| 

(5) „ of Person J^oXj^TFT 

(6) „ of the Irregular Order of Words jfejpHlWW 

(7) „ of the PecuUar Case Affix fimPkift^WT 

(8) „ of the Nominal Affix afefFT 

(9) „ of the Preposition ^RR^T 

(10) „ of the Nipata faMM<W 

(11) „ of the Pronouns, Substantives and Numbers 

(12) „ of Affixes, Compounds, etc. 5T? 
Total — 51 Forms of Suggestion L^M^UK ^t: 
These by Various Combinations come to 10,404 <jh>^u| tww-ir 

^ ?oVoV ^rr: 116 

Grand Total : 10,455 srs^f: ^ ?oV^ $fcr: 116 

Examples <d<il$<u||fr • • 117 

Comixture of Dubiousness •• ..117 

Mutual Subserviency •• ••• H& 



Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion described ^ft^d«^^*T . . 119 

(1) The Explicit (Obvious) Subordinate Suggestion MMH .. 119 

(a) having the Expressed Meaning transferred 

to another object ^^d^^fa^'M^T . 120 

„ (b) in which the Expressed Meaning is 

altogether neglected a 4c4^id , {^d4l-«<ft<r 120 

„ (c) based on the power of Meaning srq^Rf- 

*J«H<iWWW 121 

(2) Subservient to some thing else (a) Rasa to Rasa^ ^pcq- . . 122 

„ (b) Rasa to Emotion "Wt m^T . . 122 

„ (c) Emotion to Emotion ?ncft ?TR^T . . 123 
„ (d) Semblance of Rasa and Emotion to 

Emotion TjraTCPRMIWtfl WW& . 123 
„ (e) AUayment of Emotion to Emotion 

TTiwfor ?wm 124 

„ (/) Appearance of Emotion to Emotion 

IFftOT: m^r 124 

„ (g) Mixture of Emotion to Emotion 

mwfe m^T 125 

„ (/;) Variegation of Emotion to Emotion ^rr^- 

m^i m*m 125 

„ (;) Suggested Figure, a part of Expressed 

Meaning 5T*H?TWresr qvii^R^r 3M I ^ d 1 127 
» (j) Suggested matter a part of Expressed 

Meaning cTfqW TO^t 37^7^ .. 128 

(3) Suggestion, part of the development of the suggested 
meaning <l^fq3BT^*T . 128 

(4) Abstruse Subordinate Suggestion pM*d*f . . . 130 

(5) Of Doubtful Predominance *rfeTO^FspT . . . 130 

(6) Of Equal Prominence ^eTOTOiapr ■ . . 131 

(7) Rendered manifest by Intonation sfrWlfaki^ . . 131 
<8) The Not-Beautiful ^T^^CT . . ♦ . . 132 


Divisions of the Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion follow 

those of Suggestive Peotry. *pfaw°WA||5TT **lPw<* $51*: • • 132 
Combination of the Various kinds of Poetry Suggestive and those 

of the ^ohtry of Subordinate Suggestion tfuftdfl+V zjfa": . . 133 
Suggestion as a process of Signification, necessary, apart from^ 

all other processes. T^^OTT^ST Hq-^7qf^iT 
Points of Difference between the Direct (Expressed) and 

Indirect (Suggested) Significations cn^oW^^. . . 149 


Fanciful Word and Meaning ^s^f^rr^tfwft. WCTR" 161 

Fanciful Word m^p^ . , .162 

Fanciful Meaning ^nff^PT . . .163 


Definition of Defect ^^gpjpT . . .165 

Defects of the Word q^t^r: . 165 

(1) The Unpleasant to the ear srfcTO 166* 

(2) Lacking Correctness ■^RKg.'fT 166 

(3) c Unconventmal' "flJMqflJ-f 

(4) Incapable of giving sense ?WT^T 

(5) Suppressed Meaning f^|cTT^T 

(6) Improper Signification -MHRdlW 

(7) Useless fa^R^T 

(8) Not-expressive SI^T^T 

(9) Thiee fold Indecorousness fM^T^^H^ 

(10) Ambiguousness ^R^^HT 

(11) Unintelligibility ^Rft^[ 

(12) Vulgar Tn^PT 

(13) That of which the meaning has to be guessed out $&&&{ 176 

(14) Obscure fe?FOT . . . . 177 

(15) Non-discrimination of the Predicate "Jri^E^sNTSFT • • 177 



(16) Repugnant Implication f^4^(d*d • • . . 181 

Unmelodiousness in Compounds SPTRPTcr ^fi^f . . . . 183 

Defects of sentence (all the above except "Lock of 
Correctness "." Incapability of giving sense " and e * Use- 
lessness ".) WTTtaT: • • . . 184 

Defect^ occurring in parts of words HcusMia^T:. • • • 201 

The Defects occurring in a sentence only qi«w"*lTC • 207 

(1) Discord of Letters srf^jJT^^T • • •- 207 

(2) and (3) The Blunted Visarga and the Rejected Visarga 

^ dfo ^r^l Ei q tf ^ - 210 

(4) Cacaphony ftftrfN" 

(5) Unrhythmical ^cT^yPT 

(6) Deficiency in Word ?qrfT^? 

(7) Redundant Word rfw^( 

(8) Repetition of Words ^fWT3*r 

(9) Falling off of Excellence q^WT 

(10) Resumption of the Concluded *WM ^HXItW - 

(11) Isolation, m the second half of a Shloka of an expressive 

word required m the first half ^frdl+ciMW . .• 219 

(12) Want of Intended Connection ^<^d^Tr*T . . . . 219 

(13) Omission of a Necessary Statement ^rfirf^HM^I .. 225 

(14) Misplacement of a Word ^«rffiS2pT5*r • • * 227 

(15) Misplaced Compound ^^T^+JIW • • • 228 

(16) Confusion q ^ if .. ..229 

(17) The Parenthetical *rf?RFF .. ..230 

(18) Opposed to Usage yRlfe^W . . . . 231 

(19) Violation of the Uniformity of Expression 3TM^$b*PT « • 232 

(20) Absence of order (Syntactical Irregularity MfrHH t . 239 

(21) Undesirable Second Intention ^fTRT^TWT . . . . 241 
Defects of sense Enumerated spsf^rr 

(1) Irrelevant 3FJS£T#: .. ..241 

(2) Obscure m^sri: . . . . 243 

(3) Contradictory or Inconsistent emgdl*!: . • . . 244 


(4) Tautophonous 3^^' . . 244 

(5) Irregular f^SR*: . - - 245 

(6) Vulgar *xm ■ • 246 

(7) Dubious qfawr. • • 246 

(8) Inconsequential ft^. . 246 

(9) Opposed to Popular Notations 5[fcrf<ri^N" ~ . 247 

(10) Unscientific f^rrfrdsr . . 248 

(11) Monotonous and Wanting m Variety 5Mql$d: - . 250 

(12) Too Unspecific *rfomft«[tr: • . . . 251 

(13) Too Specific srfSpFPtff^xT . . . . 251 

(14) Too unrestricted fMmf^irr . . . . 252 

(15) Too Unrestrected ^f#HRfr • 252 

(16) Incomplete UI*I4£T - 253 

(17) Misplaced sraa^T. • 254 

(18) Mismatched ^T^Cf^T 254 

(19) Of Repurnant Implication y<*lR*ldfa^ . . . 255 

(20) Of Improper Predication fV^R^f . • 255 

(21) Having Improper Adjuncts wn^TW . 254 

(22) Resuming the Concluded ^-Hd^H £41'£d 257 

(23) Indecorous sn#5T. 257 
Exceptions to the aforesaid iW^KF 258 
First Exception 5PW MW\< . . 261 
Second Exception feffa MW\< . . 263 
Third Exception qafa" Mmi<: . . . -263 
Fourth Exception ^4 =MM«IK . . . 264 
Defects of the Rasa '<*i<Jjqr . 279 

(1) Mention by Name of either the Rasa or the 

Accessory or Permanent Emotion szrf^lPw 

^tft wrfSmTO *rr w?r^>n^FnT . . . . 280 

(2) For-fetched Indication of Excitants and Ensuants 

f^lclM'HWiil: ^dcheMHI . . 282 

(3) Admission of Adverse Concommitants Mlcl'fcgffaqr4h 

fer^: .. 283 


(4) Repeated Heightening 3?T JTSffe 

(5) Untimely Introduction *|+|uj ^TrRT 

(6) Untimely Interruption ^l^-^* 

(7) Excessive Dilation of Subordinate Factor '•■ 
a^SJ^Neglect of the Principal Factor =qf^ 

(9) Perversion of Characters ITl^fVTr fawn 
(10) Celebration of Unimportant Object 3Fq 
Exceptions to the above ^R^T: 
Laws governing the Admixture of Rasas <*l fa <f ^1 4 ft^Rfafe. 


Excellences *WW 

Difference between 'Excellences 1 & 'Ornaments 

T*n**flT*fa%^ . . 299 

Varieties of Excellences TPJTRT ^T 305 

Sweetness qw^T 305 

Flondity sffar 306 

Lucidity SRTR, 307 

Coalescence 1 s&T 308 

Smoothness 2 *r*nfsr. 99 

Magnificence 3 kKTRT 99 

Simplicity 4 STMTS' ,, 
Sweetness 5 ^spfrr 

Clearness of Meaning 6 ^^1% „ 

Uniformity 7 STFiFr 3> 
Softness 8 ^ftgin^T 
Polish 9 *FTf?cr. 

Verbal Figures of Speech ST^R^TT: 

Equivoque (two kinds) ^sFtpRT if^qr 3 ? 317 

Equivoque Based on Punning cfiFtf^T i&q , .317 
Equivoque Based On Intonation ^iftcf: 3SFF3T > ^ . . 317 

Alliteration ^Rsir^ s .319 

Alliteration Chheka (Experts) #FTOTT*r . , 320 

Alliteration Vritti (Diction) 3^jsm=r: . 320 

polished and Harsh Diction ^W^fWPTW ^fa" 320 


Three Styles of Diction : Vaidarbhl, Gaudl 

and panchali fteft ^vPTT-fcr^ff, *jW", <TT3=5rT<>ft ^ , 
Coalescence or Pun S^ 

BigH K^ds of Pun srorsrr ^?: 

The Ideal Figures of Speech srafcfanTCT: 

Simile (I) ^qpFTT 
Complete Simile g;wfq^r 
Comparison Absolute (II)spTr^r, 
Reciprocal Comparison (III) ^T^qiTT 
Poetic Fancy (IV) SciSSTT 
Doubtful (V) STC^f 
Metaphor (VI) ^q*W 
Concealment (VII) snr^ftf 
Paronomasia (VIII) 9#q\ 
Modal Metaphor (IX) HmsftfecT. 
Illustration (X) f«WMI 
Indirect Description (Xl) ^"ST^r^PBT 
Hyperbole (XII) ^f^FTtf^r: 
Typical Comparison (XIIl) srf^TCrJtPTT 
Exemplification (XIV) |G£FcT. 
Illuminator (XV) ^tq+M+K: 
Equal Pairing (XVI) ^ifiPldl 
Dissimilitude (XVII) sq-%^: 

Hmt(xvni) mm. 

Peculiar Causation (XIX) f^TR^TT 
Peculiar Allegation (XX) fafitftpKT: 
Symmetrical (XXI) ^l*H?4*( 
Transition (XXII) wI^ii^RT 
Contradiction (XXIII) t^PCfa: 




























Natural Description (XXIV) ^pfn^tf^r: 

Dissembling Eulpgy (XXV) c^M^fe 

Connected Description (XXVI) flglfar 

Private Description (XXVII) f^ftfer: 

Exchange (XXVIH) qf^frT: 

Visualisation (XXIX) ^rrf^vfr 

Poetic Reason (XXX) ^T^rf^nT 

Periphrasis (XXXI) TOW^ 

Exalted (XXXH) S^T^T 

Concatenation (XXXIII) *PV5W. 

Sequence (XXXIV) qqk 

Inference (XXXV) S^pTFPj; 

Insinuation (XXXVI) vfvtX. 

Artful Assertion (XXXVn) softer. 

Exclusion (XXXVIII) qftTOTT 

The Spring of Causes (XXXIX) *TC*pnOT 

Reciprocal (XL) *Hfi^ 

Answer (XLI) ^POT 

Subtle (XLII) ^OTT 

Climax (XLIII) tfTC 

Disconnection (XLIV) m*lfo' 

Convenience (XLV) ^rrf^T: 

Compatible (XLVI) H^T 

Incongruous (XLVII) faTO 

The Exceeding (XLVIII) srfWT 

Hostile (XLIX) 5R2T*f^T 

Obscured (L) ^ftf^nT 

Necklace (LI) ^+W'vit 

Reminiscence (LII) WV*\*{ 

illusion (LIU) ^nf^nw 





























The Converse (LIV) ST#PT 
Identification (LV) mTT^nT 
Extraordinary (LVI) f^fa 
Qu^Uty Borrowing (LVII) ZFFW 
Non-borrowing of Quality (LVffi) SfcT^TtfT 
Frustration (LIX) «armid* 
Collocation of Figmes (LX) STflfe 
Commixture (LXl) SHFT 
The Second Variety of Commixture STf^RT 
Alphabetical Index of Sanskrit Terms 


APPENDIX A Sanskrit Versions of 




Piaknt Verses STlf^^^T SrefcrsBETCT 

Index of the illustrative 

verses occurring in Kavya Prakasa 

Index of the first and second lines of 
Kankas of Kavya Prakasa sFT^aTSRTTgr- 





r^rd*drHii^<r^i ^k+^mi^h^mw^^ 

wm mwmi ^mmU< Mswm 

*cer: "Kld^cPT «h M W*fiWcHftMTO<EH ' I 
$lfadfd^lHT ^4»m^»l*HWJ qWI^ 

aid 1^1 ^n^d^-^-M "M^^m § iwtor[ 

*<• « *V f ♦ i...,. l ,.*\.iii'tf 

*H*Hk*i*fdd* *jH*Tfa«na SC ^W>: I 

^r^Tcfd^g^rar «iKmwa*iiidv* m 
a <yw>faigt '^it MimiOi<mfvr>fNi$ i 

v*MKH 55STO %RRTT st* *TT fell 

K n 

\9 II 

^ M 


*j$if * *j*w tt^ snsft tftrr: v&% ?ft 

fTRFT frqpft 83RT: ^"JTP^Tf rR " 
fa%£ SOT* #* f^TBTT: ***§ 55ftf^ I 
SR^R^ 5TS?^T 3PaWr£r faqfotd 

ar«f ?s c^s^r^ ^fs^s^ir fl^fon i 

33 n 


^c^R^fgft 3cWt ?n^ *src Wen: I 

*ref f^rre stew fe^TPC^ ^n 
h rd«44ffsr?rr«?>?tT?fcr«rT *rc?resr ^ I 

Tfef ^nfefspspu Brftramft crarfssrer: i 

TT^!| ffflfcTCTO *rfwi: 5I^5?TT ?m \ 


vmritommtfam * ^rft wife 

SRWTctT *T fat WKRPR^Wt %«TT 

aw* wc*i 4 wftawf si<»wi+: sfwlf f9f?r: i 

5l35TsffonJpflT3Ft TO Stb&MWtM SRI I 

*re»^»T T^TT ^ESKIT ^^TEJT 

««|^4<t ^^rhjd^^fMlbdV f^T5T: FRTC: 

5t55T^W *R$f* <M«M4«4£4lgdJ4 

«iwi>n«H«*M*d*l fwldfw*W5R»flft: 

WOT%WI ^R^ ffi*Hd«W qi in *r 

^V9 || 

V? II 
^ II 


V^ II 


v\ It 

w o *o o *9 "» 

^^^:^f^wrf^^^TM^qf^TTT: II <^ II 
GlTOWfow^T. Sf^rcfa??: SWiTfcrcifTOr. I 

imfa^mfavz 3fntfferftfafa%: I 

^f^FrTf^tsrT^ feFMs^PPfog II^IL 

arf^fafEfcnrc srfcftat few*: i 

**TO*?FTt fa^fa *n*wsr f%^rfl?f5f: 
gtffl^^ffoWlkft *ft eft ?r |el tTTST^ I 

*rr^tfT*r:wte \w |<M M-M T 3*^5T 

*** „*f* *<* f^r cnft «n 
sntrfofcnforf *n«wF *&u <wn 

^ n 

^ H 

V9o II 

^$ U 



V9^ II 

^H N fac imT H i ^ ^^lH^Ml^d II V3VS II 

5^ir^T^T^T *n*TTOtfel*«VT ft*T II V»l || 
*ftTO*T m>^4 q »^im«tcM< t II V9^, II 



TOR! S ^Rrsfte^r cft^ T^ST *T5T: II ^ II 
fcreifcr 5T«?T: ^^m^TTTfef^TSJSTT II <£* I 1 

ass snfor 5ytq prrer sffcft ?t%s 3*: i 

stft^sg #?tecft asffift 'ar *repr: w 

srcf$4cH far^ g 5j5 tt^t g ^Nrt i 1 

cIcT^ftcf fore ^T^ TOfffa 3T I 

awsgcrsrercTT *n m s?r sFgrnsnarc i 
^m Mw$ mm*$ T^m sreg£ sf?r 
««w*w4 ^Fge* jH 4f ^ld ^r ts^sjt i 

OpMsaRWf g M$d*M TOT *RT 
Sf^gcT^ 444*4(4 TO«ff«Rft * *&<Fm I 

\? u 

^ II 

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In the beginning, the author invokes the appropriate 
divinity for the destruction of all obstacles. 

Splendid is the poet's speech, comprehending a creation which 
is without the restraints of Nature's laws, full of pleasure alone, 
independent of other helps, njoicmg in a ninefold Rasa. — (1) 

Brahma's creation is subject to the laws of Natute, 
is full of pleasure, pain and dehision, is dependent 
upon matenal and co-operative causes, such as atoms and 
actions * (mattei and motion) respectively — has only six 
tastes, and these, too, not always of an agreeable nature. 
The creation of the poet's speech, on the contraiy, is 
different, and hence is c splendid ' — an expression which 
implies reverer^e to it. 1. 


^rm srem%w «ngR?refat fiiw5RST5w i 

The author now states the subject-matter, together 
with its aims : 

Poetry brings fame and riches, knowledge of the ways of 
the world and relief from evils } instant and perfect happiness, 
and counsel sweet as from the lips of a beloved consort. — (2) 

Fame — as to Kahdasa and others , wealth — as to 
Dhavaka and other poets, from Sri Harsa and other 
kings ; knowledge of rights and usages proper to kings 
and others ; relief from evils — as to Mayura, whose hymn 
to the sun brought him a cure. 

The chief aim of poetry, however, is the attainment 
of the pure unmixed pleasure that follows instantane- 
ously on the sensing of Rasa. When poetry exercises its 
full functions, it helps the development of the various 
Rasas (Emotions), sublating the direct effects of the word 
and its meaning. As such poetry differs from the Veda* 
in which the word, m the form of a master's command, 
predominates ; it differs also from the Puranas, in which 
the predominant element is friendly counsel (not to be 


followed literally). Such poetry is the woik of poets, 
clever in depicting things in a manner passing the com- 
prehension of ordinary men , it offers to other poets and 
cultured men counsel most persuasively, like a beloved 
wife, by means of a moving tenderness in the manner of 
it (that is, in the words)— counsel such as that one should 
behave like Rama and not like Ravana. As such, poetiy 
is by all means to be studied and cultivated. 2 

Having defined the aims, the author now states the 
source of poetry. 

Poetic genius, knowledge born of a study of the world, 
of sciences and of poems, and the practice of the teachings 
of those versed in writing poetiy — these three together constitute 
the source of poetry. (3) 

(1) Poetic genius, which may be called the germ of 
poetry. This is a peculiar faculty, without which there 
could either be no poetical work or, if there weie, would 
be ridiculous. 


TOW OTHIWF STTO^f ^ g^f: TOrfa I 


(2) Facility in composition, arising from a careful 
study of — c objects/ /. e., of all kinds of objects, animate 
as well as inanimate ; of the sciences, such as piosody > 
grammar, lexicons, fine arts, the sciences dealing with 
the four ends of life, and the sciences dealing with the 
distinguishing qualities of elephants, horses and the 
various weapons of warfare , and of poems, the works 
of great poets. The woid c adi 9 implies c history ' and 
the rest, 

(3) Frequent attempt at writing poetry, undei the 
direction of men capable of writing and appreciating it. 

The above three conjointly, and not singly, constitute 
the source, and not the somces, of poetry. 3. 

Having thus stated the cause, the author next describes 
the natuie or character of poetry : 

It consists tn word and sense — without faults and with 
me fits and excellences of style — which may at times be 
without Figures of Speech. (4) 



The faults (grammatical and othet mistakes), merits 
(jimdhnrya, etc.) and ornaments of speech (J3pama y etc.) 
will be described later on (duplets VII, VIII, IX and X) 
The words ' at times ' mean that, while genctally, 
poetry has some Figure or othei, yet, if in some case 
there be no figure directly expressed, that omission 
alone need not make the composition unpoetical. Fot 

" My husband is the same as when from me be 
stole my virginity ; these lovely Chaitia-nights 
ate the same ; this breeze, too, comes, as of old 
from the Kadamba grove, laden with the fiagrance 
of MalatI blooms ; and I, too, am the same. 
Yet still my heart longs for Love's daliances 
amidst the citron-bowers of Reva's banks." 

In this verse, theie is no explicit figure of speech 
The Rasa (erotic) being the primary element, theie cannot 
be said to be a Figure (because, as the Vtsd'pa says, the 
Rasa is not m a subordinate position, and therefore, 
there is no Rasavadalankdia , a Rasa is called a Figuie 
only when it occupies a subordinate position ) 3 

The author next states the divisions of poetry. 


dd w^d H^f^qrfq- *pvnf4 d ci i ^ ojt^t«4 ^i i - 


The poetry id which the suggested meaning dominates the 
expi essed is poetry of the best kind, called c Dhvam ' by the 
learned — (4) 

By the learned — that is by the grammarians, that 
word is called Dhvam which suggests the sphota, 
which is all-important (inasmuch as it is through this 
sphota that a word conveys its meaning) , others carry 
this theory of the grammarians faither still, and apply 
the word Dhvam not only to words, but also to sense, 
capable of suggesting meanings other than the directly 
expressed ones. As an instance of Dhvam, we have — 
" The sandal-paste has vanished from thy breast , 
its colour has fled from thy lip ; thine eyes have 
lost their jetty fringing dye — and all thy slender 
fiame is quivenng with hair on end. Thus I learn, 
O false fuend, that knowest not the approach of 
thy friend's sufferings, that thou hast been only to 
the tank to bathe and not to that mean wretch." 
Here the words ' mean wietch ' suggest the real 
meaning c thou hadst gone to dally m my lover's com- 
pany/ 4. 



When the suggested meaning is not dominant, as descubed 
above, the poetry /r but of middle excellence, and is called 
the Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion — (5) 

Example.—" There is a cloud on the face of the 
young damsel at the sight of the country youth, with a 
bunch of fresh Vafijula flowers." 

Here the suggested meaning— ' thou hadst promised 
to bear me company in the Vanjula-bower, but thou never 
didst go there/ is subordinate to the moie beautiful ex- 
pressed meaning ' cloud on the face/ 

Non-suggestive poetry, consisting of fanciful voids and 
meanings, is of the inferior kind called 'Fanciful' by the 

learned. — (5) 

Fanciful— that, is possessing '-'merits ' and 4 figures / 
non-suggestive, ie., devoid of any clearly suggested 
meaning , < inferiot '—of the lowest kind. Example : 
m Firchhanmohamaharsibarmvihitasndnahmkdhnqya pah I 



bhidyddudyadiiddradardni adarl dnghddat Jdradi ttma- 

di ohodrekamahoi mimedm amada manddkuii mandatdm \\ 

" May Ganga, the divine, all your doubts and errors 
remove ! — Ganga, on whose sacred banks the happy 
Rsis perform their daily rites who have their delusions 
washed away by the lovely sparkling of water dashing 
against the rocky bank-holes full of big frogs, whose 
piide is enhanced by the high waves rising on account 
of the wide-spreading trees having fallen in." 

And again : — vimtgalam mdnadamdlmamandn ad 

bhavatyupah ntya yadnhchhaydpi yam \ 
sasambh amend} adrutapdtitdtgald 
nim'htdhlva bbydwat avail \\ 

(Full of fear as soon as AmaiavatI heats that he 
has moved beyond his palace-gates — the piide of all 
the Demon race — though it may be put for a pleasure 
stroll, her gates are baired up in all haste and huny by 
agitated India and she wears the aspect of a maiden with 
closed eyes.) 5. 

Thus ends Chapter I, in which are determined the 
aim, source and natuie of Poetry. 


sreqxiWffic ^e u * u 

^^^c^f^f^^^TTrf^iT 'W II 



The author describes, in due oidei,the nature of words 
and their sense : — 

Words beie ate of thee kt*ds—the Expressive, the 
Indicative and the Suggestive. 

c He) e 9 m poetiy , — the exact nature of these is going 
to be defined later on. 

The meanings thereof are the Expressed and so fotth. 

That is, the Expressed, the Indicated and the Suggested. 

Aaoiding to some, the Import also — (6) 

The opinion held by the Abhihitdiawyavddin Nllmdm- 
sakas (the followets of Kumanla) is that when the 
denotations of a number of woids — which ate going to 
be described later on — become lelated together, through 
"mutual requirement/ 'compatibility' and 'proximity/ 
there appeals a lesultant in the shape of the ' meaning of 
the sentence/ — which is not exptessed by any single 
word constituting that sentence, and which, being, on 
that account, of a peculiar character, comes to be called 
by the name ' TatparjJrr/y? 9 or c ImpoiL '. 

The AnvitdbhidhiUiavddms (followers of Prabhakara) on 
the other hand, hold that the ' meaning of the sentence * 
is the exptessed meaning of the words themselves* 


err ?pt f¥ ^rrfa^f it^st <t ^r^ra sr? ii % n 

[ By the foimer view, each word of the sentence expresses its 
meaning, and these woid~meanmgs, becoming ielated together, give 
rise to the 'meaning of the sentence' ,— while by the latter view the 
connected meaning of the sentence is also expressed by the woids 
themselves, as, according to this view, words have no meaning 
apart from the sentence in which they occur ] 

Almost all the various kinds of meanings are held to be 
suggestive also. 

As an example of c suggestion ' by the Expressed 
meaning, we have the following : — 

" Yon said, O mother, that house-hold requisites are 
wanting. Say, then, what is to be done ? Day-light will 
not long continue " ; — where the meaning suggested is 
that the woman speaking is desirous of roaming about for 
enjoyment. 6. 

[This suggestion has been inferred through the character of the 
speaker, w T ho is known to be a ivoman of loose charactet 9 if it came from 
a virtuous person, the speech would convey no such suggestion at 

As an example of suggestion by the Indicated meaning, 
we have the following :— 


" O friend ' you have for my sake been put to great 
trouble in having to pursue that handsome man ; but 
what you have done was prompted only by your good- 
ness, kindness and affection for me ;" — where the mean- 
ing Indicated (by the clear marks of infidelity perceived by 
the speaker) that ' by giving the pleasure of your company 
to my -beloved, you have acted like my enemy 9 ; — and 
what is suggested by this indicated meaning is that the lover 
has proved unfaithful to his own beloved (by misbehaving 
with her friend). 

[This suggestion is based upon the fact of the speaker being the 
beloved of the man to whom she had sent messages through her 

As an example of suggestion by the Suggested meaning 
we have the following : — 

" See, the white crane, still and unperturbed, is shin- 
ing on the lotus-leaf like a conch-shell resting on a dish 
of flawless emerald." The speaker says expressly that 
the bird is sitting quiet, unmoved, and suggests thereby 
the security of the spot, betokening the absence of in- 
truders ; the suggestion, therefore, is that the spot is just 
suited for their meeting. On the other hand, the suggestion 


^■^%c^^^> sn?*ri*5rf%^r err \ 

may be, " since the bird is sitting so peacefully, you could 
not have come here ere this ; your protestation that you 
had come here is consequently false." 

[This suggestion is based upon the fact of the two mtedocutois 
being lovers.) 

The author now proceeds to describe in due order 
the charactei of the Expressive and other kinds of words : — 

That which denotes the direct conventional meaning is the 
c Expressive 9 word* — (7) 

As a matter of fact, in ordinary parlance, there is 
no comprehension of the meaning of a word, the con- 
vention regarding whose denotation is not known ; 
thus it is only when the word is helped by its usage that 
it expresses a ceitain meaning ; and when the conventional 
denotation is apprehended directly, without the inter- 
vention of any other agency, the word is said to be c ex- 
piessive * of that denotation or meaning. 7. 

The conventional denotation is four-fold, consisting of Com- 
munity and the resteer (according to some) Community alone. 


Though in every case it is the individual that is 
endowed with intelligent activity, and as such capable 
of acting and desisting from action ; — yet it is not right 
to restrict the conventional denotation to that alone, 
as this would make the convention either indefinite 
(if it were applied to all individuals, whose number is 
infinite) or wrong (if it were restricted to any one or only 
a few individuals, and hence npt applicable to other in- 
dividuals) ; and also because (if the convention were 
restricted to individuals alone), no such distinction or 
differentiation would be possible as we have m the ex- 
pression — ' This (a) ox (community) which is (b) white 
(attribute) and (c) Dtttha (by name) is(d) walking (action).' 
[As per hypotheses, every one of these four words would denote the 
individual only, which is one and the same.] 

For these reasons the only reasonable course is to 
take the conventional denotation as appertaining only 
to the characteristic appurtenant to the individual. 

This characteristic of things is of two kinds — (a) that 
which belongs to the thing by its very nature and (b) 
that which is fastened upon it by the speaker ; the foimei 
of these again is of two kinds — (c) that which is an accom- 
plished entity and (d) that which has got to be accom- 
plished ; the foimer of these again, is of two kinds— (e) 
that which constitutes the very essence of the thing de- 
noted by the word and (J) that which is the means of the 


fe^Tf^^^T^TT^c^fef^?^ ^f cPW SWT ^^T 

imposition upon it of some distinguishing feature ; of 
these latter two, the former /. e. (e) is the Community* — as 
has been declared in Vakyapadlya, c By itself the ox is 
neither an ox nor a non-ox, it is only by reason of its being 
related to the community ox that it is called an " ox " 
[which means that the community is the very essence of 
the thing denoted] ;' — the latter [*. <?. (/)] is the quality,, 
because when the thing has obtained its essence (become an 
entity), it is the quality of whiteness and so forth, that serves 
to distinguish it ; — (d) that which has got to be accom- 
plished is the action, consisting of a series of steps appearing 
one after the other ; — lastly, when the speaker, of his own 
accord, fastens upon a particular object the distinguishing 
characteristic in the shape of any such haphazard group 
of letters as c Dittha ', ' Davtttha ' and so forth, solely 
as a collocation of letter-sounds ending with the last 
syllable, and not as occurring in any distinct order of 
sequence, this group of letters is what forms the name of 
the object concerned, and is what is classed as a proper 
noun (b). This is what the author of the Mahdbhdsya 
( on Panini-sutra, c rlk') has declared in the following 
words — c The denotation of words is fourfold, as signi- 
fied in the expression, " the ox which is white and named 
Dittha is walking." 

As regards the Atomic Dimension and such other 
Eternal Qualities (as, e.g. the Infinite Dimension, Sound 


"'ftspsSS'srest fec«T ^TT^ ^s^jft ^Te^rf 5Tff%:" 

and so forth) which, being eternal qualities, are coeval 
with the substances to which they belong, of which latter, 
on that account, they are the very c essence \ and as such 
included under the category of ' community \ — these 
have even so been classed under the category of ' quality ' 
(and not undei ' community '), only in view of the fact 
that they have been classed ( by the Vaisesikas ) under 
c qualities '; but in reality they can be called ' quality * 
only in a figurative or indirect sense. 

As for qualities, actions and proper names, even 
though each of them is, in reality one only (there being 
only one whiteness, only one act of walking and only one 
proper name * Dittha ', each of these being comprehen- 
sive respectively of all individual shades of whiteness, of 
all kinds of walking and of all instances of the utterance 
of the particular name by several peisons), yet it appears 
as if there were some diversity in them, the reason whereof 
lies in the fact of their subsisting in diverse individuals ; 
just as, for instance, though the face reflected is one only, 
yet when it is reflected in diverse reflecting substances, 
— such as the polished sword, the mirror, the oil and so 
forth, — it has the appearance of being diverse. 

[Hence as the diversity, in the case of quality, action and name is 
only apparent, not real, the denotation of these does not involve either 
'vagueness ' or e wrongness ' which has been found in the case of the 
denotation of individuals.] 

16 kavyaprakasa 

f^^^T^T^ qrWT^ft f*R% ^Tf^J TOR" 

Some people (i. e. the Mimamsakas) have argued as 
follows :— "(a) Even though the quality of whiteness 
subsisting in such varied substances as the snow, the 
milk, the conch and other things is in reality diverse, yet 
there is something in them by virtue of which all of them 
are spoken of and comprehended under the single common 
name ' whiteness * ; and this something is what has been 
called the ' community of whiteness ' ,— (£) ^similarly, in 
the cooking of such diverse things as molasses, rice and so 
forth, there is the ' community of cooking* ;— -(c) as also 
in the name ' Dittha ' as pronounced by such diverse 
individuals as the boy, the grown up man, the parrot and 
so forth ; or as applied to such and such objects named 
* Dittha ' as are undergoing transformation at every mo- 
ment, there is the ' community of the name Dittha '; — and 
from all this it is clear that the denotation of the word 
consists (in all cases) in the community only (and not in 
quality, action and name also.)"— 7 

There is another view held by others (i.e. the Naiyfyikai) 
viz., that what is denoted by the word is the Individual as 
belonging to the Community. 

Yet others (Bauddhas) have held the view that what is 


TOn&nra atftfr *foftor spinier i 

3TT# f^R^Rt ^T*fN ^ tfSF$ ^fe 5T%¥: <PTT 

denoted by the word is the ' Apoha \ i.e., £ the negation 

of the contrary '. 

[e. g., what the word e ox' denotes is 'the negation of the { non-ox' , 
this view being in accordance with the Bauddha theory that there 
is absolutely no poutive entity m the world.] 

All these various views are not set forth here, as it 
would unduly prolong our work, and it would not serve 
any useful purpose in regard to the real subject-matter 
of the treatise* 

That is the primary meaning ; and this is the primary 
function of it (the word), called ' denotation \ — (8) 

* That * — i.e., the directly conventional ;— of it \ of 
the word. 8. 

When the primary meaning is precluded (by incompati- 
bility another meaning, in affinity therewith, comes to be 
implied, — sitht on the basis of usage or for a special 
purpose > — ths piocess of imposed implication is called ' Indica- 
tion \ Laksa;u. — (9) 

(a) In the expression ' katmam knsalah \ (used in 
the sense of ' expert in his woik ') the piimaiy meaning 
of the word ' kusalah* is ' grass-chopper \ and this 
idea of c grass-chopping ' is not compatible with the 
sense of the sentence ;— similarly in the expression 

18 kavtaprakaSa 

* gaugdydm ghosah ' (used in the sense of c the ranch in the 
Ganga ') the primary meaning of the term ' Gangd 9 is 
the river itself, and this is incompatible as the location for 
the ranch ; — hence in both these cases ' the primary mean- 
ing is barred ' ; and ' another ' secondary meaning comes 
to be implied by the primary meaning in each of these 
two cases, — (a) the term ' kusala \ implying the sense of 
the * expert \ which is c in affinity with ? the primary sense 
of ' grass-chopping/ in this that just as the ' expert m 
business is possessed of discrimination so is the grass- 
chopper also (who cuts what he needs and rejects what he 
does not need), — and (b) the term 'Gangd 9 implying 
the sense of ' the bank/ which is ' in affinity with * the 
primary sense of the ' river ' in this that it is situated in 
close proximity , — and while m (a), the case of the term 
c kusala \ the said implication is based upon c usage ' 
(by which the term is generally used in the sense of 'expert'), 
while in (b), in that of the teim c Ganga/ the said impli- 
cation proceeds on the basis of the* purpose ' of pointing 
out those properties of e sanctity ' and the rest which could 
not be expressed by the use of such expressions as * ganga- 
tate ghosah ' (' the ranch on the bank of the Ganga ') ; this 
function of indirect implication is c imposed 9 upon the 
word, in the sense that it is not direct (from the word to 
the meaning), but indirect, through certain intervening 
factors (in the shape of the ' incompatibility of the primary 
meaning * and the rest mentioned in the text). 9. 


era- wshto wstot i 

c Pure 9 Indication is of two kinds — (a) the c Inclusive\ in 
which there is implication of the other (the secondary) meaning 
for the pwpose of completing {the logical connection of) 
the primary meaning itself and (b) the c Indicative ' m which 
the primary meaning surrenders itself for the sake of the other 
(the secondary meaning) — (10). 

(a) An example of the c Inclusive * Indication we 
have in the expression c kuntdh pravisanti ' (' the lances 
enter '), where the c primary meaning/ the ' lances/ im- 
plies the men holding the lances, for the purpose of establishing 
the logical connection of the lances themselves with the 
act of c entering ' (which could not be done by the lances, 
except through the men holding them). 

Some people have cited as an example of ' Inclusive ' 
Indication, the expression * gauramibandhyah ( c the ox is to 
be sacrificed '), where, they explain, the primary meaning 
of the term c ox ' — which is the ' community ' ox — implies 
an individual ox, for the purpose of establishing its connec- 
tion with the act of ' being sacrificed' enjoined by the said 
Vedic expression ; and they go on, this individual ox could 
not be regarded as directly denoted by the word itself, 
because of the principle ' the denotation of a word, having 
its force spent up in the qualifying adjunct (which, in this 


case, is the community)^ is unable to proceed to the qualified 
(which is the Individual) / 

This however is not a right example of e inclusive ' 
indication ; because in this case, there is neither any 
6 purpose ? (served by the indirect implication, which 
could not be got by direct denotation), nor any c usage ? 
(and these alone have been declared to be the basis for 
indirect implication). What really happens in the case 
cited is that the individual is implied by the community 
by reason of their invariable concomitance ; just «as there 
is in the case of the imperative passive form c kriyatdm \ 
where the agent is implied by reason of his being invariably 
concomitant with an action, — or in that of the imperative 
word c kum \ the object is implied by reason of its being 
inseparable from every transitive verb, — or in the case of 
the word * pravisa, ' c enter, 3 which implies the c house ' 
to be entered, as what is entered is inseparable from the 
act of entering, — or in the case of the word c pindlm 7 
c cake ' (in the accusative), some such verb as ' eat ' 
is implied, as without some such transitive verb , there 
could be no object. 

The expression c fat Devadatta eats not during the 
day" as implying his nocturnal feeding has been regarded 
by some people as an example of 'Indication'; but in 
this case the nocturnal feeding is not c indicated p by the words 


'*nfrat ^fta:' ot^t ^^ ^W^T^feq- 

at all ; it is simply cognised either through c Verbal Pre- 
sumption ' (of the expression c he eats at night ' as held 
by the Bhdtfd), or through pure preemption (of the joct 
of the nocturnal feeding, as held by the Prabhakna). 

(b) An example of the c Indicative ' Indication we have 
in the expiession c gangdydm ghosab 9 (' the ranch in the 
Ganga '); here, for the purpose of obtaining for the Bcmk 
(which is the secondary meaning indicated by the teim 
' Gangdydm ') the character of being the location of the 
ranch/ the term c Gangdydm 9 c surrenders its pnmaiy mean- 
ing ' (i. e. the river) ; and in this case the process of Indi- 
cation is called ' Indicative/ 

Both of these kinds here exemplified (a and b) belong 
to the category of c pure ' Indication, — so called because 
they do not involve or require any auxiliary agency (in the 
shape of some sort of similitude between the Primary and 
Secondary meanings). 

It is not true (as some people have asserted) that in 
cases of e pure ' Indication— like those just cited— there 
is a clear ' difference ' manifested between the indicated 
(secondary) and the indicative (primary) meanings, — this 
' difference ' being technically called c tdtasthya ' c aloofness' 
—[while in cases of Indication other than the 'puie/ there 
is 'non-difference' manifested between the two mean- 
ings.]— This, we say, is not true ; because as a matter of 


fact, in a case where *the Bank is spoken of by means of 
the word ' Gatigd, 9 it is done clearly for the purpose of 
expressing some definite notion (such as that of 'sanctity 9 
in the present case) ; and this purpose can be accomplished 
only when the two (the indicated c bank ' and the indica- 
tive c river ') are comprehended as absolutely identical 
u e., the sanctity of the ' bank ' is recognised only when the 
' bank ' is identified with the ' river ' whose sanctity is 
already well-known. If this were not so, and if all that 
was intended to be expressed was some sort of connection 
with the c river/ then as this could be done equally well 
by the ordinary expression c gangdtate ghosah ' (' the ranch 
on the banks of the river Garigd'), — what difference would 
there be between the expression of that idea by this direct 
assertion and the indirect c indication ' of the same (by 
the indirect expression c gangdydm ghosah ') ? 10. 

There is however another {kind of Indication) called the 
6 Snper-vnponent \ ivherein the c imposed ' as well as c that 
imposed upon ' are both distinctly expressed. 

That Indication is called ' Super-imponent ' in which 
what is ' imposed ' and what is* imposed upon ' are both 
mentioned as correlated and as clearly distinct from 
one another. 


«fNlr 5j?\ ^ ftwft 

That same (Indication) would be called * InU osmceptwe ' 
when what is 6 imposed' swallows the other (that is c imposed 
upon ').— (11) 

Where the c visaym \ what is c imposed ' c swallows ' — 
;. e.j takes within itself— c the other ' — i. e. ? that which 
is * imposed upon ', — it is a case of ' Introsusceptive ' 
Indication. 11. 

These two kinds of Indication (a) when based upon 
similitude, are known as c qualitative '; and (b) as c pure ' when 
they are based upon other kinds of relationship. 

{A) As examples respectively of the ' Superimponent ' 

and ' Introsusceptive ' Indication, based upon similitude 

(and hence c qualitative '), we have the two expressions 

(a) c gaurvdhTkah ' ) ('the ploughman is an ox'), and (b) 

e gaurayam ' (' he is the ox itself). 

[In (a) the character of the c ox ' is what is ' imposed ', and the 
'ploughman' is the one 'imposed upon' , and both these being mentioned 
as distinct from one another, it is a case of c superimponent ' Indication ; 
while in (b) the character imposed, z. e. the ' ox ', ' swallows ' up the 
man upon whom it is imposed, the man loses his distinct individuality 
and becomes merged, as it were, in the e ox ', hence this becomes 
a case of the e introsusceptive ' Indication.] 


'*r^rr: ^terfcr' ^rret * ?ssrqnr ^rra; 1 ^rnrre 

The exact process of Indication m these cases is thus 
explained by some people :— When the c ploughman ' is 
spoken of as the ' ox ', this latter word indicates the qualities 
of stupidity, dullness and the like which belong to the 
animal denoted by that word, and through these qualities 
(thus indirectly indicated) the word ' ox ' comes to denote 
the man (and it is thus that the co-ordination between the 
man and the ox is secured). — According to others, how- 
ever, what happens is* not that the word c ox ' directly ex- 
presses the man (through its qualities of stupidity and dull- 
ness), but that it indnectly indicates similar qualities in the 
man. — But according to others again (men of our way of 
thinking), the word ' ox ' indicates the man himself, as 
being the substratum of those same qualities that belong 
to the ox also. 

This has been declaied elsewhere also (in the 
Slokcwd}ttikd) — c Indication is the name given to the 
cognition of what is invariably concomitant with what is 
directly expressed by the word ; and this process is called 
' qualitative ' on account of the indication being based 
upon the presence of certain qualities' 


In this passage what is meant by c invariable con- 
comitance 'is only relationship, and not actual (inseparable) 
concomitance , for if the latter were meant, there could 
be no indication in the case of such expressions as ' manchlh 
krosanti ' (' the platforms ate shouting '). 

[As there is no inseparable concomitance between the platfotm 
and the men on the platform.] 

In fact it has been rightly observed that in cases where 
there is actual invariable concomitance (between the indicated 
and the indicator), one naturally implies the other, and 
there is no need for the indicative process at all. 

(b) Examples of the ' superimponent ' and c mtro- 
susuceptive ' Indication, based upon factors other than 
' similitude/ (and hence ' pure ') we have in the two ex- 
pressions c Ayurghrtam * ( c clarified butter is longevity ') 
and ' Aynrevedam ' (' It is longevity itself ') ; — where the 
factor upon which the indication is based is some such 
relationship as that between cause and effect, and the like 
and in all such cases the two kinds of Indication — c superim- 
ponent ' and ' mtrosusceptive ' — are such as are actually 
preceded (and brought about) by the said relationships 
of ' cause and effect ' and the like. 


Now here, in the case of the two kinds of c qualita- 
tive ' Indication, the purpose served [(a) in the case of 
the ' supenmponent ' variety, e. g., c the ploughman is an 
ox '] is the bringing about of the cognition of similarity 
between the two things recognised as different from one 
another, — and \(b) m the case of the c mtrosusceptive > 
variety, e. g u> c he is verily an ox '] it is the bringing about 
of the notion of absolute identity between the two things. 
In the case of the two kinds of c pure ' Indication [e g., 
(J) ' Butter is longevity ' and (b) ' It is longevity itself], 
on the other hand, the purpose served is the bringing about 
of the notion that the thing spoken of is one that accom- 
plishes a certain object in a way better than anything else 
[in the case of (a)] or infallibly [in the case of (b)] . 

In some cases the Indication is based upon the rela- 
tion of ' subserviency ;' e.g., the pillar that subserves the 
purpose of (the worship of) Indra is called c indra ' ; — 
sometimes it is based upon the relationship of ' master 
and servant ' ; e. g. when the king's servant is spoken as 
the * king ' ; — in some cases it is based upon the relation- 
ship of ' whole and part 7 ; e. g. in the expression c agra- 
hastah 9 (' foremost hand 5 ) as applied to any and every 
foremost hmb 9 this latter is indicated by the word 'hand ' ; — 
in other cases again it is based upon the relationship of 
' doing the same work 3 ; e. g. } when one who is not a 
carpenter is spoken of as c carpenter ' (on account of his 
doing the carpenter's work). 


sRftaFf f^ oqo^rffo^n^iT^rfjrR-^ n 

TMr Indication is of six kinds. — (12). 

That is, (the four kinds mentioned in 11 and 12) 
along with the first two kinds (described in 10) 12. 

This (Indication) — 

When based upon usage > is without any c suggested 9 meaning ; 
but when it is based upon some purpose, it zs accompanied by 
a ' suggested ' meaning. 

In fact the recognition of the purpose (in the case of 
Indication) is obtained only through the process of 
c suggestion '. 

And it may be either abstruse or explicit. 

c It ' — the suggested meaning. 

It is ' abstruse ' in the following passage — 

' Oh ! The first tide of youth is exuberant m the 
body of the moon-faced one : her face is blooming with 
smiles, her glances have acquired the graceful arch, her 
gait evinces a rising gracefulness, her thoughts have re- 
linquished steadiness, the bosom shows the budding 
breasts, and her thighs are plump and efficient/ 

[Here we have the primary meaning of the following words barred 
by incompatibility with the context— (a) the word ' is exuberant ' 
(as applied to tide of youth, which is inanimate), — (b) c blooming ' 
(applied to smile> though it is really applicable to flowers), — (<r) c acqui- 


mi wr 

^qrferfr ^Tf^^rt jfaFrars ^ syfogTfa n % o 11 
spfMfeRitfir ii 

ting ' (as applied to the glances, which are inanimate), — {d) e rising J 
fas applied to grace fulness, which is not a material substance and hence 
cannot do any rising), — e) e relinquishing steadiness ' (as applied j.o 
thoughts which are not sentient), — (/) * budding ' (as applied to breasts, 
though really applicable to f/owets,) — and (g) c efficient * (as appliei 
to the thighs which are inanimate) , and hence they are taken as indicating 
the (figurative) meaning in which the words are understood in the 
passage , eg (a) c exuberance ' indicates excellence and what is suggested 
is c desirability * } — (b) ' blooming ' indicates unrestrained manifestation , 
and what is suggested is ' sweet odour ' and so forth , — (c) ' acquiring ' 
indicates mastery and it suggests the 'appearance of the loved person' , — 
(d) ' rising ' indicates profnsewss* which suggests 'heart-ravishing cha- 
racter '; — e) c relinquishing steadiness ' indicates impatience, which 
suggests ' the increasing influence of love ', — [J) ' budding' indicates 
uaflabhmss, which suggests 'fitness for embrace ', — (g) c efficiency 
indicates capacity for spirited intercourse, which suggests ' loveliness.' — 
And all this, not capable of being compiehended by ordinary men, is 
very * abstruse ' ] 

As an example of the ' explicit ' suggested meaning, 
we have the following— 

' Coming into contact with prosperity ' even dull 
persons become conversant with the functions of the 
clever : the intoxication of youth itself teaches the graces 
to lovely women.' 

Here the work c teaches ' (having its direct meaning 
barred, in relation to the ' intoxication of youth, ' which 
is inanimate), indicates ' manifestation *, which suggests 
'spontaneous attainment of the graces'; and this sug- 
gestion is quite exphctt). 


apar^qT fRsq-^TT snraar^rr ^ u ^ n 

J;/ A&/j /wy Indication has been declared to be cf three 
kinds. — (13). 

That is, (1) that in which there is no suggested meaning, 
(2) that m which the suggested meaning is abstruse, 
and (3) that m which the suggested meaning is explicit. 

That ivhich contains the said {indication) is the < Indicative ' — 

c Word ', c iabdah \ has to be construed here (fiom 
Text 6). 

c Tadbhub ' — That which contains, is the substratum 
of, the Indication. 

[Having described the ' expressive word ' (m the Test 7) and the 
* indicative word ' (in the foregoing Text), the author now turns to 
the description of the ' suggestive word' As in the other two cases, 
however, so here also, before describing the ' suggestive word/ it is 
necessary to explain the process of c suggestion/ This suggestion is 
of two kinds — e Verbal', based upon the word, and e Ideal ', based 
upon the meaning, as the present context is dealing with words 3 the 
author takes up Verbal suggestion here, the other kind being dealt 
with in Chapter III. The Verbal suggestion also is of two kinds, 
that based ^upon the directly expressed meaning of the wotd, 
'denotative', and that based upon the indicated meaning of the word, 
' indicative'. And as he has been just dealing with Indication, he 
takes up the c Indicative ' suggestion fiist ] — 13 

Oj the Indicative Wotd, that function (which b tings abort 
the cognition of the 'purpose ' of the indention) is of the natme 
of c Suggestion \ 

" Why so ?" 



In regard to that intended idea for bringing about the 
cognition whereof one has recourse to Indication^ (14) and which is 
cognisable through the word only, — the function (of the word) 
can be none other than c Suggestion? 

A -word is used indicatively only when it is intend- 
ed to convey the notion of the ' purpose ' (which 
could not be cognised through the direct denotation of 
the word) ; — and yet the said notion is obtained from that 
same word, and not from anything else ; and in this func- 
tion the word is none other than Suggestion ; — because 

(a) it cannot be direct denotation, as there is no usage to 
that effect ; — 

In the case of the expression c the ranch in the 
Ganga', the 'sanctity' and such otber qualities are re- 
cognised as belonging to the bank ; and yet there is no 
usage of the word "Ganga in that sense : — 

(b) nor can it be Indication because the necessary conditions 
are wanting. — (15). 



?rg^T -i|^lRttl«il: ^f^f^TrTT: II 
I^TPT^rrf^T |§: II ?<\ II 

sw f toj «n t «Pf ^wt ^t*. ^b»t *ft i 

That is the three conditions described above — the 
primary meaning being barred and so forth (see Text 
9). For instance — 

What is c mdictated ' is not the primary meaning ; nor is 
that meaning incompatible ; nor has it any connection with the 
intended idea ; nor again is there any purpose served by it (/. e., 
by making the intended idea an object of further Indication) , 
nor lastly is the word itself ivanting in the requisite force. (16). 

In the expression ' the ranch m the Ganga', the 
word ' Ganga ' is taken as indicating the ' bank ', because 
its primary meaning of ' river * is found incompa- 
tible; — if, m the same manner, the sense of the * bank * 
also were incompatible, then alone could it be taken as 
indicating the intended idea (of ' sanctity ' and so forth) ; — 
as a matter of fact however, m the first place, the bank 
does not form the primary meaning of the word c Ganga ', 
nor is it incompatible, [so that the first condition of Indi- 
cation is not fulfilled], — secondly there is no affinity 
between the ' bank ' as indicated by the word c Ganga 9 
with ' sanctity ' and the other qualities that would be 
indicated (by the bank) [so that the second condition of 
Indication is not fulfilled] ;— thirdly, there is no further 
purpose served by making the intended idea of c sanctity * 
and the rest the object of a further indication ; — noi lastly, 
is the word c Ganga > incapable (without the intervention 

32 kavyaprakasa 

qfc crsfa ^ra **TRr era" smlwR *5sra<r i q ^ <ri 

of the indicative piocess) of bringing about the notion 
of ' sanctity ' and the rest, as it is of denoting the bank. 
[The word ' Gangl ' is incapable of denoting the bank 9 hence for 
the purpose of bunging about the notion of the bank, it has to seek 
the help of Indication , but as regards * sanctity ' and the rest, the idea 
of these can be biought about by the word ' Gang* ' itself, through 
' suggestion '] — 16 

Further in this manner, there would be an infinite regress, 
which would strike at the very root ( of the intended com- 

If the purpose for which the original Indication has 
been adopted were itself the object of a further Indica- 
tion, — then for the second Indication there would be 
another purpose ; and in connection with the Indication 
of this lattei, there would be yet another purpose ; and 
so on and on, there would be an infinite regress, and the 
result of this would be that the desired comprehension 
would not be got at. 

An objection is raised :— " What the word ' Gangd 9 
indicates may be the bank as possessed of the qualities of 
sanctity and the rest ; and the purpose served by this indi- 
cation is the bringing about of a notion that could not be 
got at by the expression ' the ranch on the bank of the 
Ganga'; and thus as Indication itself would provide the 
comprehension of the bank along with the qualities, where 
would be the need for having any ' suggestion ' at all ?" 


fcT OTf — 

[The answer to this is given by the following Text.] 

It is not right to make the ' indicated ' meaning include the 
intended idea {for the sake of which Indication is admitted. — (17) 

" Why not ?" 

Because the object of a cognition is one thing, and its 
resultant is said to be another. 

For instance, the c object ' of the perceptional cognition 
is the blue thing, while the ' resultant ' of that cognition 
is the c apprehendedness ' of that thing (as held by the 
Mimdmsaka), or the ' representative cognition * (' I perceive 
the blue thing/ — this is according to the Naiyayikd). 

[Similarly the object of the cognition obtained by Indication is the 
c bank', and the idea of ' sanctity ' and the test is only its resultant, 
which, therefore, being different from the c object \ cannot be 
coupled with the former.— There is no doubt that such is the mean- 
ing of the text , and the commentators have had lecourse to a subtle 
and laboured explanation only on account of their being unable to re- 
concile the clear meaning of the text with their own conceptions ] 17 

Thus Indication cannot apply to the thing along with its 

This has been already explained. 


34 kavyaprakaSa 

faf5l^|55ST<JTT ^*T 

7/ «■ <?#/)/ after something has been indicated that special 
qualities come (to be recognised) as belonging to it. — (18). 
Thus after the bank has been indicated (by the word 

c Ganga), the special qualities of ' sanctity ' and the 
rest come to be recognised as belonging to it ; and 
the recognition of these qualities can be brought about 
by the word through a function that is different from 
Denotation and Indication ; and this function must 
necessarily be held to be that which is spoken of by such 
names as ' vyanjana * (suggestion), ' dhvanana ' (echo), 
' dyotana 9 (illumination) and so forth. 18. 

Suggestion based upon Indication has been described ; 
the author now proceeds to describe that based upon 
Denotation — 

When a word having several primary meanings 
has the range of its denotation restricted by c connection ' 
and such other conditions } — if there appears the cogni- 
tion of a meaning other than the denoted (or directly 
expressed) one, that function which brings about this 
cognition is c Suggestion. 9 — (19). 

[Says the Vdkyapadlya] (a) ' Connection, (b) Dis- 
junction, (V) Association, (d) Enmity, (e) Purpose, 
(/) Context, (g) Peculiarity, (h) Proximity of another 


word, (t) Capacity, (;) Compatibility, (k) Place, (/) Time, 
(m) Gender, (n) Accent and so forth, — these are the con- 
ditions that serve to bring about the idea of a particular 
meaning of a word, when there is an uncertainty as to its 
actual meaning in a particular context'; — and it is in 
accordance with this that one particular meaning, out 
of a number of meanings, of a word is understood to be 
intended, in each of the following expressions respec- 
tively : — 

(a) In the expression e Han with conch and discus 9 
the exact meaning of the word ' hart \ which has many 
meanings, is restricted to Visnu, through c connection ', 
[as of all the things denoted by the word ' hart ', it is 
Visnu alone who has any connection with c the conch and 
the discus '] ;—(b) similarly in the expression ' Han 
without the conch and the discus ', [as it is only one who 
has had c connection ' with a thing that can be 'disjoined ' 
from it, this ' disjunction ' restricts the meaning of * ban y 
to Visnu]; — (c) in the expression ' Kdmalaksmaffau^ the 
meaning of the word c Rama ', is restricted to that Rama 
who was the son of Dasaratha [and this on account of the 

* association ' of Laksmana] ; (d) while in the expression 

* the behaviour of these two combatants is like that of 
Rama and Arjuna *, the meaning of ' Rama ' is restricted 
to Para&urama, and that of 'Arjuna' to the son of Krtavlrya 
[and this through the well-known ' enmity ' between 
these two persons] ; — (e) in the expression e worship 
Sthariu for the purpose of removing the shackles of the 
world \ the meaning of the word ' Sthdtiu 9 is restricted to 
Siva [as the c purpose ' mentioned can be fulfilled by the 
worship of that God only]; — (J) in the expression' Deva 
knows everything \ the meaning of the word ' deva' is 
restricted to 'you ' [and this is done through the c context % 

36 kavyafrakasa 

the words being addressed to the king] ; (g) m the expression 
' Makaradhvaja is angry \ the meaning of the word 
' Makaradhvaja 9 is restricted to the Love-God [as the 
c peculiarity ' mentioned, being angry, can apply to that 
God alone, and not to the ocean, which is also called 
c Makaradhvaja '] ; — (p) in * devasya ptirdrdteh \ the meaning 
of the word, * deva ' is restricted to Siva [through the 
c proximity of the word' c pur draft ', which can apply to 
Siva, and to no other God] ; — (*) in ' the kokila bird is 
intoxicated by Madhu \ the meaning of the word ' Madhu 9 
is restricted to the Spring [as that alone, and not honey 
or wine, has the ' capacity 9 to intoxicate the bird] ; 
Q — in c patu vo dayitamukham 9 the meaning of the word 
' patti 9 (which can mean drink and protect also) is restricted 
to confrontation [as this alone is ' compatible ' with the 
'beloved's face']; — (k) in ' Paramesvara shines here', 
the meaning of the word c Varamesvarah 9 is restricted to 
the king, through the ' place ' referred to being the King's 
capital ; — (/) in ' Chitrabhdnu is shining/ the meaning of 
the word ' Chitrabhdnu ' is restricted to the Sun, if the 
words are uttered during the day, and to fire, if they are 
uttered at night, and this is done through c time'; — (m) 
in the expression ' Mitra shines ', if the word ' Mitra ' is 
used in the neuter ' gender ', its meaning becomes res- 
tricted to the friend, but if in the masculine c gender ', then 
to the Sun ; — (n) in the expression ' Indrasatru 9 the 
meaning becomes restricted by the ' accent ' [if the accent 
is put on the first word of the compound, it has to be 
taken as Bahuvrlhi, and then its meaning is he ' whose 
killer is Indra/ but if the accent is put on the second word 
it has to be taken as Tatpurusa, which means c the killer 


SCTOTTOT ffa^RT «TR^ ftwfwRf \ 

srfr i f^^Frfe*ntftftr fe# Ttft Trfi ^fft i fa# wmr 

of Indra ']. But it is only in the case of Vedic expressions 
that accent serves the purpose of restricting the denotation 
of words. — The verse quoted from the VdkyapadJya con- 
tains at the end the term c ddt \ c and so forth '; this is 
meant to include (o) Gesture^ which serves to restrict the 
meaning in such passages as — ' During all these days her 
breasts have been reduced to this (marked by a gesture) 
size, her eyes have shrunk to tbis t and her condition has 
become like tbts! 

Now, m some cases, it is found that though the signi- 
fication of the word has been restricted in the manner 
described above, and the other significations are pre- 


5c*TRprf*M^I<W': I 

*hitkhji: i *r ^ ^^tt wrpi^TsnTFrT^ I 3*fo 

^s*& s^spr^ 53TTqTT: I zpqT 

crRF^Rnr^: m^ jf^rt ii h ii ^ u 

eluded, — yet the word, which has several meanings, may 
•even so succeed in bringing about the cognition of a 
meaning other than that to which the signification has been 
restricted ; — and this could not be done by the denotative 
function of the word, as that has been restricted and hence 
precluded from the meaning cognised ; nor could it be 
done by its indicative function, as the ' incompatibility 
of the primary meaning ' and other conditions of Indica- 
tion would be wanting ; the only function by which it can 
be done is * suggestion/ 

An example of this we have in the following verse : — 
' Bhadratmano duradhirohatanorvisala — 
Vamsonnateh krtasilimukhavigrahasya 
Yasyanupaplutagateh paravaranasya 
Danambusekasubhagah satatankarobhut.' 
[* The hand (trunk) of this destroyer of enemies (large 
elephant), — who is high-souled (belongs to the ' bhadra * 
species of elephants), whose body is irrepressible (who 


«ilft ^^ t,^, «,,.„ 

cT#fcT cq^spp: II ^o II 

can be mounted with difficulty), the nobility of whose 
race is high (who is as tall as a bamboo), who has become 
an expert in the use of arrows (who has a host of bees 
hovering round him), whose insight is undimmed (whose 
gait is steady), — was always beautified by the water poured 
in the formal making of gifts (by the ichor flowing from 
his temples)]. 

[Here we find that the words are so skilfully chosen that they are- 
applicable to the king as also to the elephant; the fact however that 
it is addressed to the king restricts the meaning of the words to him. 
alone; and yet the idea of the e elephant ' also is cognisable throughout;. 
and this idea is the result of Suggestion. ,] 19. 

The word endowed with that (/'. e. the said junction of 
suggestion) is the < suggestive word' 

c Endowed with that' i. e. endowed with the function. 
of suggestion. 

Inasmuch as the word is c suggestive ' only when it has other 
meanings, the meaning also is held to he so (i. e. 6 suggestive 9 by 
virtue of its helping the process. (20). 

c So ' — L e* suggestive. 20. 

^^^rTO^^fqift c^cRW ST It ^ II 


The meanings of these have been described before. 

c Meanings 9 — *'. e. the Expressed, the Indicated and the 

c Of these \ — L e. of the Expressive, the Indicative and 
the Suggestive words. — {Vide Text 6 3 above). 

The suggestiveness of Meanings in now described. 

The author next states the nature of the said sugges- 
tiveness of words. — 

c Suggestion ' is that function of the meaning which brings 
about the cognition of another meaning, by persons endowed 
with imaginative intuition, — through peculiarities of (a) the 
speaker, (b) the person spoken to, (c) intonation, (d) the 
sentence, (e) the expressed meaning, (/) the presence of another, 
(g) context, (h) place, (i) time and so forth. — (21-22). 

' The person spoken to ' — /'. e. one for whose sake the 


s^^h^W'T^ i : 

sftfro^ ^p?^ f%c[T ST^Tpjf *Pftgfaaf I 

^ ^PF^ ^t ^ 51 fa ^ tfr^i u ? vu 

words are used ; — c Intonation ' — variation of tone; — 
c context ' — the occasion ; — c of the meaning ' — i. e. of the 
expressed, the indicated or the suggested meaning. 

Examples are cited in due order — (a) c O Friend ! 
having taken up a heavy jar of water, I have come walking 
fast, I feel fatigued and languid through perspiration and 
breathlessness ; I shall rest awhile/ 

Here what is suggested is that the speaker is trying to 
conceal her stolen amours. 

[What the woman describes are the physical signs that may be 
caused either by hard physical work or by amorous flirtations ; 
but on account of the character of the speaker being known to be that of 
a woman with loose morals, what is suggested is that the signs described 
have been due to dalliance, and she is trying to conceal this by 
:. : ; : i\- . * v them to her having carried a heavy jar of water.] 

Q?) c Oh my friend ! for the sake of wretched me, 
thou also art, suffering from sleeplessness, weakness^ 
anxiety, lassitude a&d breathlessness !' 

Here what is -suggested is that the friend, who has 
been acting as an intermediary between the separated 
lovers, has herself been enjoying the company of her friend's 

[The physical effects described are such as may be caused, either 
by constant moving about from one party to the other for the purpose 


are irftr ?r zffar: #^: =pi 5 affr ^r ^twt w$t- 

of bringing the lovers together or by dalliance ; but the friend addressed 
being known to be prone to misbehaviour, the suggested meaning is 
that the symptoms described are due to her secret intercourse with 
her friend's lover.] 

(c) ' Having seen the Princess of Panchala subjected 
to indescribable indignity in the assembly of kings,— 
having observed the way in which for a long time we 
lived in the forest, clad in tree-bark, along with the 
foresters,— and having witnessed how we lived in Virata's 
louse, secretly and engaged in unbecoming acts,— having 
.seen all it is still towards myself, sorely afflicted as I am, 
that our eldest brother bears anger, and not even now 
towards the Kurus !' 

Here what is suggested by the ' Intonation ' (the em- 
phasis laid upon the pronoun 'myself') is that ' it is not 
right for the king to bear anger towards me, it is time now 
that he were angry with the Kurus '. 

It will not be right to argue here that, inasmuch as the 
Intonation only serves to complete the directly expressed 
meaning of the sentence, this is a case of the suggested 
meaning being subservient (to the expressed meaning). — 
'This, we say, will not be right ; the Intonation does really 
serve to complete the meaning of the sentence; but this 


it does only in so far as it expresses the question (* does the 
king beat anger towards me, and not towards the Kurus ? 
— and not as it suggests the further meaning of the im- 
propriety of anger towards the speaker). 

[Hence in so far as the suggestion by the Intonation is concerned^ 
there is no ' subserviency to the expressed meaning ', specially as- 
the suggestion appears after the expressed meaning has been duly com- 

(d) c At that time you did not turn away your eyes: 
fixed as they were upon my cheeks ; now however, even- 
though I am the same, and the cheeks are the same, yet. 
that look of yours is no more/ 

Here the meaning suggested is — c while my friend 
was sitting by me her face being reflected in my cheeky 
the way in which you looked towards that reflection was 
of quite a different character ; when however she has 
gone away, it has completely changed, — what a stealthy 
lover you are !' 

[The suggestion is due to the fact of the sentences containing 
the terms e at that time ' and * now'.] 

(e) c This spot on the bank of the Narmada is redolent 
with the beauty of fresh plantain-groves, and excites,,. 


3PT *f«TT *p£^T^ 1% rT^PT 53-fcT ^nfa^ftcW | 

\ * . 

through the loveliness of its bowers, the sportive graces 
of the lovely woman I and further, O delicate one ! here 
are blowing breezes favourable to love-making, led as 
they are by the God of Love flurried with unaccountable 

Here the meaning suggested is — c let us enter the 
bower for the purpose of love-making.' 

[This suggestion is due to the expressed weaning of the following 
words — (1) ' Tanvl ', which expresses delicacy brought about 
by the influence of love, — (2) c Narmada/ the literal meaning of which 
is c that which gives pleasure ', — 3) ' uddesa ? which means ' that which 
can only be pointed out, and not easily reached, hence free from intru- 
sion/ — (4) e sarasa 9 denotes freshness of the leaves, hence freedom 
from all fear of any shuffling sound being made, — (5) c srenV denotes 
thickness of the grove, and hence invisibility from outside.] 

(/) * My hard-hearted mother-in-law is always urging 
me to all household work ; it is only in the evening that 
I get some respite, if any at all \ 

Here a woman suggests to the person close by that 
evening is the only time at which assignation could be made. 

[The expressed meaning is that the woman has no time except in 
the evening, and by reason of the proximity of her lover who is waiting 
for assignation, this simple statement suggests the evening as the time 
at which she agrees to meet him.] 

(g) ' We hear your husband is coming here in three 
hours' time ; why then are you sitting idle ? O, friend, 
make your preparations \ 


sm^r ^rer^r^rq- ofk srsrfsr <rere ^n^ra" ?t ^rfrr 

A woman who is on the point of going out to meet 
her lover, is warned by another woman that it would not 
be right to do so. 

[The expressed meaning is that the woman should make prepara- 
tions for meeting her husband who will soon be arriving ; but this 
being said on the occasion of the woman going out to meet a lover,, 
suggests the said meaning.] 

(h) ' O dear friends, you please do the flower-picking 
in some other place ; I am doing it here ; I am unable 
to wander farther off ; do me, therefore, this favour ; here 
I am beseeching you with joined palms \ 

What is suggested by the speaker to her confidante 
is— c This place being quite solitary, please bring in my 

[The expressed meaning is simply a request to her companions 
to leave her alone ; the sequestered position of the spot where the 
speech is made suggests the aforesaid request to the confidante.] 

(/) 'O my beloved, you are bound to obey the wishes 
of your elders ; what shall I say to you, unfortunate as I 
am ! If you have to go on your journey, you may go ; 
you will hear what I am going to do. 5 


The meaning suggested is— 'The spring-season having 
arrived (when lovers should be united), if you ate going 
away from home, I shall not be alive any longer and shall, 
therefore, not know where you may be/ 

[This suggestion is due to the fact of the speech being made during 

(j) The phrase c and so forth ' (in Text 22) is meant to 
include gesture and such other details. An example of 
suggestion by expressed meaning, through the peculia- 
rity of gesture x we have in the following — 

4 While I was standing close to the door, she, res- 
plendent with the very essence of beauty, having dilated 
her thighs, pressed them together ; she brought down 
the veil over her face, cast unsteady glances, suppressed 
her speech and drew her arms together/ 

Here the various gestures described suggest to the 
lover the wishes of the speaker. 

[(1) The movement of the thighs suggests her desire for inverted 
intercourse, (2) the bringing down of the veil suggests that the lover 
should come secretly, — (3) the unsteady glances suggest that her passion 
of love has been aroused, — (4) the suppression of speech suggests 
that there should be no talk rcc.^rdirg the meeting, — (5) and the 
bringing together of the arms suggests that when he comes to her 
he will receive her embraces.] 

Whenever occasion presents itself, examples are cited 
again and again for the purpose of explaining the subject 


qt 1 ^rretot ftosratfr ferfe^r 1 sh^t ^p#w 
^To^.^t^ ozr^^^c^^Tfnf^T 11 ^?-^ 11 

*n^*TT^sftsff s^^c^frcTC SET: I 

srsfor ^s^r^ct cf5®«??5r tff^ftcnr u ^3 n 

so fully as to leave nothing to be desired on the part of 
the enquirer. 

Sometimes we have suggestion based upon the pecu- 
liarity of two or more of the conditions of the ' speaker * 
and the rest enumerated here. 

The suggestiveness of the c indicated * and * suggest- 
ed ' meanings also may be illustrated in the same manner 
(as that of the € expressed ' meaning.) 22. 

Inasmuch as the meaning that suggests another meaning 
is itself cognisable by means of the word, — the word also is 
helpfful in the suggestiveness of the meaning. — (23), 

' By means of the word \ — That is, anything cognised 
through any other means of knowledge is never 
suggestive. 23, 

fcrsrpfter <r«nfa srfsrfrr sreM «refat t^TtwRTT 

WFTcT ifcT SPOT ^Tar^FT 3TT| — 



' Word ' and ' meaning ' having been defined, the 
next subject to be dealt with should be the exact nature 
of c defects/ ' excellences ' and c figures of speech ' [in 
view of the form in which the definition of ' poetry ? 
has been worded]; but it is only when the object to which 
die properties belong has been described that it can be 
ascertained whether certain properties of it are fit to be 
rejected or admitted ; for this reason the author now 
proceeds to describe the various kinds of poetry (of which 
the defects, excellences and figures are properties) 

In that 6 suggestive ' poetry where the c expressed ' meaning 

is not meant to be applicable^ — the ' expressed meaning ' is 

either (a) transformed into another meaning or (b) entirely 
rejected. — (24). 


f^^Rtf^FT^ *RT SP# tffaw^ cfrT: TOT WT 1 1 ^ Y 1 1 

The c expressed meaning ' is * not meant to be appli- 
cable ' only in cases where predominance attaches to that 
abstruse c suggested meaning ' which is based upon 
Indication ; — and it is such instances that should be under- 
stood as 6 Dhvani\ c suggestive poetry'; since they have 
been referred to in the text by the expression ' dhvanaiij 
c in suggestive poetry \ — (a) In this ' suggestive poetry/ 
the ' expressed meaning \ being found to have no useful 
significance, becomes, in some cases, c transformed into 
another meaning'; — e. g. in the following — 

c I tell you here sits an assembly of learned men ; you 
should, therefore, remain here with your mind fully alert/ 
Here, mere telling (having no significance at all) becomes 
transformed into advising (the suggestion being ' I advise 
you that in this assembly of learned men, you should keep 
your mind alert, or else you will make yourself ridiculous'). 
(b) While in other cases, the 'expressed meaning/ 
being found to be inapplicable, becomes ' entirely rejec- 
ted'; — e. g in the following — 

' Much benefit has been conferred upon me ;— what 

shall I say ?— Extreme gentlemanliness has been evinced 

by you I May you, therefore, O friend, live in happiness 

for a hundred years, always behaving as you have done V 


50 kavyaprakaSa 

3f*WRT% I T W f^MH^M^fifHlPoJI tjsr TSP I 

This is addressed to a person who has caused much 
injury to the speaker, who addresses to him these words 
in an ironical sense. 

[The gratitude expressed by the words is altogether inapplicable 
to one who has done harm ; hence it is c entirely rejected/ and its 
contrary is suggested.] 24. 

[Suggestive Poetry based upon Indication having been described, 
the author proceeds to describe that based upon denotation,'] 

That {suggestive poetry), however, where the 'expressed 
meaning 9 is meant to be applicable, and is yet subservient to 
another meaning* — is the other kind. 

c Subservient to another 9 — /. e. implies the c suggested 
meaning \ 

This c other kind ' of suggestive poetry is of two 
varieties — 

(a) One in which the order oj sequence of the 'suggested 

meaning 9 is imperceptible, and (b) the other in 

which the prder oj sequence oj the ' suggested meaning 9 

is perceptible. 25. 

' Imperceptible 9 ; — there is this ' order of sequence * 

(in the case of all c passionate ' poetry, which is of 

the ' suggestive 9 kind) that the Excitants, the Ensuants 

and the Variables (which are c expressed 9 by the words) 


do not themselves constitute the ' Rasa ' or c Passion' 
(which is the c suggested ' meaning), — but this latter is 
manifested by them [and thus there is a distinct order of 
sequence, first the Excitant and the rest, and then the 
Passion]; but this sequence, being extremely subtle, is 
not perceptible in the case of the first kind of poetry here 
described. 25. 

(a) Passion (b) "Emotion (c) Aberrations of these, and the 
(d) Allayment of Emotion and the rest, constitute that in 
ivhich the sequence is imperceptible ; — and all this, appearing in 
the form of something to be embellished, is distinct from those 
embellishments (Figures of Speech), which are known as the 
6 Passionate ' (Rasavat) and the like. 

c And the rest 9 — this is meant to include (a) the mani- 
festation of emotions, (b) the conjuncture of emotions, and 
(c) the admixture of emotions. 

In cases where the Passion and the rest appear as the 
predominant factor, they are to be embellished ; as is going 
to be illustrated later on. In other cases, where the literal 
meaning of the sentence forms the predominant factor, 
and the Passion comes in only as a secondary element, the 
suggested meaning is subordinated, these same (passion 
and the rest), become embellishments, known as (a) c Rasavat 9 
(Passionate), [where the Passion forms the subordinate* 
factor], (b) c Preya 9 (agreeable) [where emotion forms the 


T*rf^T%:" ^% I 

"S c 

subordinate factor], (c) ' urjasvi 9 (Forceful) [where the 
aberration of Passion forms the subordinate factor], (d) 
6 Samahita 9 Quiescent [where the allayment of emotion 
forms the subordinate factor]. — Instances of these are to be 
cited under the sections dealing with ' Poetry of Sub- 
ordinated Suggestion 5 (under Chapter V). 26. 

The author now describes the nature of c Passion ' — 
Text — What are known, in ordinary language, as (a) 
c causes 5 (b) ' effects 9 and (c) c auxiliaries ' of the 
c latent emotion ' of Love and the like, — come to be 
spoken of as {a) c excitants \ (b) c ensuants 9 and (c) 
c variants \ when found in Drama and Poetry ; and 
when the latent emotion comes to be manifested by these, 
it is known as c Rasa \ c Passion \ — (27-28). 


^rf^ ^r# TRW?rf?r tit: srmr t errcfafa tt^t- 

This is what has been thus declared by Bharata 
(in his Ndtyasdstra) — " There is accomplishment of 
Passion through the conjunction of the excitant, the 
ensuant and the variant.' 5 

[Four different interpretations of this assertion have 
been propounded, and each of these interpretations 
forms the basis of a distinct theory regarding the genesis 
of Rasa]. 

(A) The first interpretation is that given by Bhatta- 

Lollata and his followers ; it is as follows : — The (latent) 
sentiment of love (and the like) is (a) generated by the 
excitants — /. e. } the basic cause, in the shape of the woman, 
and the inflaming cause, in the shape of the garden and 
so forth — (b) rendered cognisable by the ensuants — i. e., 
effects, in the form of amorous glances, embraces and so 
forth, — and (c) consummated by the variants — such as 
self-disparagement and the like ;— this emotion, though 
primarily and really subsisting in the character personated— 
e. g. Rama — comes to be recognised as subsisting in the 
personating actor by reason of his having assumed that 
character ; and when thus recognised, it is called c Rasa ', 

c passion \ 

[This theory is open to the objection that it fails to explain the 
emotion that arises in the mind of the spectator of the dramatic 
representation; as according to it, the sentiment is generated in the 
personated character and secondarily recognised in the personating 

54 kavyapraka&a 

jRtoTsfarrcr: siftfcnt 5ri«iwO #*FRfM Tern r \ 1 1 

(B) The second interpretation put forward by Sri 
Sankuka is as follows : — When an actor is personating 
Rama, the spectator has with regard to him, the idea that 
c this is Rama himself ' ; but this idea is of a peculiar kind, 
being of the same nature as the idea of ' horse ' that one 
has in regard to the picture of a horse ; it is different from 
all the four kinds of ordinary notions : (1) it is not of the 
nature of the ordinary right notion that one has in the case 
of the real Rama. c Rama is the person ', which is also 
confirmed by the subsequent cognition ' this is Rama 
himself ' [the cognition in question cannot be of this kind 
as Rama is not present there] ; — (2) it is different also from 
the ordinary wrong cognition ' this is Rama ', which 
appears in regard to one who is not really Rama, and which 
is sublated by the subsequent cognition ' this is not Rama ' 
[the cognition in question cannot be of this nature, as 
there is no such sublation in this case] ; — (3) nor is it of 
the same nature as the doubtful cognition ' this may or 
may not be Rama '; — (4) nor lastly is it of the nature of 
the cognition of mere similarity, ' he is like Rama ' [the 
cognition in question cannot be of the nature of these last 
two cognitions, as it partakes of the notion of identifica- 
tion] ; — and this actor gives expression to the causes, 
effects and auxiliaries by the display of his art acquired 


through instruction and practice, and pondering over such 
poetry as the following — 

' That lady, the mistress of my life, a splash of nectar 
to my body, unguent of camphor to my eyes, the very 
embodiment of the glorious longings of my heart, glided 
within the range of my vision '; — 

' Unfortunately I have to-day been separated from her, 
with eyes large and unsteady ; and that season has arrived 
wherein clouds are constantly flitting about ' ; 

Though all these causes, effects and auxiliaries are 
only artificially assumed, yet they are not regarded as such, 
and hence they are spoken of as ' excitants/ c ensuants ' 
and * variants';— the ' samyoga\ c conjunction *, of these 
three, — u e. } through the relation of ' the indicative and 
the indicated ', subsisting between these three and the result- 
ant feeling — leads to the inference of the * latent emotion ', 
of Love e. g. ; — though thus inferred, the emotion is by reason 
of the peculiar charm, different from all other objects 
of inference ; and hence it is recognised as something 
subsisting latently ; and as, though thus inferred, this 
emotion is recognised, through its peculiar charm, as some- 
thing relished, and as such different from other ordinary 
inferred things ; it is imagined to be subsisting latently in 
the actor ; and even though not really present in him, it is 
relished by the spectators through their predisposed 


*rr«n<ufl+<uik*Hi ttfrk^nk"! wts^fuft: wvft 

[Under this view, the causes, effects and auxiliaries are the 
invariable concomitants of the emotion, — and hence when they are 
perceived, in the Actor, they lead to the inference of the emotion; 
and the inference of this non-existent emotion is explained as being 
due to the predisposition of the audience.] 

[The objection against this view is that inference is a purely 
intellectual process, and hence cannot account for the highly complex 
emotional phenomena involved in Rasa.] 

(C) The third interpretation, that of Bhatta-nayaka, 
is as follows : — ' Passion ' is not cognised (inferred), or 
generated, or manifested, — either unconcernedly (as not 
concerning the spectator at all, as held by Bhatta-Lollata), 
or as' subsisting in the spectator himself (relished by him, 
as held by Sri-Sankuka); — what happens is that in 
pbetry and drama words are endowed with a peculiar 
presentative potency, distinct from direct Denotation 
(and indirect Indication) — which tends to generalise the 
Excitants, Ensuants and Variants, and thereby 'presents to 
consciousness the ' latent emotion ', which thereupon 
comes to be relished by a process of delectation abounding' 
m enlightenment and bliss, due to the plenitude of the' 
quality of Harmony (Sattva). 

[According to this view the relishing of Passion is the outcome 
of the^ purely verbal process of e generalised presentation \ This 
is open to the objection that it makes the unwarrantable assumption 
of this last mentioned verbal process.] j 



*ttt ?r *ft## t ^ft^##fr crcFrctt^ ^%w«r- 

tt**m. ^TFTTfeRt TOTCFUW ft*RH F)Wl" 

(D) The fourth explanation, propounded by the 
revered Acharya Abhinavagupta, is as follows :— 

In the mind of such spectators as are proficient in the art 
of feeling emotion, a particular emotion is already present, 
in the form of ' predisposition ';— lying thus latent, it 
becomes patently manifested by such agencies as those 
of women and other things, which, in ordinary parlance 
are known as ' causes ', (effects and auxiliaries) ; but in 
poetry and drama, they renounce these names by reason 
of their being endowed with the faculty of exciting and 
so forth, and, on this account, come to be spoken of by 
the extraordinary names of c Excitants ', < Ensuants ' and 
'Variants' ; — these Excitants and the rest being recognised 
in their most generalised forms, not partaking of any 
restrictions due to either the affirmation or negation of 
any of those specific relationships that are involved in 
such conceptions as (1) * this is mine ' or ' this is my 
enemy's', or * this belongs to a disinterested person ' 
(where specific relationship is affirmed) or (2) c this is not 
mine', ' this is not my enemy's', ' this does not belong to 
a disinterested person ' (where specific relationship is 
denied); — though the said emotion actually subsists in the 
particular spectator himself, yet, by reason of the genera- 
lised form in which it is presented, the man loses, for the 
moment, all sense of his separate personality and has his 



^^■qfTfewTt^T snrm ^^f^w^^n" mm- 

consciousness merged In the universal ; and this repre- 
senting the mental condition of all men of poetic sensibi- 
lity^ he apprehends the said emotion ; though, having 
been manifested in its most generalised form, it has no 
existence apart from its own apprehension ; In fact its 
sole essence consists in its being relished, and it lasts as 
long as the Excitants, Ensuants and Variants continue 
to exist ; — it is relished in the same manner as a mixed 
beverage ; and when it is relished, it appears as if it were 
vibrating before the eyes, entering the inmost recesses 
of the heart, inspiriting the entire body, and eclipsing 
everything else ; it makes one feel the rapturous bliss 
of Brahman ; — the emotion thus manifested becomes the 
source of transcendent charm and is spoken of as ' rasa \ 
c Passion \ — This Passion is not an effect, something pro- 
duced (by the excitants and the rest) ; for if it were an 
effect, it would continue to exist even after these excitants 
and the rest had ceased to exist. [As the jar continues to 
exist even after the destruction of the stick and other 
causes that had operated in its production. ] Nor is it 
something to be made known (by the excitants etc.) ; as it is 
never an accomplished entity (like the jar, and it is only 
an accomplished entity that can be made known ) ; — in 
reality, it is only manifested by the Excitants, Ensuants and 
Variants, and is something to be relished. — Against this, 
the question may be asked — " where has anything been 
seen to exist apart from what produces and from what makes 


*\ c *S \ c 

known ?" — Our answer to this is that the fact that what 
occurs in the case of Passion has not been seen anywhere 
else only serves to confirm, not vitiate, the transcendental 
nature of Passion. It may however be spoken of as ah 
c effect ' by virtue of its being accomplished by the accom- 
plishment of its relishing ; and it may also be regarded as 
c to be known \ c cognised ', in the sense that it forms the 
object of a super-physical consciousness, which differs 
(1) from Perception and other ordinary forms of cogni- 
tion, (2) from the cognition of the imperfect Yogm y 
which is independent of the ordinary means of cognition 
and (3) also from the cognition of the perfect Yogin, 
which is self-centered and free from all touch of any other 
cognisable thing.— Further the cognition that apprehends 
it cannot be of the c indeterminate ' kind, a due recognition 
of the excitants, ensuants and variants forming an impor- 
tant element in it ; nor can it be of the c determinate ' kind, 
because what is merely relished as transcendent bliss de- 
pends entirely upon its own realisation (which is not the 
case with determinate cognitions). — Here also as before, 



the fact that it is neither the one not the other, and ]^et it 
partakes of the nature of both, only confirms its trans- 
cendental character, and does not vitiate it. 

[The difference between the fourth and the third explanations lies 
in the fact that according to the is relishing of the emotion 
which is not present in the spectator's mind, while according to the 
fourth, it is present in his mind in the form of predisposition. The 
propriety of this explanation is further strengthened by the fact that 
the spectator whose mind is free from such predisposition does not 
feel the passion,] 

The ' excitants, ensuants and variants ' have been 
spoken of in the Sutra (of Bharata) in a general way, be- 
cause as a rule they are not related specifically to any parti- 
cular Passion ; for instance, the Tiger is an excitant of the 
* Frightful ', as also of the ' Heroic ', the ' Marvellous ' 
and the 'Furious'; the shedding of tears is an ensuant 
of the ' Erotic \ as also of the ' Pathetic ' and the ' Fright- 
ful'; painful reflection is the variant of the ' Erotic \ 
as also of the c Heroic \ the ' Pathetic ' and the c Frightful' 



%<i$tgbmm forf^f ^nftf»r ^rnfrcf 

In the following verses — 

(a) 'The sky is overcast with heavy clouds dark as the 
black bee ; the atmosphere has acquired loveliness through 
the warbling of the cuckoo and the bee ; the earth bears 
on her lap the shoots of tender sprouts ; young woman ! 
be reconciled to your lover who is so devoted in his 
affections I' ;— 

(b) c Her body withered and languid like the squeezed 
lotus-stalk, her activity due to the expostulations of her 
attendants, her cheek lovely like a piece of fresh ivory, 
bears the sheen of the stainless moon 9 ; — 

(c) c Her lover having given cause for offence, the 
eyes of the self-respecting woman became skilled in giving 
expression to varied emotions — being anxious on seeing 


^wm&m$sft %psr1 tow tst: ^=r?n: n ^^ u 

her lover at a distance, averted on his drawing near her, 
beaming on being spoken to, blushing on embrace, curving 
the brows on her clothes being touched, filling with tears 
on his falling on her feet,'— 

We find that the first (a) mentions the excitants only 
(in the shape of the woman, the season and so forth ; and 
makes no mention of any ensuants or variants), — the 
second (b) mentions the ensuants alone (in the shape of the 
languishing of the body and so forth),— and the third (c) 
mentions only the variants, in the shape of Anxiety, 
Modesty, Joy, Anger, Aversion and Conciliation ; [and 
as such it would appear to be not right to say that Passion is 
manifested by the excitants, ensuants and variants collec- 
tively, as the Sutra declares]. — But what each of the cited 
examples directly mentions — are the exceptional elements 
of each case, and the other two factors are also indirectly 
implied ; so that they do not vitiate the truth of the general 
proposition (propounded by Bharata). 28. 

The Author next mentions the particular kinds of 
Passion. — 

(1) The Erotic, (2) the Comic, (3) the Pathetic, (4) the 
Furious, (5) the Heroic, (6) the Frightful, (7) the Disgustful, 


ere ^i-fj-K^ ft ^cft i *nftft f^ywf^r i mm: 

and (8) Afo Marvellous have been described as the eight Passions 
in the Drama.— (29). 

Of the Erotic there are two varieties — (1) in union 
and (2) in privation ; of these the former is counted 
as one only, any classification of it being impossible 
by reason of the endless variety of its manifestations, in 
the form of mutual glances, kissing, embraces, and so 
forth. Examples — 

(a) c Finding the love-chamber empty, she rose gently 
from the couch and having intently gazed at the face of 
her husband who was feigning sleep, she kissed him with 
confidence ; but noticing a tremor in his cheeks, she 
hung her head through shame and was repeatedly kissed 
by her smiling lover". [Here the first overture comes 
from the woman]. — 

(b) " c O thou of lovely eyes, thou appearest heart- 
ravishing without the bodice '—saying this the lover 



TOT f ?f f^rfeq% TO qT^ftfe" fort faftr 1 1 ^ ^ 1 1 

touched the knot of the bodice ; whereupon her friends, 
delighted at the look of rapture in the eyes of their smiling 
companion seated upon the couch, went out on various 
pretexts." [Here the overture comes from the man]. 
The other kind of the Erotic (that in Privation), is of 
five kinds, the feeling being due to (a) longing, (b) separa- 
tion, (V) jealousy, (d) residence abroad, and (e) curse. 
Examples in order — 

(a) ' May the behaviour of the fair-eyed one towards 
me be steeped in affection and full of love and naturally 
sweet !, that behaviour in which love has been intensified 
by ripening acquaintance, and the mere thought of which 
immerses the heart in a flood of joy, suspending the func- 
tioning of all external organs/ 

(b) c Has he gone elsewhere ? — What possibility is 
there of that ? He has no such friend as does not want 
me. And ye't he has not come ! Oh I What an irony 
of fate ! — Having her heart devoured by these consider- 
able vascillations, the girl rolls about in her bed and does 
not obtain sleep/ 


The girl depicted here is anxious in separation. 

(c) c On the occasion of her husband's first delin- 
quency, not having been instructed by her friend, she 
"knows not how to make any graceful gestures or poignant 
temarks ; all that she does is to turn away her lotus-like 
eyes and weep with tears flowing down her cheeks and 
.tolling over her dishevelled tresses', 

(d) c The Bracelets have gone ; your dear friends the 
"Fears have freely departed ; Patience stayed not for a 
-moment ; the Mind determined to go forward ; — on 
-my beloved having made up his mind to depart, all these 
lave started together ; O Life I as you also have to go, 
■why are you losing the company of your dear friends ?' 

(e) c Having painted thee in a mood of loving dis- 
pleasure, on a slab of stone with mineral pigments, — as 



fe 3TFTFT ^^W^r^^r ^ ^ft I 

soon as I think of representing myself as fallen upon thy 
feet, my vision becomes blurred by the frequent outburst 
of tears ; cruel Fate brooks not our union even in the 
picture V 

[This is cited as an instance of ' privation due to curse', as it 
describes a lover who was separated from his lady by reason of a curse 
of banishment pronounced upon him by his master.] 

The following are examples, in due order, of the 
Comic and other passions ; — 

(1) "Clenching her dirty hands, the harlot struck 
with a loud thumping sound upon my head, sanctified 
with drops of water consecrated with incantations ;. 
— Ah ! I am damned I" — so cries Visnu §arman/ > 
—(The Comic). 

(2) " O mother, whereto hast thou hastened away ? 
J(7hat is this ? O Gods, where be the blessings ? Fie 
>n our lives I Thunderous fire has fallen on thy limbs ! 
syes scorched !"— These loud and pathetic lamentations 
»f the female citizens make even statues weep and shatter 

even walls into hundreds of pieces*,— (The 'Pathetic). 


* [ sob "O c 

(3) ' O you dishonourable beasts of men wielding 
weapons, by Vhom this heinous crime has been committed, 
sanctioned or witnessed ! Here I am going to make to 
the Quarters an offering of the blood, fat and flesh of all 
these along with Bhima and Arjuna and Krsna'. — (The 

(4) c Poor monkeys I Give up your fears ; these 
•arrows that have shattered the temple of Indra's elephant 
feel ashamed to fall upon your bodies ; — O son of Sumitra, 
stand where you are ; you are not a fit object of my wrath ; 
— I, Meghanada, am looking for Rama, who has bound 
■down the ocean by a mere curving of his eye-brows !' — 
(The Heroic). 

(5) « Behold I The deer, owing to the great speed 
■at which it is runnings is moving more in the sky than 
on the earth ; with a graceful turn of its neck, it is casting 
backward glances at the pursuing chariot ; through fear 


t^rt ^nftrfrrarFiTi — 

*TOT f^r*Ptf?T OTfanWft swffiwr. Moll 

of the falling of the arrow, it has much of its hinder 
part contracted within the fore-part ; and it scatters on 
the path half-chewed morsels of grass out of its mouth 
gaping with fatigue'. — (The Frightful). 

(6) ' Having first torn and stripped off the skin, and 
then devoured the swollen and fearfully stinking lumps 
of flesh that could be easily got at from such parts of the: 
body as the shoulder, the back and the buttocks, the. 
beggarly ghost casts its glances all round, and displaying, 
its teeth, is leisurely devouring the flesh that remains on 
the bones and joints of the skeleton lying on its lap/ — (The* 

(7) * How wonderful ! A superb incarnation this t 
What effulgence I An unprecedented grace ! Super- 
natural equanimity ! Marvellous majesty ! An indes- 
cribable figure I Quite a novel creation V — (The Mar- 
vellous). 29. 

The author now mentions the c basic feelings ' of the 
above-mentioned Passions — 

Love, Mirth, Sorrow, Resentment, Heroism, Fear, Loathing 
and "Wonder have been declared to be the c Basic Feelings. 9 — (30) 


r* v r* _____ _____ 

iRlf ftWW 3T>1^ feTOWTC ~* * II ^ II 

He next describes the Variants — 

(1) Self-disparagement^ (2) Debility, (3) Apprehension, 
(4) Hatred, (5) Intoxication, (6) Lassitude, (7) Indolence, 
(8) Depression, (9) Painful Reflection, (10) Distraction, (11) 
Recollection, (12) Serenity, (13) Shame, (14) Unsteadiness, (15) 
Jflj, (16) F//07J, (17) Stupefaction, (18) Arrogance, (19) 
Despondency, (20) Impatience, (21) Drowsiness, (22) 
Dementedness, (23) Dreaming, (24) Awakening, (25) Animosity, 
(26) Constraint, (27) Irascibility, (28) Resolve, (29) Sickness, 
(30) Mental Derangement, (31) Demise, (32) ^4/^r/y and (33) 
Trepidation, — /to *r* A&d? thirty-three Variants described by 
name. — (31-34). 

Though * self-disparagement ' is an almost inaus- 
picious feeling, and as such should not have been 
mentioned first, yet it has been so mentioned with a view 
to indicate that though it is a ' variant ', it serves as a 
' basic emotion ' also ; hence it is that — 


c c 

zy^W^TX: I 

T'/fo Quietistic is the ninth Passioy, of which Self -disparage- 
ment is the basic feeling. 

Example. — ■ 

' May my days pass in some sacred forest, while I 
am muttering Siva, Siva, with an equal eye towards 
a snake or a necklace, a flower-bed or a stone-slab-, a 
jewel or a clod of earth, a powerful enemy or a friend, a 
straw or a woman 1' 

[Having provided a full account of e Passion, ' the author proceeds 
to define c Emotion ' and the other subdivisions of e suggestion with 
imperceptible sequence/ mentioned in Text 26.] 

c Love 9 {and the other feelings) towards a god or such other 
beings , as also a c Variant 9 when suggested (as a primary 
factor), is described as c Bhava\ c Emotion \ 

[The c Basic Feeling, ' when not sufficiently developed into 
'Passion, ' — e.g. when the feeling of Love is towards a god or some 
such superior being,—it is known simply as c Emotion/ Bfrava, 
as distinguished from the ' Latent Emotion/ Sthayl Bhava,] 

c Such other beings' refers to sages, preceptors, king, 
son and so forth ; when Love is manifested towards 
a woman, it becomes the c Erotic ' passion. 


spwswf ^^5^f% vfe $ T T>^ II *K II 
2n"dw5rt*M<{U^M 5^d%4»i^f'id^rH^jraTR;iiv^ii 


iff qTSRHfuWT ^ntfSRnfol^mRTfa fSRTT 

Example (of the said c Emotion ')— 

(a) c O Lord ! Even the deadly poison, though hidden 
within Thy throat, is pure nectar to me ; while nectar 
itself (in the shape of the moon), even though held high 
(on Thy head), pleases me not, as it does not form part of 
Thy body', — {hove towards a God). 

(b) c It destroys sin at the present time, it is the cause 
of forthcoming blessings, and is brought about by (and 
indicative of) virtuous acts of the past : thus does your 
visit to all corporeal beings bear testimony to their ex- 
cellent character at all the three periods of time \ 

— (hove towards a sage } Narada), 

Example of the Variant suggested (as the predominant 
factor). — 

c My best loved one was seen by me to-day in a dream, 
having her face turned away through anger, weeping and 
saying " don't, don't touch me with your hand/' and 
proceeding to go away ; as soon as I was going to em- 

72 kavyaprakaSa 

are ftfir spmm i 

crerererr •^TT^rT^n* ^thi^u^ i 

^# ^t 3TRT: ^PT% qTTTf^T^ftr ^TTcT 

brace and pacify her with sweet and loving words, I was, 
O brother, deprived by wicked Fate of sleep/ 

Here Hatred towards Fate is what is meant to be sugges- 

The c aberrations of -these ' are these same when improperly 

i Aberrations of these ' i. e., — c aberration of Passion * 
and c Semblance of Emotion.' 

An example of the ' semblance of Passion ' we have 
in the following. — 

6 O fair-eyed one ! Which is the man whom I should 
adore, without whom thou art not happy even for a 
moment ? Who gave up his life in battle, whom thou 
art seeking ? Who is born in an auspicious moment, 
whom thou O moon-faced one, embraces t firmly ? Who 
is the man with such glorious religious merit as that thou 
thinkest of him, O abode of Cupid 1* 

In this verse the various sentences — ' whom I should 
adore' and so forth — are indicative of the manifold 


Wr-H'Ufi" ITT 

^fer^^fe^^^^ it 

activities of the woman, which show that she entertains 
the feeling of love towards several lovers. 

[And the love of the speaker towards such a woman, on that 
account, and also on account of her not entertaining any such 
feeling towards himself, not reaching the high degree of 'Passion/ 
becomes manifested only as an * aberration' thereof. ] 

The following is an example of the ' Aberration of 
Emotion ' — 

c She has a face like the full moon ; her eyes are large 
and unsteady ; her body is vibrating with budding youth ; 
what shall I do ? How should I proceed to win her 
favour ? What is the means whereby she would accept 

Here we have ' Reflection ' c improperly manifested. * 

[The impropriety is lying in the fact that the love proceeds from 
the man before it has arisen in the woman, which is not the conven- 
tional process.] 

Similarly examples of the other ' aberrations ' may be 

Of Emotion, there are (a) c Allayment, 9 (b) € Mani- 
festation \ (c) c Conjuncture 9 and (d) ' Admixture y — (36). 

Examples in due order — 

(a) c " Why are you concealing, under the pretence 
of falling on my feet, your chest bearing the marks of 


the embrace of her sandal-painted breasts ?" — After she 
Jiad said this, I said ' where is it ? ' — and embraced her 
suddenly and quickly, for the purpose of wiping off 
the mark ; and the tender one forgot all about it under 
the fervent bliss ensuing from that embrace '. 
Here we have the ' allayment ' of Anger, 
(b) c When the young woman lying on the sameS bed 
had her indignation aroused on the naming of her rival, 
she firmly disdained him with all his advances and loving 
assurances ; and he, having lain silent for a moment, the 
girl looked back upon him, fearing that he might go to 


^TRTferf«^4dl ^TfcTT ^ II ^ II 

Here we have the c manifestation ? of Impatience. 

(c) c On one side attract me my love for good com- 
pany and sudden outburst of heroism on seeing this recep- 
tacle of austerity and prowess ; on the other, the exquisite 
embrace of Sita, cooling and soft like celestial sandal and 
like the moon, lulls my consciousness and keeps me back\ 

Here we have the 'conjuncture' of Flurry and Joy. 

(d) ' Where on one side is this unblemished lunar 
dynasty, and where, on the other, this improper act ? — 
May she be seen again ! Our learning is meant to be a 
check upon evil tendencies ; — her face lovely even in 
anger ! What shall the wise and pure ones say ? — She 
is difficult to be got at even in a dream ! O, heart, 
be calm ; — what blessed young man will kiss her lips I* 

Here we have the ' admixture * of Trepidation, Im- 
patience, Resolve, Recollection, Anxiety, Depression, 
Serenity and Painful Reflection. 

The mere presence of c emotion 9 has already been 
described and illustrated (vide above — c Jane kopapa- 
ranmukht etc 9 ) 36. 

Though it is "Passion that is the predominant factor, yet 
these also acquire predominance sometimes. 


^l^ci^l fad *T55PR«rfT^M °*t #-M :, 3PMRW <A M WT¥T- 

' Tto '— /. *., the Allayment (Manifestation, Conjun- 
cture and Admixture) of Emotions, 

c Predominance \ — This occasional predominance is like 
that of the King's servant whose marriage is attended by 
the King (who, for the time, occupies a position subordi- 
nate to that of the servant). 

[Having described the suggestion ' with imperceptible sequence/ 
the author proceeds to describe that in which the sequence is percep- 

That suggestion in which the {suggested meaning has its 
sequence to the suggestive word) clearly perceptible, in the manner 
of a reverberating echo, has hem said to be of three kinds— 
(1) that arising from the force of the word, (2) that arising 
from the force of the meaning, and (3) that arising from the 
force of both. 37. 

The three kinds are— (1) that in which the reverbera- 
ting suggested meaning is based on the force of the 
word, (2) that in which the suggested meaning is based 
upon the force of the meaning, and (3) that in which 
the suggested meaning is based upon the force of both. 

[Whether in a certain case the suggestion proceeds from the word 
ot from its expressed meaning is determined by the possibility or 
otherwise of its being got at even by the changing of the word : 
If it is found that the suggestion remains unaffected even when we 
substitute other synonyms of the word, then it is regarded as based 
upon the meaning, while if the slightest change in the word vitiates 
the suggestion, then it is regarded as based upon the mrd.\ 37. 


^c#fcr, s^^fr ^tpr i srrsft w 

^m^f^FT% Scrf^cT: 5RTPT: II <V* II 

Suggestion based upon the force of the word is of two 
kinds, — according as what is principally represented by the 
word is (a) a figure of speech or (b) a bare matter of fact. 38. 

* Bare matter of fact/ — /. e. the simple statement of a 
fact, without any ornamental figure of speech. 

(a) As an example of the former we have the follow- 

c Ulldsya kdlakarabdlamahdmbuvdham 
Devena yena jarathorjitagarjitena 
Nirvapitah sakala eva ram ripmidm 
Dhdrdfalaistri/agati jvalitah pratdpaL 9 

Here the literal meaning of the sentence would be 
distinctly irrelevant ; hence with a view to avoiding this, 
it has to be assumed that what is intended is to describe 
the similarity between the directly mentioned subject 
(the king) and the one only indirectly implied (Indra) ; 
and thus what comes to be suggested here is the figure 
of speech known as c Simile \ 

The full meaning of the sentence being c Just as Indra brings 
up the cloud, dark and fresh, and accompanied by fierce thundering, 
•extinguishes, by means of torrents of rain, the heat of the destructive 
fires pervading over the three worlds, — in the same manner has this king 


with a fierce roar, lifted his sharp sword, and by means of its flickering 
edge, has destroyed the glory of his enemies, which was extending 
over the three worlds/ And this suggestion is held to be ' based 
upon the force of the word/ because the words used here lend them- 
selves to the above interpretation only because they have double 
meanings; and this effect would be lost if they were replaced by their 

(Another example of the same)— (a) Tigmaruchirapratapo, 
(b) Vidhuranisakrd vibho, (c) madhuratlilah, (d) 
' Matimdnatattvavrttih, and (e) Vratipadapaksagranirvibhati 

Here, if each of the five terms (a, b, c, d and e) is re- 
solved into two terms, we get the suggestion of the figure 
of speech known as c Seeming Contradiction/ 

[ c Vibho bhavan vibhati? ' O' Lord, you are resplendent', is the 
principal sentence, the other five terms are epithets of ' bhavan \ 
(a) c Tigmaruchirapratapah % When taken as one word, means ' he 
whose splendour is tigma, fierce, and ruchira, sweet ' ; but when it 
is resolved into two words, it means c tigmaruchih, with fierce splendour" 
and 'apratapah, wanting in splendour, which expresses two contra- 
dictory qualifications ;—(b) ' vidhuranisakrd taken as one word,, 
means * capable of bringing about the nisha, extinction, of his vidhura y 
enemies ;* but when resolved into two words, it means * vidhuh 9 the- 
moan, and ' amsakrt, not the night making moon/ an apparent 
contradiction; (c) c wadhurfflah\ when taken as one word, means ' he 
whose ffia, operations, are madhura, sweet, pleasing * ; but when 
recolved into ^ords, it means < madhu ' the spring-time/ and alfkK 


■devoid o£ beauty/ a contradiction ; — (d) ' matimanataitvavrttih % 
taken as one word, means ' who acts with matt, intelligence, and 
mana, magnanimity ;' but when resolved into two terms, it means 
*matiman, intelligent 5 and c atattvavrttih, acting blankly/ an apparent 
contradiction ; — (e) e pratipadapaksagramh\ as one term, means the 
* agranih, of your paksa, party, pratipada } at each step' ; but when it 
is resolved into two terms, it means * pratipat, the first day of the 
Fortnight, and c apaksagranih, not the opening day of the fortnight' , 
nn apparent contradiction,] 

[Here also the suggestion of c Seeming Contradiction' would be 
lost if other synonyms were substituted ; hence it is held to be 'based 
upon the force of words'.] 

[Another example of the same kind] 
c Amitah samitah praptairutkarsairharsada prabho 
Ahitah sahitah sadhu-yashobhirasatamasi/ 
Here also Seeming Contradiction is the figure suggested. 
[The meaning is c prabho, O Lord, harsada, you who are the 
giver of joy, (harsam dadati) and also the destroyer of joy (harsam dyati), — 
through the glories attained in battle {samitah) you are c amitafa ' immea- 
sureably great, (you are both samitah, measureable, and amitah, immea- 
surable) ; being endowed, sahitah, with good fame, you are the ahitah, 
enemy, of all wicked men.' The epithets are so chosen as to imply, 
in their second intention, an apparent contradiction,] 
[Another example of the same kind.] 
' Salutation to that- Trident-bearer whose art is so 
praiseworthy that he paints the mundane picture without 
aboard and without the painting brush or other accessories:* 

80 kavyaprakaSa 

3r<*«t>i4**nfi' ?TT^n»r«r*iWMi4Hirt«bKdi i 

W% 5T*Tl"^Ri l JT: ^ ^Tc^Td^R^ II ^ II 

Here the figure of speech suggested is the Vyatireka> 
Dissimilitude (between the god described and the ordinary 

Though in the examples cited the figure suggested. 
is the • predominant factor, and hence something to be- 
embellished (alankdrya ; and for that reason, it cannot be 
right to call it, as the text has done, an alankdra, an em- 
bellishment * a figure of speech), yet it is so called on the 
analogy of the expression c brdhmanasramatja' 

[When one has become a e sramana* a Buddhist monk, he has no- 
caste ; and yet the expression e brahmana sramaya 9 is used in the sense 
* the monk that was, under other circumstances, a Brahmana * ;. 
similarly in the case in question, what is meant by the suggested mea- 
ning being a figure, an e alankSra? is that, under other circumstances^. 
— L e. when expressed directly by the word and not only suggested, — it 
would be so, even though in the instances cited it is not so.] 

(b) The following is the example of that where what 
is suggested is a bare matter of fact, — 

' O traveller, in this village of stones, there is not a. 
bedding to be had ; yet, seeing the rising clouds {imnata- 
payodhara, my blossoming breasts), if you decide to lodge 
here, you may do so/ 

Here what is suggested is — € if you are fit to enjoy 
my company, then you may stay here.' 


srfWFTfa <:=K^dHIWF ^W fW ^% s«Fqt I 
3T#5Rc^^T«ff cM^H«t> : *wft *3RT: II ^ II 

«R=<| 9Pfc4$1d«H3r «RnNteft «*Mfad 3cT II Vo It 

[Another example of the same kind] — 

' O King, when you are angry with a man, both Sani 
(the evil planet Saturn) and Asani (the thunderbolt) 
strike him fiercely ; while when you are pleased with a 
man, he shines nobly (uddra) and has his wife obedient to 
him (anuddrdf. 

Here what is suggested is that even mutually con- 
tradictory forces (Sani — Asani, and Uddra — Anuddrd) 
co-operate in obeying your wishes. 

Inasmuch as the suggestive object c based upon the force of 
the meaning ' is either (a) self-existent or (b) owing its existence 
to the bold assertion of the poet or (c) owing its existence to 
the bold assertion of some character portrayed by the poet ; — 
each of these three being either a figure of speech or a bare fact> 
it comes to be of six kinds (39-40) ; and since each of these 
suggests a figure or a fact, it comes to be of twelve kinds. 

(a) c Self-existent '—Not only created by the words 
of the poet, but having a real existence in the world ; 
—(b) created by the poet's imagination, and having no 
real existence in the external world ;—(c) created by the 
imagination of a speaker portrayed by the poet ;— these 
two non-existent varieties along with the former make the 



3^g 3T^TCl" <fl*llfaRl WIST oil^sp: | g^q- ^ gjsy- 

SFqife ETC Wjfar fsiWRfa 

three kinds. This being either a fact or a figure of speech, 

the suggestive object comes to be of six kinds. What is 

suggested by this is again either a fact or a figure. Thus 

suggestion c based upon the force of meaning ' has twelve 


Examples in due order — 

(1) " He is the most indolent, foremost among pro- 
ficient, men, and O child, -he is possessed of immense 
wealth ;" — When this was said, she hung down her head 
and her eyes bloomed. — (The self-existent fact suggesting 
the self-existent fact). 

Here the mzttfact— the person referred to is just the 
one suited for receiving my love ' — is suggested (by the 
fact of the blooming of the girl's eyes). 

(2) c Thou art really fortunate, that on meeting your 
lover, you can,- even during the intervals of dalliance utter 
endless sweet and coquettish words ! O Friends, as for 
me I swear I do not remember anything after my beloved 
places his hand on the knot of my waist-cloth. ? — (The 
self -existent fact suggesting a figure). 


sNprfri Pi h m *fi fti d *fl «i*fi fa : i 

"+l*4kdlSR-^" qw ^T f^FT: II %R II 
^H^M^H^T^ra^dKp<c| fc HH^ zr: I 

faff 5% ge^tfaff ^R" ^qr^F^FT ^^TOcfffafo* 

Here the meaning being — 'I am fortunate, you are 
unfortunate ' — we have the figure c Dissimilitude ' (sugges- 
ted by the facts described), 

(3) c In whose hand the sword was seen by the heroes 
in battle, resembling the wrath-red glances of the goddess 
Kali ; since it shone red through the thick blood on being 
struck against the hard surface of the forehead of redolent 
elephants blinded with intoxication/ (The self -existent 

figure suggesting a fact.) 

Here the fact that ' all the enemies would be killed in 
a trice ' is suggested by the figure c Simile \ 

(4) c Who, biting with rage his own underlip in battle, 
freed the coral lips of his enemy's wives from the pain 
arising from the deep wound inflicted by the teeth of their 
husbands/ (The self-existent figure suggesting a figure). 

Here the figure of ' Seeming Contradiction ' (involved 
in the statement that the biting of the lips relieved the lips 
of pain) suggests either the figure of c Equal Pairing/ 
in the implication that c the enemies were killed at the very 


are ^tt ^^T^^f^^nft qrfer ^rrR^mfe- 

moment in which the king bit his lips in rage', — or the figure 
4 Poetic Fancy \ in the implication that ' the king desires 
to relieve the pain of others even by hurting himself. 
In all these (four) examples, the suggestive factor is 
something that is really Self -existent. 

(5) c Hearing his fame sung by the nymphs on the 
highest peak of mount Kailasa, to the accompaniment 
of the melodies of the flute, — the Elephants of the quarters, 
casting side-long glances, mistake it to be the juicy lotus- 
root (on account of its pure whiteness), and hence extend 
their trunk to their ears (in order to reach the Fame which 
has reached the ears)/ (A fact, the creation of the poefs 
fancy, suggests a fact). 

Here the fact that — * even such beings as do not com- 
prehend the meaning of the song sung are affected in the 
manner described, — such is the wonderful effect of your 
fame ' — is suggested (by the imaginary/**/ of the elephants 
extending their trunks to the ears). 

(6) c Victory was so forcibly held by her locks by the 
king that his discomfited enemies were drawn by the 
caves to their necks/ — (Figure suggested by a fact created by 
the poefs imagination). 


Here we have the (a) figure c Poetic Fancy ', in the 
implication that ' the caves (females) had their sexual 
passion aroused by looking at the locks of the lady, 
Victory, being held (in dalliance, as it were) and hence 
embraced the enemies (males)'; — also (b) the figure 'Poetic 
Reason ', in the implication that ' the enemies fled away 
to hide themselves in caves on seeing that the king had 
attained victory in battle ' ; — as also (c) the figure ' Conceal- 
ment', in the implication that c it was not that the enemies 
fled to the caves, but what happened was that the caves, 
fearing that the said enemies would suffer at the hands of 
the king, did not allow them to go out '. 

[And all this is suggested by the imaginary fact that the king 
caught hold of the locks of one lady and the enemies were embraced 
by other ladies.] 

(7) ' On the lover preparing to embrace them, the 
feelings of indignation gently depart from the hearts of 
the high-minded girls, being, as it were, afraid of the pre- 
ssure of the embrace' — (Fact suggested by Figure created by 
the poet's fancy). 


3n% ^sro^w fesr ^^% m wft i) %p it 

3TRT *&% ftl^Ti u l fa ^^fT ^TT^^t^tttT far || \6 \\ 

Here the fact that * the embraces began to be returned ' 
is suggested by the figure "Poetic Fancy ' herein set forth. 

(8) ' Ever glorious is that Goddess of Speech who 
has taken up her abode in the lotus of the poet's mouth, 
exhibiting a universe of unique character, and who is, 
as it were, ridiculing the old Fogey '. — (Figure suggested 
by an imaginary figure). 

Here the figure of ' Poetic Fancy ' set forth in the verse 
suggests the figure of c Dissimilitude \ in the implication 
that c the goddess of speech has an animate seat (in the shape 
of the poet's mouth, while Brahma, the creator of the world 
is seated upon the inanimate lotus), and creates a world 
(of poetic imagination) which is always new and the source 
of unmixed charm (while the creator's world is old and 
not always beautiful)'. 

In the last four examples the suggestive agent is the 
creation of the poet's bold assertion. 

(9) ' The winds from the Malaya, which had become 
emaciated by being inhaled in the large and rising hoods 
of the female serpents lying exhausted in dalliance on the 
lower ranges of the Hemakuta mountain, attain the exu- 


Ttrcnf wrsft ^Ft#q" 30ft ^# *r Wrfw ll vso II 

berance of youth, — even though only new born — by 
contact with the sighs of women suffering from the pangs 
of separation from their lovers/ — (Fact suggested by Fact, 
based upon the bold assertion of an imaginary person). 

Here the fact that c the winds strengthened by the 
sighs become capable of doing anything ' is suggested by 
the fact (that the c Malaya-winds have become youthful ', 
which is purely imaginary, being set forth by the particular 
person, the lady's friend, portrayed by the poet). 

(10) c Self-possession, after having encouraged my 
self-respect, suddenly vanished at the exciting moment 
of my lover's visit \ — (Figure suggested by fact asserted by 
an imaginary person). 

Here, either (a) the figure of c Peculiar Causation, — in 
the implication that ' the lady became reconciled to her 
lover even before he made his protestations \ — or (b) 
the figure of c Poetic Fancy ', — in the implication that ' self- 
possession cannot withstand the force of the charm of the 
lover's visit',— is suggested by the fact (that the indignant 
lady became reconciled) [and this is asserted by the ima- 
ginary female character portrayed by the poet]\ 

(11) c These eyes of mine are not seized by anger ; 
in fact they have received the red clothing as a reward from 

88 kavyaprakasa 

3m - fofarft' ^N# fflra 1 ^rfftr i% 3rnj««mwr 

?T ^RTjhraWlft T>IFTft" AU«MNW$ 5RTT^TPf 

^nraicr ^5 i 

1% ftwrfw: i ^ ^rftft^g^^nf^tftgnin^ftwRr- 

» o c 

the fresh marks of nails and teeth on your body \— (Fact 
suggested by figure set forth by an imaginary character). 

On the question (being put by the lover)—' why are 
your eyes looking angry ?' — the lady makes her answer,, 
in the above form, which involves the figure of ' Reply ' \ 
and this figure suggests the fact that 'the lover is not only 
trying to hide the fresh marks, they are also rewarding 
the lady (by enabling her to detect the lover's infidelity)', 
[and the said figurative assertion comes from an imaginary 
character delineated by the poet]. 

(12) < O blessed one ! All the place in your heart 
being taken up by thousands of women, she is unable 
to find place in it ; hence, giving up all other work, she 
is making her already thin body still thinner and thinner 
day by day'. — (Figure suggested by Figure in the assertion of 
an imaginary character)* 

Here the figure of ' Poetic Reason ' (in the implication 
that c the reason for her getting thinner lies in her attempt 
to make herself thin enough to find room in your filled- 
up heart') suggests the figure of ' Peculiar Allegation ', 
' in the implication that * even though she is making herself 
thinner and thinner, she finds no room in your heart'. 


3PftW set^tt II 

In these last four examples the suggestive factor is 
based upon the assertion of an imaginary character delinea- 
ted by the poet. 

These are the twelve varieties (of Suggestion Based 
upon the Force of Meaning). 

That {suggestion) based upon both Word and Meaning is one 

For example — 

c Atandrachandrabharatid samuddtpitamanmatbd. 

Tdrakdtarald sydmd sdnandamna karoti ham*. 

' Whom does the young woman not please — adorned 
as she is, with a bright head-jewel, arousing love, and 
with unsteady glances — being like the night adorned with 
the bright moon, arousing thoughts of love, and glimmering 
with stars ?' 

Here the figure of ' Simile ' is suggested. 

[And all this is Suggested by the imaginary fact that the king 
caught hold of the locks of one lady and the enemies were embraced 
by other ladies.] 

[And this suggestion is based upon the power of both word and 
meaning ; the former, because the entire similitude rests upon the double 
meanings of the words c iyama? < chandra ' and c taraka' which cannot 
be replaced by their synonyms without destroying the said effect ; 
and the latter because the other words are such as can be easily replaced 
by other synonyms without spoiling the effect.] 


ST^fo sstf: II Y? II 

Thus there are eighteen varieties of it. 
c of it 9 — u e. of Suggestion. 41. 

Objection : — " There being many varieties of Passion 
(Emotion and so forth), — why are the varieties of sugges- 
tion said to be eighteen only ?" 

The answer to this is as follows : — 

The varieties of 'Passion' and other forms being endless, 
these (Passion, Emotion, etc.) are counted as a single variety. 

* Endless \ — For instance, there are nine Passions ; — 
of the Erotic Passion there are two varieties — that in 
union and that in privation ; — the former has several 
varieties, in the form of c mutual glances ', c em- 
brace \ c kissing ', ' flower-picking/ ' amorous water- 
sports ', descriptions of sunset, rise of the moon, the six 
seasons and so forth ; — the Erotic in privation again has 
been already described as being of several kinds, such as 
longing and so forth ; — then again, these two kinds of the 
Erotic vary with the variations in the particular Excitants, 
Ensuants and Variants ; — the hero again is of three kinds, 
noble, ignoble and middling ; — these vary with the pecu- 
liarities of time, place and other circumstances ; — so that 
of the single Passion of the Erotic there are c endless * 
varieties ; — not to speak of others ? 


r^T> 5T|5fr t^r: I f^TJ^^TWTT^r 

The suggestion, however, of all these, Passion and the 
test, is counted as one c kind ' only, on the basis of the com- 
mon chatacteristic of having the c sequence imperceptible". 

[Having described the eighteen varieties of suggestion, the 
author proceeds to differentiate among them by pointing out that 
while the one variety — that based upon the force of both word and 
meaning — is found in sentences, only the other seventeen are found 
in sentences as well as in single words.] 

That arising from both is present in the sentence only. 

c Arising from both' — u e. suggestion based upon 
the force of both word and meaning. 

[Example cited above — c Atandrachandrabharana ' etc.] 

The others in the word also* 

The term c also ' indicates that they are also found 
in the sentence. Even though a certain statement 
is such as is suggested by the sentence, yet it acquires 
additional charm through what is suggested by a word 
occurring in that sentence, just as a lovely woman does 
hy an ornament worn on one part of her body. 


<st SH <m <T Sfaf% 51WT ^f^r g^fa «f)TCTW I 
%|3^3T^^|TT3TT W f STSTCTTSIT f^S5lf% I ivsVII ( \ ) 

The following are the examples in order of the se- 
venteen kinds of suggestion as based upon the word : — 

(1) [Transference of the expressed meaning to another 
by a word] — ' He alone is really born and lives whose 
friends are friends, foes, foes and the affable, affable'. 

Here the expressed meaning of the second term — 
"friends' — is altered into (stands for) reliability, that of the 
second * enemies ' into reprehensibility, and that of the 
second c affable ' into Iovability. 

(2) [The expressed meaning entirely ignored, in a 
word] — 

e Even though the behaviour of the wicked is always 
found to be terrible, the efforts of the wise are never 
stupefied, being always approved by their heart, as if by 
a friend". 

Here the suggestion lies in the single word c stupefied \ 
[Stupefaction, which is impossible for the inanimate "efforts/ stands 
for being impeded^ 

(3) [ The c suggestion^ of imperceptible sequence \ 
in a single word]. 


#1 : ^rt ffe fF^ft f| *r # snwc «fta%i i \s \ 1 1 ( 3 ) 

' That loveliness, that brilliancy, that beauty, and that 
sweetness of speech, — were all like nectar at that time ', 
but now it is all a terrible fever \ 

Here the term, ' that ' used several times, suggests 
that the things spoken of are such as can be only seen (and 
cannot be described). 

Another example of the same — 

" O beautiful one, why do you proceed to pass the 
whole time in mere simplicity ? Have self-respect ; 
hold out with patience ; set aside your artless behaviour 
towards your lover "; — on being thus exhorted by her 
friend, the girl, replied with fear-stricken face — " Talk 
low, lest the Lord of my life residing in my heart should 
overhear what your are saying". 

Here the epithet ' with fear-stricken face ' suggests 
the propriety of c talking low \ 

Emotion [and Aberration of Passion, Aberration 
of Emotion, Allayment of Emotion, Conjuncture of 
Emotions and Admixture of Emotions] do not acquire 
any additional charm, when suggested by a single word 
[to the same extent as that of 'Passion 5 does]; hence 
examples of these have not been cited. 


^"Tf^cT tf^TCTfsFnfcf WRIT %^J 5TCT% I 

(4) [ Suggestion of perceptible process by a word— founded 
on the power of words — of figure by fact] — 

c O King, thou awe-inspiring one (Bhlma) ! Thou 
art resplendent, with thy bolt-like arm pleasing and terrible 
through the sword reddened with the flow of blood, and 
with thy broad forehead marked with creases caused by 
the sudden curvature of the eye-brows/ 

The similitude (Simile) of the awe-inspiring King 
to Bhimasena is suggested (by the fact of the King's sword 
being reddened with blood and so forth, and this is done 
through the force of the single word c bhtma? the replacing 
of which by its synonym would spoil the whole effect), 

(5) [ Suggestion of perceptible process— founded on the power 
cf a word — of fact by fact. ] 

' To whom does Saddgama^ (a) true scripture, [ (b) lover's 
visit] not bring continued bliss, — (a) always offering 
salutary advice and leading to heavenly pleasure and beati- 
tude [ (b) always bent upon indicating secluded rendezvous, 
and bringing about enjoyment and deliverance from the 
pangs of separation] ?' " 

The woman is conveying (her acquiescence) to the 
lover suggesting a meeting-place, by means of suggestion. 

[And this is done through the double meanings of the words 
chosen ; it is the suggestion of the fact of her acceptance by the fact 


d«Mlfa^l§:<dfa<!fNi*iNM!d+T I 

(6) [ Suggestion of perceptible process — #y word— founded 
on the force of meaning — of fact by self -existent fact] — 

€ In the evening thou hadst recourse to bath and anoin- 
ted thy body with sandal-paste ; the ethereal gem has 
passed the crest of the setting mount ; and thy coming 
here has been unflurried ; [thus there being no external 
cause for fatigue], astonishing then is thy tenderness by 
virtue of which thou art at this time so completely ex- 
hausted that thy eyes cannot help being closed frequently/ 

Here the fact that ' thou art exhausted by reason of 
having met a paramour ' is suggested, through the impli- 
cation of the term c at this time \ c adhund \ 

(7) [ Suggestion of perceptible process — by word— founded 
on the force of meaning — of figure by a self -existent fact] — 

c Meditating upon the Origin of the World, the in- 
carnation of supreme Brahma (V. e. c Krsna), another milk- 
maid had her breath suspended and obtained beatitude ; 
all her sins being dissolved by the great suffering caused 


by her not meeting him, and the store of her spiritual 
merit exhausted in the deep joy of contemplating upon 

What is meant here is that the sins and spiritual merit, 
the fruition of which would ordinarily extend over thou- 
sands of lives, were passed through merely by the pangs 
of separation and the joy of contemplation ; and thus the 
figure of Hyperbole is suggested by the two terms c all * 
and * store ' (by the fact of the girl having attained beati- 

(8) [ Suggestion of perceptible process — by word— based on 
force of meaning of fact by self existent fignre] — 

*0 heroic king! When you become contrary to your ene- 
mies, every thing of theirs becomes contradictory — Ksanadd 
I (a) night ] becomes aksanadd [ id) non-night, (b) uneasy], 
vana (forest) becomes a-vana [ (a) non-vana, (b) shelter], 
and vyasana (occupation) becomes a-vyasana [ (a) non-vyasana y 
(b) sheep-tending]. [ i.e. They pass uncomfortable nights, 
fly to the forest and take to the tending of sheep ].' 

Through the implication of the term c everything ? the 
fact that ' even Fate follows your lead ' is suggested 
by the Figure of c Transition ', which subserves the figure 



§g 3c^*r *ftaf"T 3TT% SffTt fatfl W^c[?ft I 

3pr ^q#<T cwft Tffe: Tfr^R^r gwr f?f t^r 

VJF3W3 f^3T j^ WR33f f^fwt i \6Y\ I ( ? o ) 

of 'Contradiction', which is based on the force of the words 
with double meanings, which cannot be replaced by others. 

(?) Suggestion of perceptible process, — based on the force 
of meaning — of Figure by self-existent Figure. ] — 

" In the morning your lover's lips were withered 
lotus-leaves/' — on hearing this, the young bride cast her 
face towards the ground." 

The Figure of c Metaphor ' involved in the term 
* withered lotus-leaves ' suggests the c Poetic Reason ', 
in the implication that c your lover's lips looked faded 
on account of your having continued to kiss him fre- 
quently (till the very morning)/ 

In these examples the suggestive factor is self-existent. 

(10) [ Suggestion of perceptible process — based on the force 
of meaning — of fact by imaginary fact.] — 

c He who, brandishing his beautiful bow, during 
moon-lit nights, brings the three worlds under his own 
undisputed sway.' 

The (imaginary) fact (of Cupid's undisputed sway over 
the world), expressed by the term ' sway over the three 
worlds', suggests the fact that ' not a single one of those 


98 kAvyaprakAsa 

^rtt^t sp^^^ftt: II ii^ii ( ? ? ) 

^Tfe^ft ft" grift ST^^f^T f^5 I 

persons over whom Cupid has his sway ever goes against 
his orders, hence they spend the nights in wakeful dalliance/ 

(11) Suggestion of perceptible process — of Figure by an 
imaginary Fact.] — 

' Regarding it as his sharp arrow, the Bodiless God 
(Cupid) lends all his force to the glance of the beautiful- 
eyed woman at her saucy age ; whenever on whatever 
side it falls, it produces quite an admixture of conditions/ 

The Figure of" ' Contradiction ', — in the implication 
that ' even mutually incompatible conditions appear 
simultaneously '—involved in the term c admixture % is, 
suggested by the (imaginary) fact (of Cupid lending his. 
forces to the arrow and bringing about mixed conditions). 

(12) [ Suggestion of perceptible process — of a fact by an 
imaginary Figure^ — 

* Even though forbidden by the heart suffering from 
pain (due to the impediment to embrace caused by the 
presence of the ornament), the necklace, being of pure- 
breed, does not abandon its friends, the breasts/ 

The (imaginary) Figure of ' Poetic Reason ' involved 


^T ^wra"H«IT q3fan3Tf^ 5f 3T^T ii<^ii ( ?y) 

in the epithet ' being of pure breed ' (which accounts 
for the constancy of the heart) suggests the Fact that 
* the necklace remained constantly scintillating ', which is 
expressed by the phrase c abandons not/ 

(13) [ Suggestion of perceptible process — of a Figure by 
an imaginary Fig/ire] — 

c Cupid has, as it were, regained his beautiful body 
in the shape of the black and lovely tresses of the girl, 
and having borrowed strength from here shoulder, trium- 
phs in the b;tde of dalliance/ 

The Figure of c Peculiar Causation ', involved in the 
word c shoulder ', and implying that ' when the lover 
pulled the locks frequently they fell upon her shoulder 
in such a ravishing way that, even at the close of the 
intercourse, the man's passion did not cease '—is sugges- 
ted by the Metaphor (involved in the comparing of c dalli- 
ance ' to ' battle ' and of ' Cupid ' to the ' tresses '). 

In the last four examples the suggestion is reared en- 
tirely by the imaginary assertion of the poet. 

(14) [Suggestion of fact by fact, founded upon the assertion 
of an imaginary person.] — 

100 kavyaprakaSa 

% Rt frFrrfoft to T5#wt gsft ^ Tfrrsr u 6 \ 1 1 ( \\ ) 

?R^*^r^r ^Pt% ^^rf^Rcfr: ^re*r*sr: II 

' O beautiful one, tell me truly how you are related 
to the moon newly risen on the fullmoon night, and who* 
is the lady that enjoys your love as the early evening does 
that of the moon/ 

[During the early part of the evening the full moon appears, 
'red'; this redness, is regarded figuratively, as representing the moon's 
love towards the evening; it is fleeting, disappearing with the advent 
of night ; and the indignant wife insinuates that her husband's love 
for his new found lady will be as fleeting.] 

The fact (described in the verse) suggests the fact 
that 6 you are attached to this other lady only now in the- 
beginning, and you will not remain so much longer, just- 
as it was in my case/— this suggestion being based upon 
the terms c newly risen \ ' early evening/ 

(15) [Suggestion of perceptible process— of Figure by 
fact asserted by the fanciful assertion of an imaginary person.] — 

c O friend'! When in the battle of dalliance, your 
necklace snapped, on being restrained (from intruding) 
by your fast friend in the shape of the lover's embrace, — 
in w r hat manner did your enjoyment proceed ?' 

The figure of ' Dissimilitude ', indicated by the term 
* in what manner ', and implying that e after the snapping- 
of the necklace, the form of the enjoyment must have 
been peculiarly sweet ',— is suggested by the fact (des- 
cribed in the verse). 


srf^RRft tor f^f^wnr fa*te;*r q"^ i 

^K^fa t^ 3T 3FTT *TC3ft% <TTfs3T fef^wtt t ^ ? 1 1 ( ?a ) 

^Tf^cf^TT c^RT W£: *<fitfor ^% TOT f%%3" ^ffofafa 

(16) [ Suggestion of perceptible process — of a fact by a figure 
resting upon the fanciful assertion of an imaginary person*} — 

c O friend ! You were entering your house-door, 
with the jar on your shoulders, and turning your face 
and looking towards the road, you say " the jar is broken " 
and are weeping : — why is this ?' 

The Figure of c Poetic Reason ' (implying c you are 
weeping because the jar is broken'), suggests the follow- 
ing fact — c on seeing your lover going to the place of 
appointment, if you wish to go there, then you take up 
another jar and go there \ which is implied by the ex- 
pression c why is this \ 

Another example of the same — 

c The jar, seeing that you were exhausted and your 
eyes were unsteady, thought itself too heavy for you, 
and therefore, it has broken itself under the pretext of 
having struck against the door/ 

The Figure of ' concealment ', involved in the expre- 
ssion ' under the pretext of having struck against the door \ 


^t$*ni *ff#r 3T faciei rs^sm^ ^t i 

suggests the following fact — c you had made an appoint- 
ment with your lovet that you would meet him in the 
bower on the rivet-bank, — you went there but he was 
not there ; so you returned ; but entering the house you 
found that he had come to the place after you had left ; — 
so in order to be able to return to the river you have in- 
tentionally broken the jar under the pretext of striking 
against the door ; — all this I have understood ; why then 
don't you take heart ? Go and fulfil your desires, 
I justify everything to your mother-in-law.' 

(17) Suggestion of perceptible process — of figure by figure 
based upon the fanciful assertion of an imaginary person. 

' What a pity that your concubine captivates your heart, 
like a young girl, even though she is an old hag, to 
whose mind youthful sensuality is lent by moonlight and 

The figure of < Poetic Reason' (involved in the state- 
ment that the fact of her being the concubine, and not 
your wife, is the reason why she captivates your heart) 
suggests the figure of * Hint ', on the following implica- 
tion—' you neglect young girls like myself and go after 
old women who are the wives of other men,— this conduct 
of yours is simply inexplicable '; all this being indicated 
by the word * concubine \ 


Ms^fa^W: II 

In these last examples the suggestion is based entirely 
upon the fanciful assertion of a person portrayed by the 

Suggestion manifested by a sentence has already been 
exemplified before (in the commentary on Text 24) — 
c Tv a mas mi vachmi etc? 

That arising from both word and meaning is never 
manifested by a word ; hence there are thirty-five varieties 
of Suggestion. 

{Eighteen manifested by sentence and seventeen manifested by 

That (suggestion) which is based upon the force of meaning 
occurs in Context also. — (42). 

As is found in the following dialogue of the Vulture 
and the Jackal. — 

Says the vulture to the men (who have brought the 
dead body of a boy to the cremation ground and are 
mourning over it) whom it is ^anxious to send away, while 
it is yet day, in order to enable it to feed upon the body 
which it could do during the day only — 

c There is no necessity for staying in this horrible 
crematorium crowded with vultures and jackals, abound- 
ing in skeletons, frightful and full of terror to all living 


snf^ftef ftw> ^t: ^ fw grrsRnr i 
apj ^fWN- ^t^^m^^w i 

^Rfaftr 5R?«r t^t sr^ 1 1 

beings; when once one has fallen a victim to death, one 
never revives, whether one be loved or hated ; such is the 
end of all living beings'. 

This is followed by the following from the jackal who 
can feed on the body only when night has arrived and 
who tries to dissuade the people from going away early — 

c O foolish men ! the sun is still up ; satisfy your 
affections yet ; the present may be an inauspicious mo- 
ment, and it is just possible the dead may come back to 
life after sometime ; how is it that like fools you are with- 
out any hesitation, merely on the word of the vulture, 
leaving behind this boy of golden complexion who has 
scarcely attained vouth ?' 

Exactly what is meant by the two speakers here is 
indicated only by the context. 

The other eleven varieties of this suggestion (through 
Context) are not illustrated here ; as that would make 
our work too prolix ; they can be easily followed from 
the definition itself. 


^^^rgFrr^s^fq- tat?**: \ 

^TFTR ^^rRW^T 3^TW?*T fa^fafcr ^^Tcfr^ I 

c Also '; — this means that the said suggestion is found 
in word and sentence also. 42. 

Passion {Emotion, Aberrations of Passion, Aberrations of 
"Emotion, Allayment of Emotion, Conjunction of Emotions and 
Admixture of Emotions) are {suggested imperceptibly) also (a) 
by parts of words, (b) by style and (c) by individual letters. 

(a) Example of suggestion by the base of a word — 
Rudrasya trtiyanayanam pdrvatiparichumbitanjayati. 

c The two eyes of Siva having been closed by her 
two lotus-like hands when she was deprived of her cloth, — 
His third eye being (closed by being) kissed by ParvatI 
scores a triumph/ 

Here the suggestion of the Erotic ' Passion ' lies in the i 
use of the root c ji 9 in the verb * ' jayati \ c scores a triumph', 
in preference to the verb c shobhate \ c appears beautiful* ; 
— the implication of the particular root being that, c though 
the action of being closed was common to all the three 
eyes, yet there is a distinct superiority in the third eye, the 
manner of whose closing was entirely unique/ 



Another example of the same kind of suggestion — 
Prey an soyamapdkrtah sasapatham pdddndtcth kdntayd* 
Dvitrdnyeva paddni vdsabhavandd ydvanna ydtyimmandh. 
Tdvat pratynta pdnisamputagalamiMriibandhandhrto . 
Dhavitveva krtaprandmakamaho premno vichitrd gatih. 
6 Though when the lover lav adjuringly at her feet, 
he was rejected by his beloved, yet no sooner does he, 
in a dejected mood, go two or three steps out of the love- 
chamber, than she runs up to him with her loosened cloth 
held in her hands and falling on his feet, embraces him/ 
Here the suggestion (of loving anxiety) lies in the use of 
the noun c pada 9 (steps) instead of * dvdra 9 (gates.) 

[The suggestion being that she was so anxious that he may not 
go away that she could not bear his moving away even a few steps to 
the door of the room itself.] 

Suggestion by verbal and nominal affixes — 
Pathi pathi hikachanchuchdrurdbhdnkurdndm 
Dishi dishi pavamdnc vlrudhdm Idsakascha. 
Nari nari kirati drdk sdyakdn puspadhanvd 
Purl purl vinhrtid mdnimmdnacharchd. 


V - NO 

c o * 

c Ojj^evety way-side there is the sheen of sprouts re- 
sembling the parrot's beak ; on every side the breeze is 
making the creepers dance ; on every male is the Flower- 
bowed God showering his arrows ; and in every town 
has ceased the very talk of self-restraint on the part of 
affronted women/ 

The present tense form ' kirati? c is showering/ indi- 
cates, by the conjugational affix, that the act of showering 
arrows is still only in the course of accomplishment, and 
the past-participle form ' vinivrttd' ' has ceased/ indicates 
by the nominative ending, that the action of ceasing has 
become a thing accomplished already ; and further, the 
past-participle affix c kta ' (in c vinivrtta) indicates that 
the action (of ceasing) is past, 

[And the suggestion here is that the circumstances described ate 
so effective in exciting the Erotic Passion that they accomplish their 
purpose even before they are themselves accomplished.] 

Another example of the same — 
hikhanndste bhumim vahiravanatah prdnadayito 
Nirdhdrdh sakhyah satataruditochchhunanayandh. 
Parity aktam sarvam hasiiapathitam panjarasukais- 
Tavdvasthd cheyam visrja kathine mdnamadhund. 


' The beloved of thy life sits outside, depressed, scratch- 
ing the ground ; thy friends with eyes swollen by%>nstant 
weeping, have been without food ; all amusing talk has 
been given up by the parrots in the cages ; thy own con- 
dition is this ; even now, O cruel one, give up thy sense 
of dignity injured/ 

Here we have (a) the form c likhan ' (' scratching/ 
the present participle in which suggests the continuity 
of an aimless act) and not ' likhati 9 (' writes/ in the present 
tense, which would indicate writing with a purpose) ;— 
again (b) c aste ' (' stays ') which suggests that the man 
will continue to so stay till reconciliation, and not ' dsJta * 
('is seated/ which would indicate an accomplished 
act, without regard to anything else);— again (c) ' bhnmim * 
(with the Accusative ending), —which suggests that he 
is scratching the ground aimlessly— and not ' bbtimau 9 
(with the locative ending, which would indicate that the 
act was done with some purpose.) Thus we have here 
suggestion by verbal and nominal affixes. 

Example of suggestion by relationship (denoted by 
the genitive ending) — 

I am born in the village and live in the village, and 
know not the ways of the city ; whatever I am, I capture 
the husbands of city-women? 


cttw w^r^nw mwfOT aw q**rw i 

The suggestion here lies in the genitive ending in e of 
city-women/ ' ndgarikdndm? 

[The use of the expression 'husbands of city-women/ instead of 
city-men, suggests the extreme cleverness of the speaker, who is able 
to capture, not the ordinary men of the city, but those men of the city 
who have acquired much cleverness by their connection with the 
very clever c city- women.'] 

In the sentence c lovely was this Ksattriya boy/ the 
suggestion lies in the tense ; it is said by the enraged 
Bhargava with reference to Rama who has broken the 

bow of Shiva. 

[The suggestion by the use of trie Past Tense being that the boy 
is as good as already killed by me and exists no more.] 

The following is an example of suggestion by num- 
ber — 

' O beautiful one ! such has been the end of those 
appreciations of good qualities, of those longings, of that 
love and of those conversations !' 

What is suggested here (by the plural number in 
' appreciations \ 6 longings ' and c conversations ' and the 
singular number in * love ') is that though the appreciation 
and the rest (which aroused the love) have been, many 


and multifarious, the Love (aroused by them) is one and 

The following is an example of suggestion by the 
change of ' Person/ 

' O thou my heart, in whom has been aroused a hanker- 
ing after the fickle-eyed woman ! Why dost thou relin- 
quish that exalted position of lasting devotion and begin 
to dance at the sight of the fawn-eyed one ? I think — you 
will dally ! Ah ! give up this despicable desire ; this 
is a piece of stone tied to one's neck in the ocean of the 

Here ridicule (is suggested by the sudden change into 
the First Person in c I think/ ' manye* according to Paninfs 
rule 1.4.106 whereby the First Person singular affix added 
to the root c man ' to c think ' implies ridicule). 

The following is an example of suggestion by "irre- 
gular priority/ — 

Those men who have only the strength of arms have 
been regarded as weak ; what useful work again can be 
done by those kings who take shelter in mere statesman- 
ship ? O terrestrial Indra ! Those who, like you, have 


# ^fa w^nfensnrfir fern: <rfcrn tot i i $ o yii 

their actions guided by both valour and statesmanship 
{" pardkramanaya "), — of those there may, or may not be, 
even two or three in all the three worlds !" 

Here the placing of ' pardkrama ' (valour) before 
*naya' (statesmanship) in the compound [which is irregular 
in view of the rule that the shorter term should precede 
the longer] suggests the superior importance of Valour. 
Vradhanddhvani dhlradhanurdhvanibhrti vidhurairayodhi tava 

Divasena tu narapa bhavdnayttddha vidhisiddhasddhuvddapadam. 
' O protector of men ! in the battle resounding with 
the twanging of bows wielded by the brave, thy enemies 
fought all the day long; you, on the other hand, fought by the 
day in such a way as to win encomiums from all good men/ 
The Instrumental ending in ' divasena ' (' by the day '), 
which denotes ' success ' (according to Panini 2.3.6)), 
suggests that the king addressed attained the object for 
which he fought, 

* Seated in the high window of her mansion, whenever 
Malati, who resembles Rati, sees Madhava, who is a new 


MfVJkldtcf: -H+^^HMmf^R: 
5ri4rH^rFr^H"-H=m«t *ff T W^R I 

personification of the Love-god himself, passing by the 
adjacent highway, she suffers from her poor limbs {angakaihy 
being charmingly affected by deep longings. 5 

Here the suggestion (of the fragility of the limbs due 
to the Erotic Passion) is made by the nominal affix ' Ka > 
(in * angakaih *) which signifies pitiabteness. 

c An indescribable feeling benumbs and inflames my 
heart, — a feeling above all measure and beyond all power 
of expression, which has never in this life come withia 
the range of experience, and which, owing to the entire- 
destruction (* pradhvamsdt ') of my discriminative faculty,, 
has become deep and has brought about extreme stupor/ 

Here the suggestion ( of the Erotic in privation ) is 
made by the prefix ' pra 9 (in 'pradhvamsdt \ which means 

'You turned your mind towards glory, and — what 
else ?— our enemies were destroyed [krtancha garva- 
bhimnkham manastvqya...nibatdsbcba no dvisah~\ ;— Darkness 
prevails only so long as the sun does not reach the crest 
of the Rising Mount* 


^^r 3**rt% *tft% ^^^^Mrf%- 

Here the suggestion of Heroic Passion is made by the 
Indeclinable * cha ' (' and '), which implies the figure of 
6 Equal Pairing ' [the simultaneity of the kings thinking of 
glory and the destruction of the enemies. ~\ 

Rdmosau bhuvanesu vikramaguqaih prdptah prasiddhim pardvr 
Asmadbhdgyaviparyaydd yadi pardm devo na jdndti tarn. 
Bandivaisa yasamsi gdyati marud yasyaikabdydhati — 
Srejfibhutavisdlatdlavivarodgirnaih svaraih saptabhih. 

c Through his valour and other excellences, this Rama 
has attained great renown in the worlds ; through the 
reversal of our fortune, your majesty does not yet re- 
cognise him ; his fame is being sung, as if by a bard > 
by the wind, in all the seven notes of music issuing forth 
from the holes made by the stroke of a single arrow in 
the seven huge palm-trees standing in a line/ 

The passion of the Heroic is suggested here — (a) 
by the pronoun ' asau \ c this ' (which indicates that the 
person is well-known), (b) by the basic noun ' bhuvanesu * 
* in the worlds ' (which mean that the person's fame is not 
confined to any particular province or country), (c) by 
the number in 'gunaiF (which means that he is famous 
not only for one or two qualities but for many), (d) by the 
use of the term c asmat 9 (our) in preference to c tvat ' (your) 
or 'mat* (mine) [in the compound c asmadbhdgya '...], 
which implies that the misfortune is of all the persons 




^Rk#, srfer ^%RT H^W f^RPTt ^^^T^rct 

concerned,— and (e) by the term ' bhdgyaviparyaydt' 
c reversal of fortune, ' which means that it is not only that 
we have no fortune or luck, but that our fortune has taken 
an entirely wrong turn. 

Tarunimani kalayati kaldmanumadanadhanurbhrnvoh 

Adhivasati sakalalalandmaitlimiyam chakitaharinachalana- 

6 On youthfulness being fully developed in vivacity, 
and the eye-brows having become instructed in liveliness 
under the guidance of Cupid's Bow, she with eyes unsteady 
like that of the fawn occupies the highest position among 

Here the Erotic Passion is suggested by the form (a) 
of the ' imanich ' affix (in * tarunimani '), (b) of the Ayyayt- 
bhdva compound (' anumadanadhamih '), (c) of the locative 
used accusatively (in c maiilim 9 ). The expressed meaning 
of each of these would be exactly the same as that res- 
pectively of (a) c tarmmtve \ with the nominal affix c tva 9 
(instead of * imanich '), (b) e madanadhanusah satnipe? and 



(c) c maulau '; and yet there is something distinctly charm- 
ing in the use of fat forms used by the poet ; and it is in 
these forms that there lies the said suggestiveness. 

Suggestion by other (parts of words) may be similarly 

The suggestiveness of Letters and Style is going to 
be described in the section dealing with Qualities (under 
Chapter VIII). 

Thus, along with the two kinds previously enumerated > 
there are six varieties of Suggestion of Passion and the rest. 

[/. 9. As suggested by (1) Sentence, (2) Word, (3) Part of Word, 
(-4) Style, (5) Letter and (6) Context]. 

Thus there are fifty-one varieties. 

These have been already described. 

(A) That where the expressed meaning is not intended has two 
varieties— 00 That in which the expressed meaning is transferred 
into another and (*) in which it is entirely ignored, and each of these 
belonging to word and meaning, make up Four varieties ;— (B) that 
where the expressed meaning is intended to be subservient to another, 
and the suggestive process is imperceptible, belongs to word, sentence, 
part of word, style, letters and context, makes up six varieties ;— 
0) The same where the suggestive process is perceptible has forty-one 
varieties as follows:— 2 varieties of that, based on word and each belong- 
ing to word and sentence, make four,— 12 varieties of that based on 
meaning and each belonging to word, sentence and context, make 
thirty-six; and one variety of that based on both word and meaning; 
and 4+6+41 make 51. 


?f^ir fwhr ^wsn 't^'ran i 

By the mutual combination of these, in the three forms of 
commixture and one form of uniform conjunction, they come to 
the number made up of (a) the Vedas (4), (b) the sky (0), 
(c) the oceans (4), (d) the sky (0) and the moon (1) [/. e. 10404]. 

There are not only the 51 simple varieties ; each 
of these 51 has its own 51 varieties, and each of 
these combines with the other in three ways (in which 
there is mutual dependency) — vi%. (1) where it is doubtful 
which one is the predominant factor, (2) where one dis- 
tinctly helps the other (and is hence the predominant fac- 
tor, and (3) where both form part of a single suggestive 
factor — and also in one another way (in which both are 
independent of each other) ; and thus by multiplying by 
4 the fifty-one times fifty-one varieties) the number be- 
comes 10404. 

These mixed varieties along with the (51) pure varie- 
ties make the number — 

made up of— (a) arrows (5), (b) arrom (5), (c) age-cycles 
(4), (i) sky (0) and (e) the Moon (l)—*.. e. 10455. 


These are illustrated only partially— 

' O brother ! Has the girl, a guest for the moment, 
been told something by your wife ? She is weeping 
behind the house ; go, console the poor creature \ 

Here it is doubtful whether the ' consoling ' is 
meant to be transformed into something else, in the 
form of dalliance, (thus making the suggestion one of 
c transferred denotation '), or it itself suggests, in the 
manner of an echo, the dalliance (making the suggestion 
one in which the expressed meaning, while applicable, is 
subservient to another meaning). 

c The clouds have overspread the sky with dense 
black lustre, and are adorned with lines of cranes ; the 
wind is blowing in sprays ; there is joyous shrieking of 
the friends of clouds (Peacocks). — Let all these be ! I 
am surely Rama of the hard heart and shall bear all ; 
but how will Vaidehi be keeping ? Ah ! O Lady, bear 
up with fortitude P 

Here (a) m the terms ' overspread ' and c friends of 
clouds ' we have the * conjunction ' (mutually indepen- 


dent) of the two suggestions (where the expressed mean- 
ing is entirely ignored) ;— and (b) again with these two 
there is 'commixture' with the suggestion in the expression 

* I am Rama \ whose expressed meaning is transformed 
into something else (/. e. disregard for himself, who is 
known to be the receptacle of constant sufferings); in 
which commixture (of the second kind) the two factors 
help each other, — and another ' commixture ' (of the 
third kind)^of the suggestion (by the whole sentence) 
of the < erotic in privation ' and that (by the single word 

* ramah ') of ' self-abnegation ', in both of which the 
Expressed meaning is transformed, and both of which 
form part and parcel of what is indicated by the single 
word ' ramah \ 

The other varieties may be similarly illustrated. 43-44. 

[Here ends the chapter IV entitled Description of Suggestion of 
the Kavyaprakasa.] 


(Poetry of Intermediate Order). 

Suggestive Poetry having been described, the 
author proceeds to describe the varieties of c Poetry of 
Subordinate Suggestion ' — 

There are eight varieties of the Poetry of Subordinate 
Suggestion, according as the suggested meaning is — (1) obvious, 
(2) subservient to something else, (3) subservient to the accom- 
plishment of the c expressed 9 meaning, (4) abstruse, (5) 
of doubtful prominence (in comparison to the expressed meaning), 
(6) of equal importance (irith the expressed meaning), (7) 
rendered manifest by intonation, or (8) not beautiful. 

Like the breasts of a young girl, suggestion has 
a charm only while it is concealed ; when it is not 
concealed, it becomes too obvious and hence as prosaic 
as the expressed meaning ; this is what is meant by its 
being c subordinate \ 


(1) Example of obvious suggestion — 

c In former times the taunts of an enemy always appeared 
in my ears like piercing hot needles, — and now that same 
I have been reduced to this position that I am entrusted 
with the work of knitting the girdle-zones of ladies I 
Even though existing, I am not alive ! What can I do ? ? 

Here the suggestion lies in the term ' existing/ which 
has its expressed meaning of c living ' transformed into some- 
thing else (i. e., ignominious existence) [ and this is too * obvious * 
to be charming]. 

Another example — 

* Among the house-hold pools, the black bees, are 
humming sweetly, their bodies rendered tawny with the 
dust of the full-blown red lotus ; and here shines the 
Sun, bright as the petals of the Bandhujtva flower, kissing 
the Rising Mount/ 

Here the suggestion of dawn lies in the term "kissing \ 


W 3"ST% ^TTfet ^RcTT a^llfsKstlgd: I 

^^x^ frnfST TTSTTO: frTT ^ ^313^ II ? ? HII ( ? ) 

C\ NO 

^RtT:^T3: I 

wrm^wr ^t i mi 

which has its expressed meaning entirely ignored, [and this is 
too ' obvious '.] 

Another example — 
'Here occurred the act of being bound in the serpentine 
noose ; here was the Drona mountain brought by Hanu- 
man when your younger brother-in-law was wounded by 
the missile in his chest ; here was Indrajit sent to the re- 
gions of the dead by the celestial arrows of Laksmana ; 
and O fawn-eyed one, here was cut down by some one 
the line of heads of the Demon-king/ 

Here the suggestion of the speaker himself lies in the 
term c by some one \ where the suggestive reverberation is 
based upon the force of the meaning. [And this is too ' ob- 
vious \] 

' Tasydpjatra 9 (of that) would be the better reading 
(in which case the suggestion would not be too obvious 
or subordinated). 

(2) Example of that Passion (Emotion and so forth) 
which is ' subservient to — a mere echo of— c something 
else * — i. e., of another Passion (Emotion and so forth), 
or of the expressed meaning, denoted by a sentence, — 


c\ * * \ 

c no c 

3T^ WRFT W: I 

' This is that same hand which used to pull (my) 
girdle-zone, press the plump breasts, touch the navel, 
the thighs and the hips and loosen the cloth-knot/ 

Here the Erotic is ' subservient ' to the Pathetic. 
[It is the speech of the wife of a hero in the Mahabharata war, 
addressed on seeing the dead body of her husbandj. 

Another example — 

c May the sheen of the foot-nails of Parvatl ever protect 
you, — the red paint wherein has become heightened by 
the (red) light emanating from the eye on the forehead 
of Siva (who has fallen upon her feet for the purpose of 
propitiating her) ; and this sheen, urged by emulation as 
it were, speedily and steadily sets aside the red-lotus-like 
lustre of her eyes (by depriving them of the redness due 
to her anger which has ceased upon her husband falling 
at her feet)\ 

Here the Passion (Erotic) is ' subservient ' to the Emo- 
tion (the poet's devotion to the goddess). 


f^wj for sPTTfer *yrf% <rfW'<H h 1% # #r>t: i 

Another example — 

" On all sides there rise these lofty mountains and 
wide-expanding oceans, — though thou bearest all these, 
yet thou feelest not the slightest fatigue, — all reverence 
to thee I" — While, struck with wonder, I was thus singing 
the praises of the Earth, I remembered your arm, O King, 
bearing, as it does, the burden even of this earth, and 
thereupon my speech became sealed'. 

The feeling of veneration for the earth is ' subservient ' 
to the same feeling for the king. 

Another example — 

' O King, your soldiers, having captured the fawn-eyes 
wives of your enemies, embrace them, court them, carry 
them about and kiss them, even while their husbands are 
looking on ; — and yet those same enemies of yours are 
praising you in the following strain — " O ocean of pro- 
priety, it is by virtue of our past good deeds that you have 
come before our eyes and all our troubles have been des- 
troyed/' ' 

The c Aberration of the Passion ' (of the Erotic, appear- 
ing in the soldiers) — which is implied in the first half of 
the verse,— and the ' Aberration of the feeling ' of venera- 

124 kAvyaprakasa 

spznfwrfrr <& ^mr fart *Tftcf 
3r*r ^rrat^r: i 

tion (for the king, on the part of his enemies)— implied 
in the second half— are c subservient ' to the (poet's) 
feeling of veneration for the king. 

Another example — 

c The haughtiness of your enemies was seen in the 
constant brandishing of swords, in the curvature of the 
eye-brows and in frequent roaring ; but at sight of you > 
it instantly disappeared'. 

The c Alkyment of the Feeling ' (of pride) is sub- 
servient to the (poet's) feeling (of veneration for the 

Another example — 

c On the occasion of your enemy setting about a 
drinking revelry in the company of the fawn-eyed girl 
and his friends, — your name, even though mentioned 
by some one in another connection, filled him with dis- 

Here the c appearance of the feeling of fear ' (is 
subservient to the poet's feeling of veneration for the 
king). . 


^ij^T^rr^r w^ffcr. ^Tfr. i i to i i 

V. ^ ^. V. S3 

Another example — 

c May the Destroyer of Kama (Siva) ordain your 
happiness,— He who, being unable to bear any longer 
the zealousness of ParvatFs austerities, and fondly grati- 
fied at her confidently loving manner of address, was 
seized simultaneously by both precipitancy and languor'. 

Here we have the ' Conjunction * of the feelings of 
Flurry and Equanimity, (which is ' subordinate ' to th e 
poet's feeling of devotion to the king). 

Another example — 

c " O impetuous one ! Some one might be looking ! 
Move aside. — What is the hurry ? — I a virgin ! — Offer 
me the support of your arms. — Ah ! Ah ! this perverted 
order of things ! — Where are you ? Whither are you 
going ?" — O Lord of the earth, thus does the daughter 
of your enemy who has retired to the forest address some 
man while she is collecting fruits and leaves'. 

Here there is the * Commixture ' of the feelings of 
Apprehension ( c some one might be looking '), Calmness 
(' what is the hurry ?'), Remembrance (* I, a virgin '), Lan- 


^R^c3T% »il<4«bKdW ^TTfrr cPTTfq" ^f^cf .sRITfe- 

guor ( c offer me the support of your arms '), Depression 
{' Ah, ah '), Determination (' what a perverted order of 
things '), and Longing (' whither are you going ?'), — 
{which is ' subordinate ' to the poet's regard for the king). 
These [(1) Passion, (2) Feeling, (3) Aberration of 
Passion, (4) Aberration of Feeling, (5) Manifestation of 
Feeling, (6) Conjunction of Feeling and (7) Commixture 
-of Feeling— as c subordinate ' to another Passion or Feel- 
ing] are what are known as the Figures of Speech [called 
(1) the Sentimental, (2) the Agreeable, (3) the Forcible, 
(4) the Quiescent, (5) Manifested Feeling, (6) Conjunct 
Feeling and (7) Commingled Feeling respectively]. 

Though as a matter of fact, 'Manifested Feeling', 
< Conjunct Feeling ' and ' Commingled Feeling ' (the last 
three of those just mentioned) have nowhere been spoken 
of as c Figures \ yet, we have made the above assertion 
{including these also) in view of the possibility of some 
one describing them as such. 

Though there is no single case where there is no 
commixture of both * Suggestive Poetry ' and ' Poetry 
of Subordinate Suggestion ' and their respective varieties — 
where one or the other is the more prominent or where 
both are o£ equal importance [and hence no example can 


be cited as a pure unmixed example of any one kind], — yet 
we classify the examples as of one or the other, according 
as one or the other happens to be the prominent factor ; 
and this is done in accordance with the principle that 
appellations are applied to things in accordance with what 
happens to be their most prominent element. 

[ Example of Suggested Figure subservient to the 
expressed meaning] — 

Janasthdne bhrdntam kanakamrgatrsndndhitadhiyd 
Vacho vai-dehiti pratipadamudasru pralapitam 
Maydptam rdmatvdm kusalavasutd na tvadhigata 

6 1 wandered among men's haunts [in the Janasthana for- 
est], with my mind blinded by a wiragic solicitude for gold 
[by a desire for the golden deer] ;— at every step, with 
tearful eyes, I said the words " Please give me " [" O Vai~ 
dehi ") ; — enough attempt was made by me at flattering the 
meanly rich people [I directed my arrows at the serried heads 
of the king of Lanka] ;— thus though I attained the position 
of Rama, yet I did not obmnperfect affluence [the mother of 
Kusa and Lava, Sitaj/ 

Here the similitude between the speaker and Rama > 
which is suggested through the force of the reverberating 


cr^ff <rreq-cRT srpiTfw: \\\^\\\ (r) 

echo of the words (with double meanings), has been made 
subservient to the expressed meaning. 

[Since all that the suggested similitude does is to justify the 
assertion 'I have attained the position of Rama'.] 

[Example of the c Suggestion of Fact ' being made 
subservient to the expressed meaning]. 

c See, O delicate lady, the Sun, having passed the 
night somewhere else, is propitiating the Lotus withered 
through separation from him, by falling at her feet/ 

Here the fact of the lover (propitiating his lady-love), — 
which is suggested by the force of the meaning of the 
word, — appears merely as an imposition upon (as lending 
additional charm to) the entirely different fact of the Lotus 
(blooming on the contact of the Sun's rays). 

(3) Example of c suggestion subservient to the accom- 
plishment of the expressed meaning/ — 

* The ram (poison) emanating from the serpent-like 
clouds forcibly brings about, in ladies separated from 


3TTf^^ ^^^<ir^d dfrtff^C:?T^?: 11^11 (3) 

^ * c c 

their lovers, vertigo, apathy, lassitude, insensibility, coma, 
•stupefaction, physical prostration and death/ 

Here the suggestion of ' poison * only serves to com- 
plete the expressed meaning {serpent) of the term c bhujaga? 

Another example — 

" O Achyuta (Immovable One), I am going ; is any 
•satisfaction to be obtained from merely looking at you ? 
In fact, if we remain together in this solitary place, wret- 
ched people will think quite otherwise ;"— after the cow- 
girl signified her depression and languor due to her 
futile stay by the special form of address, Krsna embraced 
her and the hairs on his body were thrilled ;— may Krsna, 
in this condition, protect you. 9 

Here the suggestion (of unperturbability) made by 
the term 'achyuta' ('looking on' and so forth) only 
•serves to help in the fulfilment of what is expressed by 
the expression "having signified form of address." 

The difference between the two examples just cited 
lies in the fact that the former consists of the speech 


qT^q-TT^TVr^lT^^'^^fT ll^^ll (v) 

fa^xw^mnw ^rraf ton fa fa sr$: u 

of only one speaker (the poet) while the latter consists 
of the speeches of two persons (the poet and the cow- 

(4) Example of the Abstruse Suggestion. 

c While you are not seen, there is longing to see you* 
and when you are seen, there is fear of separation ; there 
is no comfort either on seeing you or not seeing you/ 

"What is sugested here is that c you should act in such 
a way that you may not remain unseen and yet there may- 
be no fear of separation/ — and this is not very clear (abs- 

(5) Example of the suggestion c of doubtful promi- 
nence/ — 

' Siva, having his equanimity slightly perturbed* 
like the ocean at the appearance of the moon, directed 
his eyes towards Parvatf s face with bimba-like lips/ 

Here it is doubtful whether prominence attaches to 
the suggested meaning that c he wished to kiss her/ or to 
the expressed meaning that ' the eyes were turned towards 
the face/ 


^1^ cilia sqr^FR" =)|-=ara| ^ *pf SfWRPT 1 1 

(6) Example of the suggestion c of equal prominence ' — 
' To abandon insulting the Brahmanas will be 

conducive to your welfare ; otherwise your well-known 
friend Parasurama will become displeased/ 

Here the suggested meaning — ' Parasurama will ex- 
terminate the Raksasas in the same manner as he did the 
Ksattriyas ' — and the directly expressed one [ that c he will 
be angry ? ] — are both equally charming. 

(7) Example of suggestion c rendered manifest by 
intonation/ — 

c I shall not wrathfully batter the hundred Kauravas ! 
I shall not drink the blood from DuhSasana's heart ! 
I shall not smash Duryodhana's thighs ! Let your king 
make peace by an amicable settlement/ 

Here what is suggested is — ' I shall surely batter etc., 
etc.; and this, appearis by the side of the negation 
(of battering &c), which is directly expressed [is got at 
only through the peculiar intonation in which the words 
are uttered]. 


(8) Example of the c not beautiful ' suggestion — 

" When she heard the chatter of parrots flying from 
the Vetasa-bower, on account of her being engaged in her 
house-hold work, her limbs began to writhe/ 

Here the directly expressed meaning — that ' her limbs, 
are suffering (from her deep longing for her lover)' is 
more charming than the suggested meaning (that into the 
bower has entered a lover with whom she had made an. 

The varieties of these {eight kinds of Poetry of Subordinate- 
Suggestion should be understood to be, as far as possible^, 
like those of what has gone before (/. e. Suggestive Poetry)* — (46). 

6 As far as possible.' — This has been added with a 
view to the fact that there is no e subordination of 
suggestion 7 in a case where a Figure is manifested by a 
mere Fact;— as has been declared by the author of the 
DhvaH? la the following passage — "Whenever Figures 


tfW+Kftftt tt^^Tt: sr^r^F^ #: I cPpRF &(falffT 

of Speech are suggested by a mere Fact, they only serve 
the purpose of making it regarded as c Suggestive Poetry '; 
because the existence of poetry rests upon those 
Figures (which, therefore, cannot be regarded as c Subor- 
dinate ? to the expressed meaning). 46. 

There is a combination of c Suggestive Poetry, with these 
{eight varieties of Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion) (a) as 
transformed into c Figures 9 (the c sentimental? the c agreeable 9 
and so forth), and also (b) as accompanied {embellished) by 
(other) Figures (directly expressed), — this combination being 
per subserviency as also per equality. 

The term c salaiikdraih ' is to be expounded as 
' alankdraih ' — c with these as themselves transformed 
into, assuming the character of, Figures of speech/ — 
and ' alankdrayuktaih? c with those as embellished by 
other figures of speech/ 

The following declaration has been made by the author 
of the Dhvani : — 

c This (Suggestive Poetry), — combining, per sub- 
serviency and per equality, with its own varieties, as also 
with the varieties of Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion, 
along with the Figure of Speech, — appears in many 
forms \ 

Thus by mutual combination the number of its varieties 
becomes very large. — (47). 


5ET^5#?T gJRSq" ^R^Wt W: I sq-^W fWTc^TRT I 

wr i zrsrfq" srrsn^r cP^ft <r*rrFr srr^PTsropr- 
?in^r rnsft^ i ^nfes**FF^PT : FF3"far 5T ^Tsq": i 

' T/kr ', — in the manner described, — by counting 
all the sub-divisions, — the number becomes very large ; 
e. g. the varieties of the Erotic Passion itself are endless, — 
not to speak of others. 

Thus, briefly, of Suggestive Poetry there are three 
varieties, there being three kinds of what is suggested 
(according as it happens to be a Fact or a Figure or Passion, 
Feeling and the rest) ; — of these again, some (7. e. Figure 
and Fact) are such as can be expressed also, while others 
(e. g. Passion and the rest) can never be expressed. Of those 
that can be also expressed, some ate fanciful, while others are 
not fanciful ; what Is not fanciful is the mete fact, and what 
is fanciful is the Figure. — Though, in this connection the 
Figure (when suggested) is really what is itself embellished 
(and hence cannot be called a c figure \ c embellishment/ 
in the exact sense of the term), yet it Is called by the name 
of c figure/ on the same principle as the Brahmana, who has 
become a mendicant and thereby has ceased to be a real 
Brahmana, is still called a * Brahmana ' in view of his 
having formerly been a Brahmana. Passion and the 
test, how r ever, cannot be regarded even in a dream to 


be directly expressed. If these were expressed, they 
could be so, either by the (generic) words c rasa * 
(Passion) and the rest, or by the (particular) words 
* snigara ' (erotic) and the rest ; as a matter of fact they 
are not so expressed ; as is clear from the facts (a) that 
even though these words are used, the Passion and the 
rest are not cognised, so long as the excitants (ensuants 
and variants) are not mentioned, and (b) that even when 
those words are not used, if the excitants (ensuants and 
variants) are mentioned, there is due cognition of Passion 
and the rest ; and from these two premises — both affir- 
mative and negative — it follows that what brings about 
the cognition of these latter is the mention of the excitants 
(ensuants and variants) (and not any verbal expressions 
at all). 

It is for this reason that Passion and the rest can be 
only suggested, and not even indicated, because the necessary 
conditions of Indication, — such as incompatibility of the 
primary meaning and so forth — are wanting. Then again, 
it has been already explained how there can be no e Indica- 
tion ' without that kind of ' suggestion of Fact in which 
the expressed meaning is either transformed into some- 
thing else or entirely ignored. In that c suggestion > 
which is based upon the force of the words, the denota- 
tion itself being restricted, any other that may be denoted, 


c\ -o NO 

as also the Simile or any other figure of speech that may 
be perceptible, must doubtless be regarded as ' sugges- 

In cases of ' suggestion ' based upon the force of mean- 
ing also, how can there be any possibility of the c sugges- 
ted ' meaning being regarded as ' expressed ' or c deno- 
ted ', when, — in accordance with the c Abhihitanvaya ' 
theory — what is expressed by a sentence is the mutual 
relationship among the denotation of the component words 
based upon their mutual need, proximity and capability ; 
and as such it must be confined to particular individuals, 
and hence cannot be c denoted ' by any single word, whose 
denotation must always pertain to Universals only, for the 
simple reason that convention, upon which alone c deno- 
tation ' is based, can never pertain to particular individuals. 

[ c Suggestion ' being shown to be inevitable according 
to the Bhdtta theory of c Abhihitanvaya/ the author proceeds 
to show that it must be accepted under the Prdbhdkara 
theory of ' Awitdbhidhdna ' also ; and for this purpose 
he sets forth this latter theory, as bearing upon the matter 
under consideration.] 


sffcj^T 3Tfd4*M^MH TO^TT II ? II 
SFWIHMHt^TT 5 sft^sfor WiRh^FT I 

^q^qr^TR^rr tfapsf ^tsrfrw i i r i i 

The upholders of the c Awitabbidhdna 9 theory have 
offered the following explanation of the process of 
denotation : — (a) 

" The word, the experienced elderly man uttering 
it, and the object denoted by the word, these three 
things the young child perceives by his senses, — (b) that 
the young man to whom the word has been addressed 
has understood its meaning, he deduces by inference from 
the action of the young man, — (c) and the two-fold 
potency (of the word to denote and of the object to be 
denoted) he recognises by means of presumption based 
upon c apparent inexplicability ; ? — thus the denotative 
relationship (of the word and its meaning) is cognised 
through three means of cognition." — 

According to this account what happens is that — (a) the 
elder person utters the words c bring the cow/ — (b) upon 
which the younger person (to whom the words are add- 
ressed) is found to bring from one place to another an 
animal with the dewlap and other distinguishing features, — 
(i) the youngest person (the child) then deduces from 
this action that 'such and such a meaning has been under- 
stood by the younger person from the words that have 
been uttered'; — (d) thus he comes to recognise the de- 


notative relationship subsisting between the said sentence 
and its meaning as one impartible whole, and thereby he 
himself comes to comprehend its signification ; — (e) after 
sometimes he hears such sentences as ' Chaitra, bring 
the cow/ ' Devadatta, bring the horse.' ' Devadatta, take 
away the cow/ and so forth, and thence deduces the mean- 
ing of the several words and expressions. Thus it is 
clear from positive as well as negative concomitance that 
what is really significant and hence capable of being used 
is the sentence only ; so that the denotative convention 
pertaining to each individual word is cognised only 
when it occurs in a sentence, and is connected with other 
words ; so that the meaning of the sentence consists only 
in the denotations of its component words as related to 
one another ; and it is not that each word expresses its 
own meaning and then these several meanings become 
correlated (through proximity etc.) ; though it is true 
that individual words when found to be used in other 
sentences become recognised as the same (as the one that 
was heard for the first time). Thus what forms the subject 
of denotative convention is the denotation of a single 
word only as correlated to the denotation of other words ; 
thus though, when the said convention comes to be com- 
prehended, it is comprehended in a particular form, yet 
this particular form is one that is always overshadowed 


by the corresponding generic character (a notion of the 
particular being impossible without that of the correspond- 
ing universal) ; and this for the simple reason that those 
word-meanings that are inter-related are always of the 
said character (/. e., the particular over-shadowed by the 

According to this view also, the subject of Conven- 
tion is only such word-meaning as appears in a particular 
form, but over-shadowed by the corresponding universal ; from 
which it follows that when a word occurs in a sentence, 
what is denoted by it forms part of the denotation of the 
sentence as a whole, and as such what it expresses is some- 
thing that is very much restricted to an extremely specific 
form (in which it is correlated to the other words of the 
particular sentence) and this very specific form which is 
expressed by the word, not being the subject of convention 
(which appertains to particulars only as overshadowed by 
universals), cannot be regarded as directly ' denoted * 
by the word. And thus when the ordinary meaning of a 
word also cannot be ' denoted ' by it, it i^ a far cry to 
what we hold to be the objects of ' suggestion/ which 
are totally different from the direct meaning of the words 
employed ; — e. g., in the verse ' The Sandal paint over 
thy breasts is entirely rubbed of... thou hast not gone to 
that wretched man/ what is * suggested ' is that the person 
addressed has gone to the man, while the direct meaning 
of the words is quite the opposite. 

Thus it is found that — (a) according to the c Abhi- 
hitdnvayavdda \ what is c denoted ' by the word is some- 



thing not correlated to anything else, and (b) according 
to the c Anvitdbhidhdnavdda \ what is ' denoted * is some- 
thing only correlated in a general way with what is ex- 
pressed by other words ; so that in either case the parti- 
cular object as related to another particular object is what 
is never ' denoted '; and hence under both these theories 
the meaning of the sentence can never be the object of 
direct verbal c denotation \ 

Some people have urged the following arguments 
(against the c suggestion-theory *) — " In every case causes 
are inferred from their effects. So that when we find an 
expression producing a certain idea, we conclude that that 
expression is possessed of the potency necessary for ex- 
pressing that idea ; consequently, whether the idea be 
expressed directly or indirectly, the fact remains that it has 
been expressed by the word ; and hence every case can be 


regarded to be of the word expressing an idea ; and there 
is no ground for making any such distinction as that into 
* expression ', c indication ' and c suggestion'." 

In answer to this we ask— What is meant by the word 
"being the ' cause ' here ? Does it mean that it produces 
the idea ? or that it makes it known ? It cannot be said 
to produce the idea, as what the word does is to give expression 
to an idea, it can never produce one. As regards its making 
{the idea) known, how can the power to do this belong to 
what is itself not known or understood ? 

[i. e. So long as the meaning of the word itself has not been 
■understood, it cannot give expression to anything else.] 

As a matter of fact, the word itself can be understood 
only through convention ; and this convention is (as 
shown above) only in regard to such words as are correlated 
to others. Thus then, so long as the precise extent of 
causal potency of the cause has not been ascertained, how 
can the cause itself be recognised as such ? So that the 
assertion that c causes are inferred from their effects' is 
extremely ill-conceived. 

Others again urge the following argument—" The 
action of the word is like that of an arrow, its reach being 
prolonged further and further; so that in whatever sense 
a word may be used, that is the meaning expressed or de- 
noted by it. Thus then (even in the case of the verse 'the 

142 kAvyaprakaIa 

^ c^rfwrfa tftafiretfor 3r^#5Rt «qrTRr 

sandal-paint has been entirely thou hast not gone to 

that wretched man '), the affirmation ( c thou hast gone ', — 
which has been held to be the suggested meaning) is what 
is really only expressed or denoted by it.' 9 

These ignorant people also do not understand what 
is meant by a word being c used in a certain sense \ It 
is a well-established principle that c when an accomplished 
entity (/. e., substance) is spoken of along with what is to be 
accomplished (/. e. an action), the former is mentioned as 
subserving the purposes of the latter ; and according to 
this principle, when substantives become correlated to 
verbs (e. g. in the expression c bring the cow '), they them- 
selves acquire the character of c what is to be accompli- 
shed/ inasmuch as they have to be the substratum of their 
own action of walking which helps in the accomplishment 
of the principal action (of bringing) [as the bringing of the 
cow can be accomplished only when she herself does the 
walking] ; and in this case (where the accomplished entity, 
cow, is tainted with the character of what is to be accom- 
plished, u e. its walking), the direction in question ( c bring 
the cow ') involves the injunction or predication of that 
factor alone which is not already accomplished. For ' 
example in the case of the sentence — c The red-turbaned 

chapter v 143 

"^T *F^W ; ^TRlr ^jr: °Kmc<=WM ft^rpT II 

priests move along/— it being found that the < moving 
of the priests' is already accomplished (through another 
injunction),— all that the sentence does is to enjoin that 
they shall wear red turbans. Similarly in the sentence 
< one shall pour the libation of curds/ the pouring of the 
libation having been got at from other sources, this sen- 
tence enjoins that the libation is to be of curds. In some 
cases the injunction applies to two factors, and sometimes 
to three factors ;e.g., when one says c weave the red cloth/ 
this may involve the injunction of one or two or three 

[ (a) If the direction is addressed to the weaver for the first time, 
it involves the injunction of (1) the weaving —of (2) the doth— which 
(3) should be red (b) if the man has been previously told to weave, 
the injunction applies to (1) the cloth and (2) its red colour (c) if the 
weaving of the cloth has been enjoined before, the present injunction 
applies to the red colour only]. 

Thus every direction is said to ' have its sense ' in the 
injunction of that particular factor only which forms its 
direct objective. So that the ' sense ? or ' import * can 
apply only to what is directly expressed by the word ac- 
tually used, and not to anything and everything that may be 
implied (by it) ; otherwise (if everything implied were to 

144 kAvyaprakasa 

be included in the c sense ' or c import ' of a certain word, 
then) the expression ' the former man is running ' would 
have to be regarded as having its c sense ' applying to the 
notion of the ' latter ' also [as the notion of the c latter \ 
is implied by that of the * former/ which is the word pro- 

Then again, it has been urged that in the case of the 
sentences, * Eat poison, and don't eat in that man's house/ 
the sense is that c you should not eat in that man's house/ 
and this is accepted as the meaning of the sentence [though, 
it is only implied and not directly expressed]. 

But what happens in the case of this sentence is that 
the conjunctive particle ' and ' indicates that the two 
sentences have to be construed together, — and as between, 
the two sentences themselves, there can be no justification 
(without sufficient reason) for taking one as subordinate 
to the other ; — but it is found that there is such reason in 
the shape of the fact that the admonition coming from a. 
friend, the first sentence c Eat poison ' (being incompatible* 
in its direct meaning) must be regarded as subordinate to 
the second one, — the meaning of the two sentences taken 
together being € Eating in that man's house is worse than 
eating poison, therefore you should never eat in his 
house/ And when we accept this to be the sense or im- 
port of the sentence, it is only what is expressed by the 


words of the sentence itself (by Indication, if not by direct 

[The distinction between such ' Indication ' and the c Suggestion > 
under dispute is that the indicated meaning is apprehended immediately 
from the words themselves, while what is suggested comes to be grasped, 
some time after the direct denoted meaning has been comprehended]- 
Further, if we were to accept the view that in regard 
to anything and everything that happens to be perceived 
on the hearing of a certain word, the action of the word 
is always c Denotation ' only, — then, in the case of the 
words * O Brahmana, a son has been born to you — and 
your unmarried daughter is enciente ' — why should not joy 
and dejection that become manifested on the face of the 
man to whom they are addressed be regarded as the mean- 
ing of the words ? ' Why too, in that case, admit of 
c Indication ' either (as a Secondary Verbal process) ? 
For in the case of Indication ' also, the gradually extending 
reach of c Denotation ' itself could account for the desired 
signification. — Why again should there be any gradually 
descending authority attaching to c Direct Vedic Declara- 
tion', ' Indicative Power', c Syntactical Connection', c Con- 
text", c Position ' and c Name ? (as the means of ascertain- 
ing what accessory is subservient to what sacrificial act) ? 

From all this it follows that under the theory of the 
c Anvitdbhidhdna ' also, 'the affirmation (implied by the 



f% ^ 'p ^nr' s% mql? Mi ter ^T^Rrtf^r 

verse "The sandal paint thou hast not gone to the 

wretched man ? ) must be regarded as the object of sugges- 
tion. 5 

Further, in the case of the expression c kuru ruchim 9 
{' have the pleasure '), it has been held that if in a poem, 
the order of the two words is inverted, and we have the 
form ' ruchinktiru \ it becomes defective [by reason of the 
unseemly suggestion by the word c cbinku* which would be 
heard in the middle of the said expression, and which is the 
name of a private part of the female body] ; — now why 
should the said expression be defective ? [Even though a 
particular sound-combination may have an unseemly 
significance, yet] the unseemly meaning is not correlated 
to any other words of the expression ; and not being so 
correlated, it would be as good as not denoted (according 
to the view that there is no other verbal signification ex- 
cept * denotation ' and the denotation of a word must 
always be correlated to the denotation of other words) ; 
and thus there would be no ground for avoiding the use 
of such expressions as the one noted above (which are to be 
avoided only on account of the unseemly meaning suggested 
by the particular sound-combination)* 

Then again, if the suggestive process be not accepted 
as distinct from the denotative process, it would be im- 


possible to make any such distinction among ' Defects ' 
as that ' grammatical mistake * and others like it are per- 
manent defects (always defective), while c Harshness 'and 
the like are impermanent defects (sometimes defective and 
sometimes not so). 

[Harshness is regarded as an excellence when occurring in words 
depicting the Heroic Passion, but a defect in those portraying the 
Pathetic; and the reason for this lies in the idea that the suggestions made 
by the harsh sounds are helpful in the delineation of Heroism, but mar 
the effect of the Pathetic Passion. There is no difference in the 
denotation or expressed meaning of a word, be its letters harsh or 
sweet. Hence if denotation were the only verbal process, there could 
be no ground for regarding the mere sound as either helpful or preju- 
dicial to the sentiment depicted.] 

And yet we know that such distinction is not impossible; 
in fact we find such distinction made by all men. If, on 
the other hand, the suggestive process is accepted as dis- 
tinct from the denotative, the suggested meaning of words 
being manifold, some of these only may be appropriate 
in a certain instance ; and as such the said distinction 
(among defects) would be quite permissible. 

Then again in the line — ' The brilliant digit of the 
Moon and Thyself (Parvati), who art like moon-light 
to the eyes of people, are the two things that have become 
pitiable by reason of seeking association with the Holder 


of the Begging-bowl (Siva)/ — what is that peculiar charm 
that is added by the use of the particular name c kapdlin ' 
(Holder of the Begging-bowl), in preference to such other 
names as * Pinakin ' (Holder of the Pinaka bow) ? 

[Both c Kapalin 9 and ' Pinakin ' are the names of Siva; so that 
there is no difference in their denotation ; and yet there is a peculiar 
charm in the use of the former name, which lies in its suggestion of 
poverty, which heightens the e pitiable ' character spoken of j. 

Further, the denoted meaning of a word is one and 
the same for all persons bearing it ; so that it is fixed and 
uniform ; the denoted or directly expressed meaning of the 
words 'the sun has set * never varies (is fixed), while its 
suggested meaning varies with the variation in such accessory 
conditions as the context, the character of the speaker, 
the character of the person spoken to, and so forth. For 
instance, the words 'the sun has set' suggests (1) the 
idea that ' now is the opportunity to attack the enemy ? 
(when they are addressed by the general to the king) ; — 
(2) that you should set forth to meet your lover ' (when 
addressed by the confidant to the girl in love), — (3) that 
4 your lover is just coming ' (when addressed by a friend 


to a girl who is eagerly awaiting the arrival of her lover), — 
(4) that c we shall rest from our labours ' (when addressed 
by one labourer to another), — (5) * let us betake ourselves 
to our twilight prayers' (when addressed by one religious 
student to another), — (6) ' don't go very far ' (when add- 
ressed to a way-farer), — (7) c let the cows enter their 
fold ' (when addressed to the cowherd), — (8) c we shall 
not suffer from heat now ' (when addressed by one way- 
farer to another), — (9) c let us pack up our merchandise ' 
(when addressed by one salesman to another), — (10)' my 
love has not come even to-day ' (when spoken by an 
impatient girl waiting for her beloved's return from 
a journey) ; thus, in fact, there is no end to the number of 
suggested meanings. 

As a matter of fact, the suggested and the expressed mean- 
ings differ on the following (seven) points :— 

(1) In point of character: — e. g., (a) in the verse c the 
sandal-paint is entirely rubbed out ... thou hast not gone 
to the wretched man \ the expressed meaning is negative, 
while the suggested one is affirmative (' thou hast gone ? ). — 
(b) Or in the verse — c you noble men, give up all partiality 
and after due consideration say whether one should have 

150 kavyapraka^a 

^ ^ f^TT^^ f% ^T ^TT 
^RTO Wit: ^re^T ST^TSR^ ?P33$^- 

recourse to the outskirts of mountains or to the waists 
of beautiful women smiling with love/ — the expressed 
meaning is the mere doubt (whether one should have re- 
course to the one or the other), while what is suggested is 
the definite assertion, that c one should have recourse to 
women ' (when the speaker or the person addressed is 
inclined to be erotic), — or that c one should retire to the 
mountains ' (when the persons concerned are of the 
quietistic temperament). — (c) Or again, in the verse — 
* why should you feel proud of your having appropriated 
to yourself the property of your enemies, whose heads 
were cut off by the sharp edge of your sword ? When 
you had killed your enemies, was not your Fame, so 
loved of you, been taken away to heaven by those enemies, 
even when they had lost their bodies '; — what is expressed 
is reproach, while what is suggested is praise. 

(2) In point of times : — The suggested meaning is 
comprehended after the expressed meaning. 

(3) In point of the conveying medium : — The expressed 
meaning is conveyed by the word, while the suggested 
meaning may be conveyed by the word, by a part of the 


^ft^r ^^mr *mw ''^^rw" %<m^ v^m^^ 

a ^RT ? *T ^ Tt^ft 323*r frsTTf W*W ^t I 

word, by the expressed meaning of the word, by the letters, 
and by the style. 

(4) In point of the means (of knowing) : — The expressed 
meaning is understood with the help of grammatical rules, 
while the suggested meaning is understood with the help 
of those as also with that of context and other conditions 
(described above). 

(5) In point of their effects : — The expressed meaning 
brings about a simple comprehension and that also in 
every one who hears the word, while the suggested meaning 
brings about a certain charm in the minds of such persons 
as are entitled to the name of c cultured \ 

(6) In point of number : — As has been found in the case 
of the expression * the sun has set ' (where the expressed 
meaning is one only and the suggested meanings are ten 
or more). 

(7) In point of the person addressed : — In the verse — 
< who will not be annoyed at seeing the lips of his wife 
bitten ? I warned you not to smell the lotus with the 
bee inside it !' — while the expressed meaning is conveyed 
to the girl-friend [who, on appearing before her husband, 
has her lips bearing the mark of her paramour's kiss, and 
feels disconcerted at the husband's notice of it,] while the 
suggested meaning (that the mark on the lips of my friend 

152 kavyaprakaSa 

is one made by the sting of the bee in the lotus, and not 
by a man's kiss) is conveyed to the husband. 

Even when differing in so many points, if the two 
are to be regarded as one and the same, then there can be 
no difference at all, even in the case of such things as the 
blue and the yellow colour and so forth. In fact, it has 
been declared that — " The difference, or the ground of 
difference, (between any two things) consists in their having 
contrary properties and in having different causes ' [and 
both these conditions are fulfilled in the case of the ex- 
pressed and suggested meanings]. 

Then again, purely denotative or expressive words require 
(in the act of denoting their meaning) the aid of an actually 
existent meaning (fixed by convention), while suggestive 
words do not stand in need of any such meaning (as 
suggestion very often lies in mere letters or syllables,- which 
have no meaning at all). For this reason also suggestive- 
ness cannot be the same as denotativeness. 

Further, in the verse quoted above — ' Hearing the 
chattering of parrots in the Vetasa bower etc.,' — where* 
it has been shown, the expressed meaning rests within 
itself after having signified the suggested meaning, — and 
which, on that account, has been regarded as an instance 


STRT: 5Ti%fe <TTT*T' scqTCT ^T^^sff TFTT^ W 

of ' subordinated suggestion, —it is found that a meaning, 
which is not denoted by the words and which does not fall 
within their import, is yet brought within the range of 
cognizance ; — and under what operation of the word would 
the meaning thus cognised fall (if Suggestion is not ad- 
mitted) ? 

[ The following question is raised by one who admits 
of c Indication * as distinct from 'Denotation \ but does 
not accept c Suggestion. '] — " In such instances as (a) 

< I am Rama and shall bear everything \ (b) ' O beloved 
one, Rama is so fond of his life that he has not done what 
befits love ', and (V) ' This Rama has attained high fame for 
the excellence of his valour ' and so forth, we find that the 
4 indicated ' meaning (of the single word ' Rama ') is mani- 
fold and also capable of having the several peculiar appella- 
tions [' with the expressed meaning transformed ', c with the 
expressed meaning entirely ignored 9 and others that have 
been described above as pertaining to c suggestion * and 
4 suggested meaning '],— the comprehension also of such 

< indicated ' meaning is based (like that of the c suggested ' 
meaning) upon both words and meanings, and is also 
dependent upon context and other conditions ; so that (all 
these conditions being fulfilled by the ' Indicated ' mean- 


ing), what is this new kind of meaning that is called 
' suggested ' ?" 

Out answer to this is as follows : — 
■ Firstly, even though a word may have several c indi- 
cated ' meanings, yet their number must be limited, just 
like the expressed meaning of a word which has many 
meanings. — Secondly, what is c indicated ' can never be 
such as has no definite connection with the primary 
(denoted) meaning, while the ' suggested ' meaning, under 
the influence of * context ' and other circumstances, may 
have a definite connection (with the expressed meaning),, 
or it may have only an indefinite (vague) connection with 
it, or it may be only indirectly connected (being connected 
with something else which is connected with the expressed 
meaning). — Thirdly, the primary (expressed) meaning is not 
' barred ' by (incompatibility) in the case of 'suggestion^ 
in such instances as — ' my mother-in-law lies here, and here 
myself, mark this well while there is daylight ; lest, O 
wayfarer, you tumble into our beds at night'; — so that 
(the very first condition of c Indication ' being wanting) 
how can this be regarded as a case of c Indication ' ? — 
Fourthly, it has been already shown (under Chapter II) 
that in the process of c Indication ' also, c Suggestion " 
comes in as an essential factor. 


f*r% ^rfrnTTfenr i 

NO \ NO 

— Fifthly, just as c Denotation ' is dependent upon 
convention, so is ' Indication ' also upon the particular 
convention relating to the three conditions of ' the 
primary meaning being barred ' and the rest (described 
under Chapter II) ; and it is on this account that 
* Indication ' has been called the c tail of Denotation.' 
[ Hence it is just as impossible for € Suggestion ' to be 
included under c Indication ' as under" Denotation/] — 

Sixthly, c Suggestion ' is not exactly of the nature 
of ' Indication ', because in some cases Suggestion follows 
on the wake of Indication ; nor indeed does Suggestion 
always follow on the wake of Indication, as in several 
instances Suggestion is based upon Denotation itself 
nor again is Suggestion always based upon these two ; 
(Denotation and Indication), as it is found to emanate 
even from mere letters and syllables which do not c denote ' 
anything at all,— or even from such entirely non-verbal 
sources as side-long glances and other mere gestures. 


^r "3rtt tT?«r' wr&\ J^m^m "^w ? *r 

From all this it follows that we cannot reject ' Sugges- 
tion * as a process which functions far beyond the three 
processes of ' Denotation ', c Import ' and c Indication'. 

(a) In the verse referred to above — c my mother-in- 
law lies here &c. ? — the ' suggested ' meaning is one 
that bars a definite relationship (to the expressed meaning); 

(b) while in the verse ' who will not get annoyed etc> 
(quoted above) the relationship is extremely vague and 

(c) in the following verse — 

' On the occasion of. when Laksmi saw Brahma 

seated on the naval-lotus of her husband, she, being too 
immersed in her passion, closed the right eye of Visnu 
(her husband)', 

— the suggested meaning is related to the expressed 
indirectly through something else related to it ; e. g. the 
term ' Hari 9 (Visnu) suggests the fact of his right eye 
being the Sun (the Sun and the Moon being described as 
the two eyes of Visnu), hence the closing of tha4 eye 
signifies sunset, which signifies the closing of the lotus and 
the consequent hiding of Brahma seated upon it, which, 
lastly, suggests the fact that her secret parts being 
rendered invisible to anyone^ her pleasure would con- 
tinue unmolested. 


WT^^it' ^fcT qtinf : fo^rf^ IH <*M fat: ^KTW^FTr 

Others again (the Vedantins) have held the view that 
— " It is the meaning of the sentence which, comprehended 
through a single indivisible cognition, is what is ' ex- 
pressed ' or c denoted', and it is the sentence alone that is 

But even these men, when they descend to the regions 
of c Illusion ', have to take into account ' words ' and 
c meanings of words ' ; so that according to these people 
also, in the examples cited above * (' The sandal-paint 

over thy breasts has been thou hast not gone to that 

wretched man ') the affirmation and such other meanings 
must be regarded as being ' suggested'. 

[The logician starts off with another objection to the 
c Suggestion theory '] — " What is suggested is not some- 
thing entirely unconnected with the expressed meaning ; 
if it were, then anything could be suggested by any word,, 
without any restriction. In view of some such connection 
being essential, there can be no suggestiveness in the absence 
of some restrictive relationship ; and thus what really 
happens in the case of c Suggestion ' is that there is (1) 
a constant relation (between the suggested and the sugges- 
ter), (2) the relation is such that the suggester is never con- 
comitant with the contrary of the suggested, and (3) the 
suggester subsists in the suggested ; so that the suggester 
fulfilling the three conditions of the ' Inferential Problems',, 

158 ka-vyaprakaSa 

m\*m — tffocflr Tit: snforf fa^nr fsrqpRm 

our knowledge of the suggested meaning comes to be purely 
inferential in character. For instance, in the following 
verse — c My good man, roam about as you choose ; the 
dog has been killed by the lion living in the cave of the 
banks of the Godavarf , — what is advised is the safety 
of roaming about due to the removal of the dog from the 
house, and this leads to the inference of the danger involved 
in wandering on the banks of the Godavarf, by reason of 
the presence of the lion. The c roaming of a coward * 
Is invariably concomitant with the certainty of ' the ab- 
sence of all cause of fear ' ; — on the banks of the Goda- 
vari c the cause of fear ' is present ; and so this ' presence ' 
is the contrary of the aforesaid * absence ' with which the 
said roaming is invariably concomitant. Hence the said 
* presence ' leads to the deduction of what is contrary to the 
aforesaid c roaming \ i. e. the impropriety of roaming ". 

Our answer to the above is as follows :— (a) As a matter 
of fact* even a coward is found going to places where 


there is danger, under certain circumstances, such as by 
the order of his preceptor or master, under the influence 
of his love for his beloved ; so that the inferential pro- 
bans (premise) is ' inconclusive ' (the ' coward's roaming * 
being not invariably concomitant with the * absence of 
danger ');, — (b) and again, it is possible that the person 
addressed may be a brave man who, even though fearing 
the dog, would not fear the Hon, and thus the premise is 
also c contradictory ' (the * presence of the Hon ' not nece- 
ssarily involving the impossibility of the * fearing man * 
not roaming that way) ; — (c) further/ the presence of the 
lion ' on the banks of the Godavari is not something known 
either by direct Perception or by Inference, it is learnt only 
from the words (of the speaker), and since no reliability 
belongs to the mere word (of a stray person), until it has 
been found to be consonant with facts, the probans is 
c unknown* also. — Thus the probans being vitiated by 
three fallacies, how can it lead to any valid inference of the 
conclusion ? — Further, in the case of the verse c the san- 
dal-paint over thy breasts has been entirely rubbed out 

thou hast not gone to the wretched man ', the marks — 
rubbing out of the sandal-paint and so forth — which have 
been set forth as suggestive (of the conclusion c thou hast 
gone ') are such as could be brought out by (and hence be 
indicative of) other circumstances also ; in fact even in 


the verse itself they are described as brought about by 
bathing ; so that they are not invariably concomitant with 
the c dalliance 7 (of the person addressed, which is held to 
be suggested). 

According to the upholder of the ' Suggestion ' theory, 
on the other hand, the said suggestion has been explained as 
brought about by the marks described, through the aid 
of the epithet c wretched ' (applied to the lover, which 
suggests his infidelity in having dallied with the messen- 
ger). — Nor could this c wretchedness ' be made the basis 
of any Inference, for the simple reason that it is not some- 
thing that is already cognised through any (other) valid 
means of cognition. As for the fact thi.t a certain set of 
words gives rise to the notion of things (not actually 
expressed by them), without any rhyme or reason, — this 
cannot be effectively urged against the upholder of the 
c Suggestion ' theory (who takes pride in the suggestion 
of such meanings). 47. 

Thus ends Chapter V dealing with the sub-divisions 
of Suggestive Poetry and the Poetry of Subordinate 

3T«r tspss S^JW: 



In the two kinds of Poetry spoken of above — that of Fan- 
ciful Word and that of Fanciful Meaning* — subordinacy and pre- 
dominance belong respectively to the fanciful meaning and the 
fanciful word. 

It is not that in the Poetry of Fanciful Word, there is 
no fanciful meaning or vice versa. 

[All that the division means is that though in any individual 
instance, we may have both fanciful word and fanciful meaning, yet 
it is regarded as the Poetry ' of Fanciful Word ' when the fanciful 
word (/. e. 9 the Verbal Figure of Speech) is more prominent than the fanci- 
ful meaning (/. e. 9 the Ideal Figure of Speech) ; and it is regarded as * of 
fanciful meaning ' when the fanciful meaning is the more prominent 
of the two], 

[In support of this commixture of both] we have the 
following declaration : — 

c (a) Some writers have spoken of Metaphor and the 
other (ideal) Figures of Speech as the real ' embellishments * 



of Poetry ; even the face of a woman, though beautiful 
in Itself, does not appear charming when it is without any 
ornaments [similarly Poetry, however beautiful in itself 
is not charming unless it is embellished by a Figure of 
Speech] ; — (b) others regard Metaphor and the other 
Ideal Figures of Speech as something foreign to Poetry, and 
they hold that the real embellishment consists in the elegant 
placing of nouns and verbs ; it is this that they call ' ele- 
gance of composition ' ; no such elegance (or charm) 
attaches to the mere Ideal figure (the fanciful meaning) ; — 
(c) we however accept both kinds of embellishments ro 
figures— the Verbal and the Ideal 9 . 

Example of the 'Fanciful Word ' (Verbal Figure of 
Speech) — 

Prathamamamnachchhayastdvattatah kanakapr abbas. 
Tadamt virabottdmyattanvi kapolataladyutih. 
Udayati tato dbvantadbvamsaksamah ksamddmukbe 

c The Moon rises at first with a shade of red ; then he 
takes the golden hue ; after that he has the lustre of the 
cheeks of the slender woman pining under separation ; 
then towards night he takes the splendour of the bulbous 


# sffcd^MHftkll ^T ^^T ^m 

root of the fresh lotus-stock and is then capable of dis- 
persing darkness". 

[Here the charm, lies in alliteration, which is more prominent 
and charming than the series of similes involved]. 

Example of the c Fanciful Meaning ' (Ideal Figure of 
Speech) — 

c Whom do not (a) the locks of the woman with fair- 
lashed eyes— and (b) the wicked people — not perturb, — 
when they (a) curl over the eyes [ (b) are seen ], (a) hanging 
low [(b) mean], (a) lying beautifully on the forehead 
[(b) delighting in telling lies], and never abandon their 
(a) blackness [ (b) fraudulence ] and (a) curls [ (b) crooked- 
ness, dishonesty ]\ 

[ Here we have the ideal figure c Combination ' aided 
by c Paranomasia ' and ' Simile]'. 

Though in reality, in the case of all kinds of Poetry, 
everything ultimately turns upon the Excitants, Ensuants 
and Variants (and the Passion manifested by these) [ and 
hence in Fanciful Poetry also there is bound to be some 
suggestion of Passion ], yet what happens in the two 
kinds of Fanciful Poetry just described is that no real 
c Passion ' is clearly discernible and it is on that ground 

164 kavyapraka^a 

that tkey are regarded as c devoid of suggestiveness ? 
[ and hence ' inferior ' ]. 

The varieties of this kind of Poetry are many, in accor- 
dance with the number of Figures of Speech — ideal and 
verbal ; and these are going to be described under the 
section treating of the e Figures of Speech ' (Chapters 
IX and X). 48. 

Thus ends Chapter VI dealing with the Poetry of 
Fanciful Word and Meaning. 

fss V$ ^f?Wff ^ d ^ $c qM^d^*W % I 



Having described the form of Poetry, the author states 
the general definition of defects (the absence of which he 
has made a necessary condition in all poetry) : — 

Defect is the repressor of the principal meaning ; the 
' principal meaning 9 being the Passion, as also the Expressed 
Meaning, which is essential for the manifestation of the 
Passion ; — both of these requiring the aid of Word and the 
rest, Defects pertain to these latter also. 49. 

'Repressing' is hindering the agreeableness. 

c Word and the rest.— The phrase ' and the rest * is 
meant to include Letters and Syntactical construction 
(/. e. Sentence), 

The author now proceeds to add specific definitions 
of particular Defects. — 

The defective Word is such as—{\) unpleasant to the 
ear, (2) lacking correctness, (3) unconventional, (4) incapable 


(R) '^cTCf^fcT' ^T^^W^T*? 

of giving sense, (5) Aowg /At meaning suppressed, (6) &«*/»£ 
## improper signification, (7) useless, (8) #0/ expressive, (9) 
indecorous in three ways, (10) ambiguous, (11) unintelligible », 
(12) vulgar, (13) and one whose meaning has to be guessed ; — 
#W // /r (14) obscure, or (15) having the predicative factor 
not discriminated, or (16) 0/ repugnant implication, — s/z/y 
#'iw occurring in a compound. 51. 

[ Examples of each of the above sixteen defects ] — (1) 
The word that has the defect of being c unpleasant to the 
ear ', — /. e. consisting of harsh letters, — is found in the 
following — 

c A.naKgomaf'g il.izrhdpdngabhaiigitarangitaih 
Alingitah sa tanvangyd kdrtarthyam labhate kadd\ 
' When will he attain the fulfilment of his desires, on 
being embraced by the slender-bodied girl, lovely through 
the graces of her glance, the auspicious abode of the 
Love-god himself ?\ 

Here the word ' kdrtarthyam ' is ' unpleasant to the 
ear * (Harsh). 

(2) The following contains an example of the word 
' lacking in correctness ', /. e. not according with the rules 
of grammar. — 


'tto^i?*^ fr%m; i "anftrfa ?rre:" ^ftn are 3 

' Utanmanda 

Dinamtvamanunathate .. 

' O thou, the daughter of the chief of the settlement ! 
the herd of elephants, seeking safety from danger (at the 
hands of young foresters), is begging you not to cover 
your breasts with leaves, — breasts that resemble the half 
ripe Tinduka fruit in being dark in the centre and slightly 
white all round, and which deserve to be fondled by 
Shabara-youths \ 

[The sense is that if the girl does not cover her breasts the hunting 
youths would be attracted nearer towards them than towards the 
heads of the elephants.] 

Here the verb ' ammdthati ' is grammatically incorrect. 
In accordance with Panini's Sutra 2.3.15, the root ' nath * 
can take the Atmanepada-zn&mg only when it is used in 
the sense of benediction (hope or expectation), as in the ex- 
pression ' sarpiso ndthate ' (' he expects to obtain butter ') ; 
while in the verse cited, the word ' anunathafe ' has the 
sense of begging. Hence the correct reading should have 
been ' anunathati stanayvgam \ 

mj *f# t^^fter fwr^ft ^Tsr^frsr srr h^ii 
are t^RNt "1^1% <tftr ^t" 1% q-wiMwIPr t 

(v) '3TWT ' *rere$ <rs^f T ^ ^TTFT ^if^r: I 

(3) The following is an example of the ' unconven- 
tional ', — /. e. a word, which though quite correct formally, 
is one that has not been admitted by poets into usage — 

c yathdyam daivatosya ' 

c Inasmuch as this person is always cruel in his actions, 
it seems as if his guiding spirit were a ghost or a demon \ 

Though the form c daivatah ' is formally correct, — it 
being mentioned in the lexicons as belonging both to the 
masculine and neuter genders — yet as a matter of fact, 
it has never been used in its masculine form. 

(4) The following is an example of the word incapable 
of giving sense \ L e. one used in a sense to which its 
denotative potency does not extend. 

c Tirthdntaresu hanti samprati sddaram* 

e After having acquired merit from bathing in other 
sacred places, he now reverentially repairs to the Celestial 

Here the verb c hanti ' has been used in the sense of 
going (which it is incapable of denoting). 

[ la the Dhatupatha the root ban is mentioned to have the mean- 
ings "to kill" and "to go". ] 


(5) The following is an example of a word which has 
its meaning ' suppressed ' — /. e. used in a sense which, 
though formally correct, is not generally known — 

c Ydvakarasdrdra shoyitakacbena 

.parichumbitd sahasd. 

' When the lover, who had his locks made ruddy by 
the touch of her feet painted with red alakta, saw that the 
young girl was flurried through fright (caused by the sus- 
picion that the redness might be due to blood), he kissed 
her vehemently \ 

Here the intended meaning of the word c shonita ' /. e. 
c made ruddy ' — is ' suppressed ' by its better known 
meaning, c blood \ 

(6) In the following we have an example of the word 
' with an improper signification ' — 

* Tapasvibhiryd. 

ragashvamdhe p.isbnlamnp:l*$tah 9 

' The glorious men who have become beasts offered 
in the sacrifice of battle quickly attain that condition which 
is attained by ascetics by prolonged austerities, and which 
is eagerly sought after by performers of sacrifices/ 

\70 kAvyaprakasa 

apps^fapr f^^FRt ^stf% 3W: FRFfa tf^H 1 

Here the word c pasbu 9 , * beast ', — indicating (in its 
proper denotation) as it does, cowardliness — conveys a 
sense that is c improper ' (and repugnant to the context). 

[The meaning is that those who lose their lives in battle attain 
heaven more quickly than others ; this has been figuratively expressed 
by means of the words ' men who are killed in battle as beasts are 
offered in sacrifice \ — and this implies that the men are possessed of 
the qualities of the 'beasts' ; and these qualities are quite the reverse 
of bravery and other qualities which are generally associated with the 
heroes of war,] 

(7) In the following we have an example of the ' useless 9 
(redundant) word.— 

c XJtphulla mama hi garni 

ynsmatprasadena 9 

c O blessed Gauri, whose complexion is bright like 
the pollen of the full-blown lotus, may my desired object 
be accomplished by your kindness 1' 

Here the particle c hi 9 is entirely superfluous. 

(8) In the following we have an example of the c in- 
expressive 9 word — 

(a) ' Abandhyakopasya 

jantuna darah 9 


^tIW *tt fey srwt ^nrefr ^t W*ft ^tt 
f% f 4: f sr£ srl^r f^t tot q* ^a^f 

c To him whose anger is never futile and who is ever 
able to destroy his own troubles, people surrender them- 
selves of their own accord ; on the other hand, if one is 
devoid of resentment, men do not mind his enmity, nor 
do they care for his friendship, if he is not generous \ 

Here the word ' jantu ' (which means ' animal '), 
is used in the sense of ' not generous \ which it never 

[A distinction is made between the 'inexpressive ' word and the 
word 'incapable of giving sense' (4) on the ground that while the 
latter, though incapable of expressing the intended meaning in its 
entirety, does express a portion of it, the former is absolutely unable 
to express any portion of it at all : that is of the two factors of the 
intended meaning, the object and its qualities, while the c Incapable 
word * may signify one or the other, though not both, the 
'Inexpressive word ' signifies neither.] 

Another example of the " Inexpressive Word " — 

Hd dhik 

dagdham dinam ... 

JJvaloko dhund 9 . 

c Woe to me ! That time when I saw the Moon- 
faced one is said to have been (dark) nighty and this present 
time, darkened as it is by the pangs of her separation, is 
held to be (light) day ! What shall I do ? The Dispenser 
is ever averse to my welfare ! Or else, why was not the 
entire living world transformed for me into that same 


snrerrnffaRftat fa^^r^ft ^WWZl ^wfw \\\\o\\ 

Here the, word c dinam ' is not quite expressive of 
brightness [in the same manner as c tamasi ' is of darkness.] 

Another example of this same defect we have in a case 
where (though the verbal root is quite expressive of the 
intended meaning), the meaning becomes changed by 
the particular prefix added to it ; as in the following — 

c Janghd.. ................ 

...... vidadhadabhinavo . . . bhavdnydh 5 

c Glorious is the Dandapdda attitude struck up by 
Bhavani when imitating her husband's dance, — the attitude 
(of the legs) which bears the splendour of the lotus grown 
in the tank of the exquisite charm of her body, having the 
thighs for its stalk, the lustrous nails for its filaments, the 
bright red paints on the feet for its petals, and the jinglino- 
anklets for the bees hovering round it. 5 

. Here the word ' vidadhat ' has been used in the sense 
of c dtibat? c bears/ 

[The form ' dadhat s without the prefix e means ' bearing'; with 
the said prefix, it means c ordaining/ c encompassing J and so forth.] 



^nr^nf ^i^npr wr"ft fNfara* i 
^t fWsRm^T soft stft femi cnr m 

(9) The ' indecorous ' word is of three kinds, implying 
either (a) indecency or (b) disgust or (c) inauspiciousness ; 
we have an example of (a) in the following : — 

c Sddhanam 

bhruvam ' 

6 He whose vast sddbana (army — the male organ) is one 
that is not found with any one else, — of such an intelligent 
person who can bear the eyebrows curved (in anger) ? * 

There is an indecent implication in the double meaning 
of the word ' sddhanam \ 

An example of (b) we have in the following — 

' iJldtdmarasd 

dadatl vayum chumbitd 9 

c He who had his lips bearing the marks of the freely 
bestowed kisses of a strange woman, on being struck 
(in anger) by his wife with her sporting lotus, stood rubbing 
his eyes, as if they were hurt by the dust of the flower 
falling into them ; the simple-minded young girl (taking 
pity on him) stood there puffing air into the eyes with her 
budded mouth ; thereupon, either through mistake or 
through cunningness, the man kissed her repeatedly (thus 
becoming reconciled), without having had to throw him- 
self at her feet (and seek her forgiveness)'. 

174 kavyaprakISa 

*rfr f^rcprra" sp ^t*r sff ii^n (3) 

( \ o ) <#fe*sf ' ^ 

The phrase * vdyurii dadati \ has an implication that 
arouses disgust. 

(c) c Mrdupavana vindshdt 

barht 9 . 

6 By the disappearance of my beloved, this dense and 
lovely train of the peacock, ruffled by mild breeze, has 
been left without a rival ; for in the presence of the hair- 
braid of that fair-tressed one, interspersed with flowers, 
and ruffled in dalliance, whom could this peacock capti- 
vate ?* 

Here the term c vindsdt * has an inauspicious implication 
(as it denotes death). 

(10) In the following we have an example of the ' ambi- 
guous ' word — 

c Alingitastatra 

vandydm kuru \ 

c Embraced by glorious victory, may you, revered 
Sire, receive in your ears reverent and continuous bene- 
dictions, and extend your mercy I* 

The exact signification of the word i vandydm 9 is 
ambiguous ; it being doubtful whether it means ' forcibly 


( U ) f sr5Tcft# r ^^ ^rrct HfatH i wr 
sr^rr^rq-^rscft srrcrcrrafcft zft w i^KH^ swr: ii 
^mhitora^ sffeR" fT# ^ft: ii ? \vi 

captured women ' (in which case the sentence would mean 
c may you extend your mercy towards the captive woman ? ), 
or ' reverent ' (in which case it would qualify ' dsihparam- 
par am '). 

(11) The following is an example of the c unintelligible ' 
word, — i. e. one that is used in a technical sense attaching 
to it only in scientific literature : — 

c Samyagindna dalitdshayatdjusah 


c One who has his desires destroyed by the supreme 
light of True Wisdom, — to him an act, even though done, 
does not act as a bondage/ 

Here the term ' dshhaya * in the sense of desire or longing 
is a technicality of the Yoga and other technical philoso- 
phical literature. 

(12) In the following we have an example of the c vul- 
gar ' word, /. e. one that is used only by the lower order 
of men. 

c Rdkd. 

katishcha harate tnanah? 

' Thy face which has taken to itself the lustre of the 

176 kIvyaprakaSa 

3f5T sFfeft%U ... 

( $3 ) '#JTFW' I 

"frsarr snarr: ^rftw ^TT^rfcr srfw?Rcr i 

•N "N "V 

full moon, and these thy buttocks resembling a block of 
gold, captive the heart \ 

The word ' kafi ' (is one that is used only in vulgar 

(13) The following is an example of the word c whose 
meaning has to be guessed out \ — /. e. which is used in 
such a secondary or figurative sense as is not permissible, 
in accordance with the law (stated by Kumarila) that (a) 
' Some forms of figurative use are such as are as well 
recognised as direct denotation itself, being based upon 
the inherent potency of the words, (b) there are others 
adopted for the moment, for some special purpose, (c) 
while there are some that are absolutely incapable of afford- 
ing the required sense and are hence inadmissible. 3 [ And 
it is this third kind of figurative use that is meant in the 
present context ]* 

c Sharatkdla , chapetapdtandtithim \ 

' Thy face, O slender one, makes the Moon, who is the 
beloved of the autumnal Full-moon night, the recipient 
of a slap \ 

Here the < giving of a slap * is meant to be indicative of 
surpassing [and this indication is not based upon either 
convention or upon any special purpose to be served ]. 

chapter vir 177 

fwrreft jpt era - i mr 

* Samdsagatameva ' (in the text) is to be construed as 
meaning that the three defects that are mentioned last arc 
so only when occurring in a compound, the others being 
defective both when occurring in a single word and in a 

(14) The following one contains an example of the 
€ obscure 9 word, — /. e. where the comprehension of the 
intended meaning is impeded : — 

c Atrikchan0sa?nbhr{kojyQtirndgama^ \ 

1 Sadrsham shobhatetyartham bhupdla tava chestitam n 
' Thy conduct looms bright like those that bloom in 
the light of him who was born of the eyes of the sage Atri \ 
What are meant here are the white < lilies ', which 
bloom in the light of the Moon, who is described as being 
born out of the eyes of the sage Atri. [And this is ex- 
tremely obscure \ 

(15) The following is an example of ( a compound) 
where ' the predicative factor is not discriminated/ — i. e. 
not sufficiently emphasised as the principal factor, — 


178 kavyaprakASa 



praydsah \ 

' What is the use of these my heads and arms, if I have 
to make an effort even for the protecting of the city ?— 
the heads whose false glory was trumpeted to the world 
through victories gained by the favour of Shiva's feet, 
washed as they were with the unimpeded flow of blood 
issuing from them when they were majestically cut off by 
myself; — and the arms full of intense pride manifes- 
ted in the deep longing for the lifting of the Kailasha 

Here the defect lies in the compound ending with 
mithydmahimndm \ where ' mithyd 9 c false \ forming the 
first term of the qualitative compound, appears only as a 
qualifying adjunct (anuvadya, referred to for the sake of, and 
hence subordinate) to something else (/. e. c greatness '), 
while in reality it is meant to be the predicative factor, and 
the predominant element. 

[The meaning being that ' the greatness bad turned out to be false, 
inasmuch as I have to make an effort to guard my city'. In this manner 
there is a logical connection between trie assertion of falsity and the 
subsequent statement; in the other case the two statements stand 
separately — (a) * my heads have false greatness' and (b) * I have to 
guard the city' ; and there is no logical connection between the two*] 


q-qT ^t 

Another example of the same we have in the follow- 
ing :— 

' Srastdm dvitijamaurvlmiva ? 

' She again and again tucked up the girdle of Bakula- 
flowers which slid down from her waist, — the girdle that 
resembled the second bow-string kept in her charge by the 
Love-God who knows the proper place to deposit things ', 

What is meant to be emphasised here is the fact of the 
girdle being the second ; 

[As it is only when it is the second, that there can be any 
possibility of its being deposited ; — and this fact of its being the second 
is subordinated in the compound, where 'dvitiycf, ' second/ appears 
only as a subordinate factor.] 

The right reading, therefore, would be c maurvlm 
dvitlydmiva ' [where c dvitlydm' ' standing by itself, the fact of 
being ' second ' becomes duly emphasised]. 

Another example of the same defect : — 

6 Vapurvirftpdksamalaksjajanmatd. 


6 His body contains disfigured eyes, he is of unknown 

birth, and his wealth is indicated by his having no dress; 

O thou fawn-eyed one, is there in Shiva, even singly any 

of those qualities that one seeks for in a bridegroom ?* 


What is meant to be emphasised here is that ' his 
birth zV unknown ' [and this has been made a subordinate 
factor in the compound ' alaksyajanmata\ The right read- 
ing would thus have been c alaksitd janih. 9 

Yet another example of the same defect. — 

c Ananda 


dhigdhigasmdn 9 

c Being the ocean of bliss, the one abode of the force 
enchaining the fickle heart, she was not left by you even 
for one moment ; and now her very name brings disgust 
in you, — woe to us V 

What is meant to be emphasised or predicated here 
is the negation — ' not left '; — and hence the negative particle 
should have stood by itself, as c na muktd ', — as it is in the 

verse c navajakdharah na drptanishdcharah, tasya shardsanam, ... ayamapi dhdrd- 

sdro na bdnaparampard> vidyut priyd na mamorvasht — > 

' This is the fresh dense cloud, not a vainglorious demon ; 


sUTWrcrat *ftaT«W«M: ¥^F^fRT \\\%Y\\ 

this is the celestial bow, not the bow of that demon ; this 
is the downpour of rain ; not the flight of arrows ; this is 
the lightning bright like the hue of gold on a touch-stone, 
and not my beloved Urvashi ; — while, in the passage 
quoted before we have the negative particle appearing as 
the subordinate factor in the compound ' amuktd \ which 
would have been justified only if there were something 
else predicated in reference to the ' non-abandoning \ 
as is found to be the case with the following — ' jugopdtma- 
namatrasto ; bheje dharmamandturah ; agrdhnurddade sortbdn ; 
asaktah sukhamanvabhut ; — c Though unterrified, he guarded 
himself ; though untroubled, he had recourse to righteous- 
ness ; though not greedy, he received wealth ; and though 
unattached, he enjoyed pleasures;' [where the self -guarding 
is predicated with reference to the fact of the king being 
unterrified and so forth, which justifies the compounding 
of the negative particle.] 

(16) The following is an example of * repugnant sugges- 
tion ', — 

c sudhd. 

akdryamitra varnaydmahe ' 

c What shall I say of him who is a disinterested friend, 
his conduct being as pure as the rays of the moon/ 

182 kavyaprakISa 

spr <m%' f^rr fwr' #r farter 'svm fwr ^%' 

T ^T *lft 1T*T ^r^omfcrPRrFcTTcTpT: 

Here the sense meant to be conveyed by the word 
4 akdryamitram 9 is that he is friendly without any selfish 
motive— a disinterested friend ; whereas the word has 
also the other (repugnant) signification— that c he is a 
mitra, a companion, an associate, in akarya, evil deeds.* 

Another example — 

' Chirakala 

.galagraham ' 

' Meeting after a long time her lover rejoicing her eyes, 
the loving girl suddenly offers him her embrace/ 

Here the right word to use would have been c Karitha- 
graham \ ' falling on his neck \ 

[The word that is used, however, e galagraham ', is better known as 
the name of a particular disease of the neck, and as such it has a most 
repugnant implication in the present context.] 

Another example — 

' Na trastam ,,.. 



' When Rama broke the bow of the husband of Bha- 
vani, he did not fear that God himself, because his heart 


sre ^^qrfopcft urtrtt: <m*3X snftfr «f&% i tot ^t 

is quiescent through his mercy on all living creatures ; 
the son of that God, Skanda, also, was the source of joy 
to the universe by reason of his having killed the haughty 
demon Taraka (and hence he also could not be feared) ; 
but how is it that he did not think of myself, the disciple 
of the God Siva, and as dear to him as his son Skanda ?' 

Here the word ' bhavdnipati \ literally meaning ' the 
husband of Bhava's wife ' (' bhavdrii ' meaning the ' wife 
of Bhava ' another name for Shiva,) has the repugnant 
signification that the Goddess had a husband other than 
Shiva, the God spoken of. 

Another example — 

c Gorapi ambikdramanah ' 

' May Ambika's husband protect you,— he near whom 
even Gaurf s lion becomes freed from all ill-feeling towards 
the bull that is used as a conveyance by that God/ 

Here the word c ambikdramanah ' has a repugnant 
signification (its literal meaning c one who enjoys the 
company of ' Ambikd \ Mother). 

[Having dealt with the defects found in compounds only, the 
author proceeds to deal with the other defects described before, the 

* disagreeable to the ear * and the rest which are held to occur in single 
words as also in compounds.] 

But he gives an example of only one of them, the 

* disagreeable to the ear/ as occurring in a compound — 

184 kIvyaprakaSa 

H^^ft sim ii 
?mfq ^m: w&$ redraft ^^ n \$ \\ 

' Sa dure 

Barhinirhrddandrhoyam .gatah 9 

c Far away is she of the lovely and gr aceful glances, 
and here has arrived the season resounding with the cry 
of the peacocks !' 

[Here the compound in the second line is harsh-sound- 

The other defects (as occurring in compounds) may be 
similarly exemplified. 51. 

Excepting (a) ' lack of correctness \ Q?) c incapability of 
giving sense ' and(c) c uselessness 9 — these {aforesaid) defects occur 
in a sentence also ; and some of them in parts of words as well. 52. 

' Some of them ',— not all. 

The following are the examples in due order — 

(1) [The sentence c disagreeable to the ear '] — 

' Sodhyaista veddwstridashdnayasta 

c Pitrlnatdrpslt samamamsta bandhun 

c Vyajesta saclpargamaramsta nitau 

c Samulaghdtam nyavadhidarhkshcha \ 

c He studied the Vedas, offered sacrifices to the Gods 
and oblations to the Pit? s, honoured his friends, subjuga- 
ted the ' sixfold group ' (of Desire, Anger, Avarice, Delu- 

■chapjejl-vix t$5 

1 "¥ TT§ *ft " p^T^ft ^W^FTt qtqTFT I 

3T5^f%*n^^ ^TT%^m^PT ^F:ll?V9^1l 

sion, Pride and Envy), took delight in statesmanship, 
and rooted out his enemies \ 

[Though in most cases cited as exemplifying the defects as 
occurring in a sentence the defects are actually found to lie in words 
only, — as here the harshness lies in the words 'adhyaista 9 , ( ayasta ' and 
so forth, — yet the distinction is justified on the ground that where 
the defect lies in a single word in the sentence, it is regarded as occurring 
in the word, while where it occurs in more than one word, it is taken as 
occurring in the sentence.] 

(2) [ The c unconventional '] — 

c Sa ratu vo dushchyavano bhavukanam parampardm 

c Anedamukatddyaishcha dyatu dosairasammatdn \ 

6 May Indra bring you a continuity of prosperity 1 

May he strike your enemies with deafness, dumbness and 

other disabilities V 

Here the word ' dushcbyavana ' for Indra, and c aneda- 

muka 9 for ' deaf and dumb \ are such as are not used, are 

' unconventional.' 

(3) [ The c suppressed meaning '] — 

c Sdyakasahdyabdhormakaradhvajaniyamitaksamddhipateh 
c Abjaruchibhdsvaraste bhdtitardmavanipa shlokah ' 
c You, O King, who are the master of the Ocean- 
bounded Earth, and have the sword for your companion, 
have your fame shining resplendent like the moon \ 

Here the words ' sdyaka ', ' makaradhvaja \ c ksamd \ 
' abja 9 and * shloka ' have been used in the sense, respec- 



tively, of sword, ocean, earth, moon, and fame, — while they 
are better known as having the sense of arrow, love-god, 
forgiveness, lotus and verse } respectively [and hence the desired 
signification of all these words is ' suppressed ']. 
(4) [ c Improper signification '] 
Yjmndastvam tdvat patayasi gut}agrdmamdbhito 
Yasho gdyantyete dishi dishi cha nagndstava vibho 
Tatbdpi tvatklrtirbhramati vigatdchchhddanamiha \ 

e As Lord of the Earth, you are spreading on all sides 
hosts of good qualities ; these bards are singing your fame 
on all sides ; and yet thy renown, beautiful and resplen- 
dent as the autumnal moon, wanders about unfurled/ 

Here there is an c improper signification/ inasmuch 
as some of the words — e. g. * kuvinda 9 ['patayasi \ € nagna \ 
'yasha '] have a second meaning which indicates disrespect 
towards the person described. 

[ c Kwinda > means a weaver, ' gunam patayasi" means ' weave yam, 
' nagna 9 means naked, ' ' yashah is capable of being read or construed as 
' ayasah' so that the person addressed comes to be described as a 
weaver weaving cloth and so forth.] 


fast ^r^nVhf H^'WHH<N<jinT ii^yii 

^TO^nW ^^^ crn^yN^T i 
a*fafaf sprerfcr <rctapf ^ w^ - 1 

(5) [The c Inexpressive '] — 

c Prdbhrabhrdd vis%udhamapya visamdshvah karotyayam 

Nidrdm sahasraparydndm paldyanapardyandm. 

c Having reached the beautifully clouded sky, the sun 
puts to flight the sleep of the lotuses/ 

Here the words c prdbhrabhrdt? visnudhdma? c vlsamdshva \ 
c nidrd 9 and c parna 9 have been used in the sense* res- 
pectively, of * beautiful cloud ', 6 sky ' ' sun \ c closing ' 
and ' petal ', — while, as a matter of fact they do not ex- 
press or denote these things. 

(6) [Indecorous — shameful] — 

c BhupatempasarpantJ kampand vdmalochand 
TattatpraharanotsdhavatJ mohanamddadhau \ 

'The angry army of the king brought about the stupefac- 
tion (of the enemy) by marching and energetically striking'. 

Here the words c upasarpantl \ ' praharana 9 and ' moha- 
na ' give rise to feelings of shame by reason of their second 
meanings (women in love, embraces and passionate love, 
respectively), and are ' therefore ' c indecorous '. 

[Indecorous— Disgusting]— 

Tenyairvdntam samashnantr'parotsargamcha bhunjate. 


' Those who are prone to making use of the ideas of 
other poets eat out of other people's vomitings and slutt- 

Here the words ' vomiting ', ' slutting ' and ' excret- 
ing ' (which is another meaning of pravartana) are produc- 
tive of disgust. 

[Indecorous — Inauspicious] — 

c Pitrvasatimaham vrajdmi tarn saha parivdrajanena yatra me 

c Bhavati sapadi pdvakdnvaye brdayamas hesitasbokasbalyakanf . 

c With all my family I shall repair to my father's house, 
where in the purifying family, my heart shall have all its 
darts of grief removed/ 

Here the words c pitrvasaW (and 'pdvaka 9 ) intended 
to convey the meaning of ' father's house ' (and ' purify- 
ing '), signify also the crematorium (and fire), and are for 
that reason ' inauspicious/ 

(7) [The ' Ambiguous ']— 

' Snrdlayolldsaparah prdptaparydptakampanah 
Mdrgayapravano bhdsvadbhutiresa vilokyatdm? 

It is doubtful whether (a) the words ' surdlaya \ 
' kampana \ ' mdrga®a ' and ' bbuti ' are meant to signify 
' abode of the gods *, c army \ c arrow ' and ' glory ' [in 
which case the passage would mean—' Look at this king, 
who is bent upon Heaven, is equipped with sufficient 


are f% q RlPttl^l tWTRRf^^: f% MfeuiwV. 
?%*%: II 

army, clever in the use of arrows and of resplendent 
glory '], or (b) c wine-shop ', ' trembling ', ' begging ' 
and c destruction ' [in which case the meaning would be — 
' Look at this man, ever bent upon wine-shops, constantly 
trembling, efficient in begging and with destruction facing 
him ']. 

(8) [The c Unintelligible ']— 
' Tasyddhimdtropdyasya 

Twr> •.-."// v^ +:~;-*Kih 

Drdhabhumih priyapraptau 
Yatnah sa phalitah sakhe \ 
* The powerful efforts of the man have succeeded in 
helping him to attain what he desired, — he having em- 
ployed the methods (of self-control and the rest) conducive 
to true wisdom, and practising intense renunciation \ 
Here the words ' adhimdtra ' (' fivrasamvega * and 
* drdhabhumi ') are used in their technical sense found in 
Yoga literature only, and as such they are not intelligible \ 

(9) [< The Vulgar ']— 

' Tdmbulabhrtagalloyam bhallam jalpati manusah 9 
c Karoti khddanam pdnam sadaiva tu yatha taihd \ 
c Having his cheeks filled with betel-leaves, and eating 
and drinking always, he goes on talking rapidly'. 

190 eavyapraka§a 

3T^m^T^^rrt: ^RRr^T Sf^T *[: f^TT 'fas 5 ?? sfMfa 

The words c ^/fa ' (and ' fez//<z ') are ' vulgar '. 
(10) [ ' Whose meaning is to be guessed '] 
' Vastravaiduryacharanaih 
Niskampd rachitd netra — 
Yuddham vedaya sdmpratam\ 
' This unshaking thing (/. e. the earth) has its third besides 
Harmony and Energy (J. e. Darkness) dispelled by the feet 
(i. e. rays) of the emerald (/. e. gem) of the vastra (i. e. 
' ambara \ vi^ : sky) [/. e. the sun] ; so open now the 
battle (i. e. pair) of your eyes \ 

The meaning intended to be conveyed here is that 
' the sun having dispelled darkness from the earth, the 
eyes should be opened'; and this can only be guessed 
out of the words used. 

[(*) ' Vastra ' has another synonym in e ambara', which means the 
sky, — * vaidurya * denotes the emerald, which is one kind of gem,— 

* char ana ' is synonymous w:th e pada% which also means * rays ', 

hence the compound ' vastravaiduryacharana ' the rays of the gem of 
the sky Le. the s\m;—Sattpa ', Rajas and Tamasixz the three cosmic 
attributes,— so that the third besides Rajas and Sattva is Tamas, which 
denotes darkness,— so that the compound ' ksatasattvarajahparah ' 
means ' whose darkness has been dispelled ;' — c niskampd ' meaning 
unshaking, is used for the immovable Earth ;— ' yuddha * is synony- 
mous with * dvandva % which also means c pair ',— hence the compound 
' mtrayuddham * means ' pair of eyes'.] 


'T ^ TOT ftwf fT^TM^n - : i 

(11) [The < obscure >.]— 

'Dhammillasya na kasya preksya nikdmam kiirangashdvaksydh 
Kajyatyapurvabandhavyutpattermanasam shobhdm \ 

' Whose heart does not become enamoured on seeing 
the loveliness of the beautifully-braided locks of the fawn- 
eyed one ?' 

The syntactical connection intended here — 

c Dhammillasya shobhdm preksya kasya mdnasam na 
rajyati\ — is difficult to get at, c obscure [by reason of the 
order in which the words are placed]. 

(12) [' The predicative factor not discriminated *] — 
' Nyakkdrobyayameva me yadarayastatrdpyasau tdpasah 

Svargagrdmatlkdvilunthanavrthochchhunaih kimebhirbbujaih 9 . 

* It is a disgrace that I have enemies ; and even that 
an ascetic, who is slaughtering the host of demons ; and 
that at this very place ; and yet Ravana is living ; woe, 
woe, to Meghanada ! What has come out of Kumbhakarna 
having been awakened. What too has been the use of 
these my arms that have become uselessly fattened by 
plundering the tiny hamlet of heaven ?* 

192 kIvyai>&a.b:Isa 

fW&cTT f#f<M l«W*$4 5>ft T ^l^mFT I 

What is intended is that ' that I have enemies is itself 
a disgrace \ and the proper order of words would be 
* ayameva nyakkdrah 9 ; and secondly, what should have 
been merely referred to, is the mete fattening of the arms, 
for the purpose of predicating its uselessness, which should 
not have been made a mere qualifying adjunct in the com- 

[The meaning intended is that the fattening of my arms has been 
of no use; being of no use, therefore,, being the predicated factor, should 
have stood by itself, while it has been made a subordinate adjunct 
by being placed in the middle of a compound.] 

Inasmuch as the fault here lies in the order of the 
words being reversed, the defect is attributed to the sen- 
tence, not to the meaning of the sentence. 

Another example (of ' non-discrimination of the pre- 
dicative factor ') — 

' Apdngasamsargi tarangitam drshorbhruvorardldntavildsi- 

Visdri romdnchanakanchukam tanostanoti yosau subhage 

tavdgatah 9 
' Here has come — one who brings a tremor to your 
eyes, an elegant curvature to your eye-brows and a bodice 
of thrilling hairs to your body \ 


^RW $m ^ftfcT: 5fNr' S^N^tfe^ I 

Here the two pronouns 'yab and asau ' only serve to 
point out the person as merely referred to [and the 
predicative pronoun c he ', c sah ', is wanting]. 

It is the pronoun c tat \ 6 that ', which, standing as it 
does for (a) what has been spoken of before, or (b) what 
is well-known, or (c) what has been already seen or heard 
of, does not require the corresponding pronoun c yat\ 
'which' or 'what'; as for example— 

(a) ' Kdtaryam sah \— Regarding pure 

statesmanship as a weakness, and sheer valour to be beast- 
like, he always sought to attain success by both these 
means' ; — [Here the pronoun ' sah ', € he ', stands for the 
king spoken of before, and hence the corresponding ' who ' 
is not required] ; — 

(b) ' Dvayam kali cha sd, kattmudi — c By seeking 

to be associated with the God of the Begging Bowl, two 
things have become objects of concern—/^/ resplendent 
digit of the moon and thyself, who art like moonlight to 
the eyes of this world ;' — [Here the pronoun c sd ' re- 
ferring to the well-known digit of the moon on Siva's 
forehead, does not require the corresponding c jd 9 ] ; — 


(<r) ' Utkampini te lochane viksitdsi 9 ; — c Tremb- 
ling and having the clothing gliding off through fear, 
and casting those timid glances all round, thou wert burnt 
by the cruel fire blinded by smoke, and wert no longer 
seen" ; — [Here the pronoun ' te \ c those \ standing for the 
glances that the speaker has seen before, does not stand 
in need of the corresponding c ye ']. 

The pronoun ' yat \ (who or whicB) also, when occurring 
in the latter of two correlated clauses, does not require 
the corresponding c tat ' in the preceding clause, because 
by reason of its inherent power (it always implies a pre- 
ceding ' tat ') ; as we find in the following example — 
c Sddhu..yadabhirdmatddhike„.pMiah ;' — 'On the rising of 
the lovelier moon the lotuses did well that they closed 
themselves ; but this moon has behaved most arrogantly 
when he has risen even on the appearance of the face of the 
lovely woman, which is far superior to her 5 . [Here 'yat 
mllitam 9 implies the corresponding ' tat sddhu krtam\ and 
hence the actual presence of this latter pronoun is not 
necessary in the preceding clause]. 

But in cases when the pronoun 'yat 9 occurs in the 


w am ^t% 3TT?rqT^>f &m \ vfmrzff 5 ftrer- 

preceding clause, it is always deficient (wanting in essen- 
tials), if the corresponding ' tat ' is not actually present ; 
as for example in the verse just quoted, if we reverse the 
order of the two clauses [reading * mllitam yadabhirdmatd- 
dhike sddhu cbandramasi puskaraih krtam '] we find that it 
gives no sense. 

(a) In cases where both the pronouns are used, of 
course, there is nothing wanting, as every one knows ; 
and (b) in certain cases, even when neither is present, 
both are implied by the force of the sentence, e.g. 

(a) ' Ye ndma kechidiha nah prathayantyavajndm 
Jdnanti te kimapi tan prati naisa yatnah ; 

(b) Utpatsyatesti mama kopi samdnadharmd 
Kd/o hyaya'm niravadhirvipidd cha prthvi \ 

c Who would deride me in this attempt, know some- 
thing perhaps , — for them this effort of mine is not inten- 
ded ; some one possessed of qualities similar to mine 
may yet be born, — or he may even be living now, — time 
is interminable and the earth immense \ 

Here in the second half both c yat ' and c tat ' are under- 
stood, the meaning intended being c the person ivho will 
be born, for him is this mark of mine meant \ 

196 kavyapraka^a 

[The first half of the verse is an example of this correct use of both 
e jaf and c taf and the second half that of the correct suppression 
of both.] 

[Having thus discussed the correct use of the relative 
pronouns c jat ' and c tat \ the author takes up the thread 
of his remarks on the verse ' apdfigasamsargi 9 &cc.% see 
above]. Thus in the above-mentioned verse, the ab- 
sence of the pronoun ' tat * causes a deficiency, and leaves 
something wanting to complete the sentence. — It cannot 
be said that the pronoun ' asau ' has the same sense at 
'tat*-, because in such sentences as the following we do not 
find the word c asau ' conveying the sense of * tat ' — 

c Asau maruchchttmbtta agatah 9 

' Like Hanuman, (a) having his beautiful locks kissed 
by the Wind-god (his father), (b) the leader of the army 
of the Lord of Tara (Sugrlva), and (c) eagerly looked up 
to by Rama, separated from his wife, — has this spring- 
time season arrived, (a) having its flower-pollen wafted 
by the breeze, (b) beautified by the bright moon, and (c) 
eagerly looked upon by women separated from their 

In fact if the pronoun < asau ' conveyed the same sense 
as fi tat 9 9 then the use of the pronoun ' sa 9 (the masculine 


^^RT^^r^rf^f?R^ ^r: irrf fcf?mcr it \ % ? n 


*ftfMF?qf^^T^ qwter faf^r ^-§"5: 1 

nominative form of ' tat ') in the following example would 

be entirely superfluous : — 

' Karabala yosau 

c Yadi sa tatra sydt 9 

6 If this person, who is the only equal of Arjuna, atten- 
ded by his sword, were employed by the King in this 
work, then would it be perfectly accomplished'. 

It might be argued that the pronoun ' asau ' in the 
passage in question may be taken in the sense of c tat ' 
(even though it may not be quite synonymous with it) ; 
just as we find, in the following passage the pronoun 

* asya p (the genitive form of c idam ') used in the sense of 

* tat 9 (' that \ though its ordinary meaning is c this '] — 

' yovikalpa asya bhayam ' — ' For one who 

perceives, without any doubt, your body in all this world, 
where is there any fear in this universe, filled as it is with 
his own self ?' 

Our answer to this is that if in the passage in question 
the pronoun c asau ' were really intended to convey the 
sense of ' tat \ (as c idam ' is in the passage just quoted), 
then it would have been used in a clause other than the 
one in which the pronoun c yat 9 ('yab ') occurs, — as in 
the passage just quoted, ' asya 9 occurs in a separate clause, — 


ffffit f^RT: 5rf%fe qTR^rfcT I I^TT 

w#rcRc*rcr ^m garter ^tt#: i 

qr3R<IN 5T%^rf| STWPT TO**T cF# 

^ TTS" f^lT WPT Vm Wf^Vt II ? V*H 

and not in the same clause (as it does in the passage in 
question, where we have the two pronouns appearing in 
juxtaposition, c yosau'). In fact when pronouns like 
' tat 9 and ' adas \ appear in close juxtaposition to € yat \ 
they signify the well-knoivn character of the thing spoken 
of [and they are not used predicatively] ; — e. g. in the 
passage — * yattadilrjita hdritam 9 — c Even that well- 
known virile and glorious warlike spirit of the king was 
lost in the gambling/— where the pronoun c tat 9 signifies 
the well-known character of the ' spirit/ 

It might be argued that, if such be the rule (that the 
pronoun c yat ' in one clause must be followed by a corres- 
ponding ' tat ' in a subsequent clause), then how is it that 
in the following passage, though the preceding clause 
contains the pronoun ' yat 9 repeated twice — c yat-yat y — 
the corresponding c tat ' occurs only once in the subse- 
quent clause — c Kalyd%iM......yadyat pdpam* tanme 

marigaldya '— Oh Thou of form universal ! Thou art 


the receptacle of the most auspicious effulgence ! Be 
pleased to ordain for me the highest prosperity ! O Lord 
of the world I destroy whatever sin there is in me, — I 
bow down to thee ! O Blessed Lord ! bestow upon me 
for my welfare, everything that is good !' 

Our answer to this is that * yad—yat 9 stands for any- 
thing and everything that exists, that is the entire world 
regarded as a single entity, and it is this single entity that 
is referred to in the subsequent clause by the pronoun 
'fat' [so that there is perfect "co-ordination]. 

[Finding that the example of the defect cited by him above has 
given rise to difficulties, the author cites another example of the 
defect,, whereby the predicative factor is not discriminated^ 

Kim lobhena. . Mvydmtjosan tatakalatram ...krtam \ 

c Was Bharata beset with greed that he got this done 
through his mother ? Or , did my second mother herself 
succumb to the meanness common among women ? — 
Both these ideas of mine are wrong ; as he (Bharata) is 
the younger brother of my noble brother, and she, my 
revered mother, is my father's wife. So I think that this 
improper deed is the work of Providence itself.' 

Here stress is meant to be laid upon the terms ' drya 5 
and c tdta ' [the idea being that ' it is of my noble brother 

200 kavyapbakaSa 

KJ3kw, that Bharata is the younger brother ;' and c it is of 
my father that Kaikeyl is the wife/ and c it is not possible 
for a brother of Rama or for the wife of my father to do 
anything wrong '], [and hence these two being the pre- 
dicative factors] the proper expressions should have been 
c aryasyanujosau ' c tdtasya kalatram ' ; and it was not right 
to make both these the subordinate factors of compounds. 
Similar examples may be cited of this defect occurring 
in other compounds. 

(13) The following is an example of ' repugnant im- 
plication/ — 

c Shritaksamd raktabhuvah 

c Shivdlingitamurtayah 

c Vigrahaksapanenddya 

c S berate te gatdsukhdh y 

c They, having recourse to forgiveness, with the world 
attached to them, and their bodies embraced by all that 
is good, lie down, with all their troubles gone through the 
removal of all quarrels/ 

Here the meaning intended is that ' persons of forgiving 
nature remain happy ' (as translated above), but the words 
chosen have another signification, which is entirely repug- 
nant to this [' Lying down on the ground (shrtaksamdh), 



having reddened the earth with their blood (raktabhnvah\ 
their bodies tossed about by jackals (shwdlifigitamfirtaxaiJ), 
they lie down with their life and organs all gone (gatdsnkhdh), 
through the destruction of their body (vigrahaksapawnt!)\~\ 
The text has said that ' some of those defects occur in 
parts of words also ;* the following are the examples — 
(1) [ The c Disagreeable to the ear *] 
' Alamatichapalatvdt 
dtmd 9 

" Have done with this association with women, which 
is extremely fickle, resembling dreamy illusion, and leads 
to unpleasant consequences ;" — even though this truth 
I ponder over hundreds of times, yet my inner soul for- 
gets not the fawn-eyed one \ 

Here the repetition of the syllable c tvdt ' is c unpleasant 
to the ear'. 

Another example of the same — 

' Tad gachchha siddhyai labdbyai vdmbhah ' . 

' Thus you go forward to success, do the work of 
the gods ; this end in view, which can be attained only 

202 kavyapb,aka6a 

3H" ^# &%, %fo ^ II 

jflwrfe^R^ ^ <rt: ^rerTftrarrt i*n*r i 

through something else, stands in need of an operative 
agent, just as the sprouting of the seed, before it appears, 
needs water \ 

Here the repetition of 'ddhyai* and bdhai is 'unpleasant 
to the ear*. 

(2) [The ' suppressed meaning ? ] — 

' Yashchdpsaro dhdtumattdm \ 

c Who bears on his (snowy) summits a supply of (red) 
minerals which help in making up the coquettish toilet of 
celestial women, — as if it were the red hue of the suddenly 
falling evening, interspersed with pieces of (white clouds)'. 

The term c mattd ' (which forms part of the word 
< dhdtumatta ') is better known in the sense of ' intoxica- 
ted/ (which suppresses the sense of the possessive, which 
is intended), 

(3) [' The useless '.]— 
Addvanjana drshdm : 

kurute kdmdrn kurangeksand ' 

' Her eyes having been painted with collyrium, and 
then heated by the fire of the pangs of separation formed 
by the hot sighs, the fawn-eyed one is now sprinkling 
het tears, and thereby is doing, as it were,the sharpening 
of the arrows of the Love-god \ 



[In sharpening a weapon, the mechanic smears it with acid and 
ashes, then heats it and then sprinkles water over it ;-— the eyes 
being the love-god's arrows these arrows are sharpened in the 
manner described.] 

Here the plural number in < drshdm 9 is c useless ' or 
meaningless, as only one c fawn-eyed girl ? is spoken of. 
It is true that in certain cases, — e. g., in the verse * alasava- 
litaib etc.? — the plural number is used in view of the multi- 
plicity or manifoldness of functions ; but in the present 
instance it cannot be due to any such manifoldness ; as no 
such manifold functions are mentioned ; nor does the 
term c drk ' (* eye ') denote any functions. 

Then again, in this same verse the Atmanepada ending 
in * knnite 7 is also ' useless \ because the effect of the 
action connoted does not belong to the subject ( "woman '), 
and hence the condition necessary for the use of the Atwa- 
nepada ending — that the result of the action should penain 
to the subject — is not fulfilled. 

(4) [The ' Inexpressive ? ] 

4 Chdpdchdry -s »"*',•;■' h 


c Your preceptor in archery is the victor of the three 
cities (Shiva), Kartikeya is your subduable, the ocean, 


^sw^r tort wm wz%m: ir o $ n 
qr^pfcn ^ f^f ^fcr 3^ ^i^^rfscrf^R" 11^0 ^11 

forced back by your weapons, is your abode, and the 
earth is for you an object to be given away ; though all 
this is so, yet my sword Chandrahdsa is ashamed at being 
pitted against your axe which cut off Renuka's head !' 

The verbal potential affix (' yat ') in 6 vijeya ' has been 
used in the sense of the past participle affix ' kta \ which 
sense it can never have. 

[What is meant is that Kattikeya has been subdued by you, while 
the word used is 'vijeya? which means c subduable'.] 

(5) [The 'Indecorous']— 

(a) e Aitpelava .ghatitamva ' 

4 A rogue always speaks very little, and that softly 
and gently; in reality 'however' he has his heart full of 

Here the term c pelava 9 is 'indecorous' (being the 
name in the Lata language of a secret part of the human 

(b) c Yah pity ate ...pumsab ' 

' Rare is the person before whose eyes comes a great 
man like this, who is sanctified by bathing in the Ganga 
apw other sacred places, and also by the consolidation of 


wrer ^ cfg^teraf cr^r^rqr^ tow: ii^oyii 

3PT ^Tf^^TFTR3^^q^Tfir^ I R o ^ 1 1 
3PT f% <jf* m<%: 3cT mm TOtfcT S% II 

this knowledge of the scriptures, — of noble and respectable 
birth, the personified spirit of all that is spirited. 3 

The term ' pity a' is c indecorous ' (as it denotes pas). 

(c) c Vinaya tadahhipretapadam s^/nr^tch\ 

c O friend ! he who used to be the one receptacle of 
humility and love, — how can be looked upon as the same, 
when he has attained the position he desired (of becoming 
the lover of another woman) ? ? 

Here the term c pre fa 9 is c indecorous ? (as it denotes 
the ' departed dead '). 

(6) [The ' Ambiguous ']— 

c Kaswin karmaiji samarthyam.^ayarii sddhucharah..Jha\ 

' In what action does his capacity not shine ? — And 
he is of virtuous character ; so salute him/ 

The exact meaning of the part (' chara ') of the word 
' Sadhucharah * is ' ambiguous 9 ; — ' chara ' is an ailix 
denoting ' something liui is past \ and in that sense 
'Sadhucharah' means 'who was good in the past'; on 
the other hand, ' chara ' may be a noun derived from the 
root c chara ' (to behave), in which case the compound 
c Sadhucharah ' would mean * he who behaves virtuously ' 


(7) [ c The meaning having to be guessed '] — 
c Kimuchyate vachobanaih. . .vibhdvyate? 

' What is to be said to this central crest-jewel of kings ! — 
whose splendour is such as is difficult even for the gods 
to attain I' 

Here the term ' vachah ' (in c vachobanaih ') is meant to 
indicate its synonym ' gih 9 (which gives the word ' glr- 
bdna \ — which is one of the names of the gods), and thus 
the meaning of the compound ' vachobanaih 9 is such as 
can be ' guessed 9 with difficulty]. 

In fact the compound word ' glrbdya ' (as a name of the 
gods) is such that it is not only the first term of the com- 
pound that does not admit of being replaced by a synonym; 
the second term also does not admit of being so replaced 
[i.e. just as we cannot have ' vachobdna 9 so also we cannot 
have 'g!h-sara 9 ]. As compound names where the 
second term does not admit of being replaced by a synonym > 
we have such words as * jaladhi 9 (ocean) and the like 
(which become entirely altered in sense by being trans- 
formed into 6 jaladhara \ which means cloud) ; and as ins- 
tances of compound names in which the first term does 
not admit of being replaced by a synonym, we have such 
words as c vatfavanala 9 (the submarine fire) [which, when 
changed into ' asvdnala ' does not mean the same thing]. 


c j* 

^?rrf^^rTT? <raBPW *Wlk^HW+-l II \% \\ 

( ? ) ^K^u=f mFfi mm i crffrdcf sifopaEpfa' i 

Though the words classed as e unconventional ' and 
the test ate only sub-classes of what is 'incapable of giving 
sense \ yet they have been described separately, because 
some rhetoricians have treated of them as separate and 
hence it was thought proper to cite separate examples of 
them. 52. 

That sentence is defective which (1) contains discordant 
letters, (2) has the visarga blunted, (3) has the visarga deleted, 
(4) involves an unharmonions euphony, (5) involves a marred 
metre, (6) is deficient in words, (7) is redundant in words, 
(8) contains repeated words, (9) has its excellence receding, 
(10) resumes the concluded, (11) has a word isolated in a 
distinct half, (12) is devoid of intended connection, (13) omits a 
necessary statement, (14) has a word misplaced, (15) has a 
compound misplaced, (16) is confused, (17) is parenthetical, 
(18) is oppossed to usage, (19) has its uniformity broken, 
(20) has no uniformity and (21) has an undesirable second meaning. 
(1) It is going to be explained later on (Ch. VIII) 
how certain letters are in consonance with the delinea- 
tion of certain particular Passions ; and letters that are 


not in such consonance are called c discordant \ For 
example in the following delineation of the Erotic — 
c Akunthotkanthayd purnamdkdtitham kalakanthi mdm 
Kambukanthydh ksanam kanthe kuru kaythdrtimuddhara* 

c O sweet-voiced one ! Do place me, who am full up 
to the throat with unimpeded longing, on the neck of the 
conch-necked one, and thereby remove the pangs of my 
neck '; — 

[The frequent repetition of the harsh letter gtba is 

highly discordant with the sentiment depicted]. 

Or, in the following delineation of the Furious— 

c Desah soyamardtisonitajalairyasmin hraddh puritdh 

Ksaftrddeva tathdvidhah paribhavastdtasya kesagrahah 

Tdnyevdhitahetighasmaragurunyastrdfti bhdsvanti me 

Yad rdmeqa krtantadeva kurute drotydtmajah krodhanah \ 

c This land is the same where pools were filled (by 
Parasurama) with the blood of slaughtered enemies ; 
insult at the hands of a Ksattriya, in the shape of the father's 
locks being pulled, is also similar ; these resplendent 
weapons of mine also are similarly famous as being des- 
tructive of the weapons of enemies ; the wrathful son of 

chapter vn • 209 


Drona is going to do precisely what was done by Parasu- 
rama *. — 

What would have been in consonance with the senti- 
ment depicted would be [not the soft letters and simple 
words used, but] harsh sounding letters and long com- 
pounds ; as in the following — 
c Prdgaprdptanisbumbhasbdmbhava- 


stambhdpaviddhah ksandt 
Ujjvdlah parashurbhavatvashithilas- 

Yendnena jagatsu khandaparashur- 

devo harcth khydpyate\ 
c May this blazing and powerful axe of mine, by reason 
whereof the god Shiva is known as c the god of the broken 
axe/ (He having bestowed a part of his axe to me), be 
the guest of the back of your neck, — being wielded by my 
pillar-like terrific arms urged into action by the wrath 
excited by the breaking of the ever unbent bow of Siva ' ; — 
[We find long compounds and harsh-sounding words] ; 
but in the last quarter of the verse, where no anger is 
expressed (but only a deferential reference to the God 
Shiva), we have words suited to the sentiment. 


(r) ^Tfcr^^TFcft (3) ^"<ft^rfwTf3T^cra;i5T?rr 

(v) fwfa ^tf^csppf fa^t^sM' W^J? I 

crsrref wr 

o c 

arrant fosrw^^ TO:tR^H 

(2) and (3) The following is an example of the c visarga 
blunted \ — L e., transformed into ' o \ — as also of the 
' visarga deleted ' — 

' DhJro vinito nipuno 

vardkdro nrpotra sah — (2) 
Yasya bhrtyd baloisiktd 

bhaktd buddhiprabhdvitdh 9 — (3) 

c This king is dignified, modest, efficient and of hand- 
some presence ; his dependants are strong in intelligence,, 
devoted to their master and proud of their strength/ 

[In the first half the visarga is transformed Into V no less than 
five times; and in the second half it is deleted thrice.] 

(4) The ' Cacophonous " is that which involves a dis- 
cordant euphony, — this discordance manifesting itself 
in three ways : (a) in disjunction, (b) in indecorousness and 
(c) in harshness. 

(a) The following is an example of the euphony of 
discordant- disjunction — 

c Ra/an . . . tdni indor dhldorbale atitate uchitdnuvrtfi 

dtanvati bhdtah \.. 


' O King ! thy deeds shine resplendent even in the 
nethermost regions, resembling the sheen of the moon ; 
and the power of thy intellect and arms, functioning in the 
right manner, brings about thy victory and glory and shines 
in the world \ 

[Here the disjunction between 'tan? and Hndoh* , between 'bale 9 
and 'atitate* and 'mhitanuvrtti 9 and 'atanvat? even though gramma- 
tically correct^ is highly discordant'.] 

Or in the following — 

' Tata udita uddrabdra nijavamsha- 

uddtta mrghah \ 

c That great man of the exquisitely fascinating splen- 
dour rises resplendent in his family, resembling the pearl 
(appearing from the bamboo) ; and having his resplendence 
enhanced by the beautiful pearl-necklace, he resembles 
the moon (whose sheen is like that of the flawless pearl) \ 
[Here the visarga. is deleted twice afbr 'tatafi and *nditah.~\ 

In this connection it has to be borne in mind that there 
are two conditions under which the disjunction in euphony 
is grammatically permissible, — in the first place, there is the 
very wide rule which makes all euphonious combination 
purely optional, and secondly in the case of the preceding 
word being a noun with a dual termination ending in the 
vowel ' V or c u\ where according to 'Vdnini (1.1.11 and 
6.1,125), no conjunction takes place. Now if the disjunc- 
tion in euphony is of the former kind, then even a single 
instance makes the sentence defective ; while if it belongs 

212 kIvyamukIIa. 

?rr^f T^rt i^r ftrd ?nw d^r* ir?vii 
( \ ) fcf ^rirr^Rw^^oirfT i ^i^hi^hm^' toft- 
^m ^r ^rf q-^r crq; fa^rw i ^wI^wt — 

to the latter class, then it readers the sentence defective 
if it occurs more than once. 

(b) c Vega. chalariddmara ruchtnkuru ' c This bird 

of unrestrained activity, flying in the sky with great force, 
finds it extremely hot ; so take your rest here/ 

Here the euphonious combination (involved in the 
expressions ' chalandamara ' and c ruchtnkuru *) lead to in- 
decorousness (in this that they give rise to sounds mani- 
festing the terms c latjda ' and ' chinku 9 respectively, both 
of which are the names of certain private parts of the 
human body). 

(c) ' Urvyasdvatra tarvdll 

marvante charvavasthitih 

ndtrdrju mandk\ 

c Hence on the outskirts of a sandy desert the ground 
is covered by a line of trees affording a nice resting place ; 
it is not right to go through it standing ; so just lower your 
head a little/ 

[Here the euphonious combination becomes harsh*] 
(5) The ' marred metre * is of three kinds — (a) Though 
technically satisfying the formal conditions, it may be 

Chapter vii 213 

3^ *m ^ff staff qfeqwff fa qf?wt ir^ii 
are fe^^r^TFTft ^nr^r^Rt I 

unpleasant to the ear, unmelodious, — (b) it may not have 
the last syllable of the foot elongated, — and (c) it may not 
be in harmony with the sentiment depicted. 

The following are the examples of each of these three. 

(a) ' Amrtam vadatu yadihanyat svadu chhadat. 7 

What doubt is that nectar is really nectar; honey also 
is not otherwise ; the fruit of the mango also is very 
sweet and of pleasing flavour ; yet let any disinterested 
person, who is capable of appreciating the various 
kinds of flavours; say if anything in this world is sweeter 
than the lips of one's beloved 1' 

In the fourth line the portion 'yadihanjat svadu sydt * 
(though formally correct) is not pleasant to the ear. 
Or again in the following — 
c Jam pari .fiadwaytp \ 

e That by reason of their very fascinating character 
affairs of love cannot be avoided is their one defect, which 
has been admitted even by their opponents \ 

Here the close proximity of the group of three letters 
c ha-ri-um 9 — which is technically named ' sa ' (/. e. the group 
of three in which, the first two letters are short and the 
third long), — to the next gtoup, c ti—ra-i 9 — which is 
technically called * bba ' (i. e. one long letter followed by 


^f^^rq^R^TiR^^r ^fa tfrt *ra^r: n^u 

SnTTCT:^ #*T ^ fefspTT TO - Wit *RT I 

NO > CO 

two short ones), — is unmelodious [as has been recognised 
by standard writers on metrics also]. 

(b) c Vikasitasahakdratdrahdriparimala 

vasantah \ 

c The spring bearing the fascinating fragrance of the 
blossoming mangoes, having swarms of black bees humm- 
ing about, and beautified by chowries in the shape of the 
fresh leaves of trees — captivates the heart of even the 
ascetic \ 

Here the metre is halting at c hdri 9 [where the last 
vowel is not elongated]. The right reading would be 
c hdri — pramudita etc, etc. 9 

Or, as in the following — 

c Anydstd. vastrdni cha\ 

c Wonderful must have been the mines that produced 
these jewels of qualities ! wonderful too that blessed clay, 
as also the accessories, wherewith this young man has been 
created by God I Since at his appearance, the weapons 
fall off from the hands of his rich and elegant enemies, and 
clothes slur away from the waists of beautiful women, — 
both of these having their hearts benumbed (the former 
through fear and the latter through love)\ 


are '3wqfq-' 5% qrs ?mfa ^twt *r# ii 

O c 

[Here the short syllable * A ' at the end is such as cannot 
take the long accent]. If the reading were c nyapi ' (instead 
of e %i cha\ the c pi\ even though short, could have 
taken the long accent (by virtue of its being preceded by 
the conjunct consonant " nya "). 

(c) ' Hd nrpa tavaite\ 

c O king 1 O wise one ! O patron of poets, the 
patron of hundreds of Brahmanas ! O godlike one, jewel 
of the assembly of the learned and the wise I Whereto 
have you gone ? — and where are we, your very own ?' 

The metre adopted here is suited to the delineation of the 
Comic (and not of the Pathetic, to which it is employed here). 
(6) The following is an example of the ' deficient in 
words ' — 

c Tathdbhutdm drstvd nrpasadasi pdnchdlatanaydm 
Vane vyddhaih sdrdham suchiramusitdm valkaladharaih 
Virdtasydvdse sthiia mniHchildratiihhambhricuh 
Guruh khedam khinne mayi bhajati nddydpi kurusu. 
(See translation above in Chapter III,) 


^^Tf^cT^^^^T Jet srfef ^RTRfr ^TT 51 ^?^! feTTT: I 

Here, in the first sentence the word c asmdbhih' is 
wanting (without which the sentence is left without a 
nominative) ; similarly before ' khinne \ the adverb ' ittham 9 
' in this manner ' is wanting [the intended meaning being 
' he bears anger towards me, who have suffered in the 
manner described ']. 

(7) The following in an example of the c Redundant 
word ' — 

c Sphatikdkrti sa kopi ' 

c Truly marvellous is this King ! — clean like the form 
of the rock-crystal, all the most abstruse principles of the 
sciences fully reflected in himself, his statements consistent 
and closely reasoned, and the source of the destruction of 
his adversaries/ 

Here the term ' akrti 9 (' form ') is entirely superfluous* 

Another example — 

c Idamanuchitam 

Y adapt cha na krtam....*.ratam vd\ 

c It is improper and unnatural that men should evince 
sexual desires even m old age ; as also that of women, either 
life itself or sexual enjoyment was not made to end with 
the fall of their breasts*. 


3cR ^m ^ft 53T3^rzr^^i^=i 

*»KH <M Rl rtl sypfaNW I fWFT IR^H 

Here the term ' ir/^;/ * is superfluous ; in fact its 
insertion breaks the uniformity (of the two statements). 
If the reading were c y adapt cba na hirangalocbandndm \ 
the intended sense would be quite complete. 

(8) The following is an example of the ' Repeated 
Word '— 

' Adhikara lild — 

Smaranarapatilild. sekam ' 

' The paleness of your cheek is waning on account of 
the pressure of your arms upon which it rested during 
sleep ; tell me, O beautiful one ! of what young man does 
this (cheek) indicate the coronation as the Prince of the 
sportings of King Cupid/ 

Here the word ' lild ' is needlessly repeated. 

(9) The following is the example of ' Receding Ex- 
cellence ' — 

' Kab kab ktitra na gburghurdyitaghurighoro gburet siikarah 
Kab kab kam hamaldkaram vikamalam kartum kari nodyatab 


iC<? & >&&« vandnyaranyamahisd nonmulayeyuryatah 
Simhlsnehavildsabaddhavasatih panchdnano vartate ' 
' "What boat and where would not make the terrible 
ghur ghur sound ? — What elephant would not deprive 
the lotus-ponds of its lotuses ? — What wild buffalo would 
not uproot the forests ? — Now that the lion lies capti- 
vated by the love of the lioness V 

[Here the climax is not maintained to the end; it breaks off 
after the third line. The destructiveness of one animal is described 
in the first foot, greater destrucdveness is described in the second 
foot., and still greater destructiveness is described in the third foot; 
this climax would have been rightly maintained, if the lion were 
described, in the last foot, as bringing greater destruction than that 
wrought by all the aforesaid animals. What is done on the other 
hand is that the fierce destructiveness of animals is toned down 
towards the end to the quiescent lying down of the lion under the 
captivating influence of feminine charms.] 

(10) The following is the example of c Resuming the 

Concluded ' — 

' Kreiikarah. veyusvanah ' . 

* Like unto the twang of Cupid's bow, the sweet 
singing of the cuckoo of dalliance, the humming of bees 
in the blossom of love, the sound of the partridge of 
graceful sportiveness, — may the jingling of the slender 


girl's bangles dtopped in the shaking of her arms at the 
time of the attempt to remove her bodice, expand your 
love !— the jingling resembling the ring of the flute, played 
to the dancing of youthfulness P 

[The last qualification is thrown in, after the sentence has been 
completed, without materially adding to the beauty of the descrip- 

(11) The following is an example of the c Isolation, 
in the second part of a word required by the first half ? — 

c Masrga bhuh sadarbha 


shiksitd cha\ 

c The ground is covered with grass-shoots, therefore,, 
weak with soft foot-steps ; the sun is strong overhead, 
therefore place a piece of cloth on your head ; — thus 
was Janaki on her way exhorted and looked upon with 
tearful eyes by the wives of fellow-travellers \ 

[The construction here is c bhuh sadarbha — '(the ground is covered 
with shoots) tat (therfore) gamjatdm (walk with soft tread etc. etc.); 
and the term c taf which is required in the first half of the verse has been 
placed in the second half, with which it has no syntactical connection.] 
(12) The following is an example of what is * devoid 
of intended connection ', i.e. where the desired connection 
is wanting — 

220' kavyaprakaSa 


' Yesdm tdstridashebhaddnasaritah 

pitdh pratdposmabhth 
LJldpdnabhuvashcba nandanavana- 

chchhdydsu jaih kalpitdh 


Yi?.^ htfmhrtayah krtdmarapati- 

ksobhdh ksapdchdnpdm 
Kim taistvatparitosakdri vihitam 

kinchit pravddocbitam \ 
c By the fire of whose glory was dried the ichor-flow 
of the celestial elephants, — by whom were established drink- 
ing booths in the shady groves of the Nandana garden, — 
of which demons the slightest sound of displeasure brought 
up perturbation in the mind of the king of the gods, — what 
satisfactory act has been done by them which could be 
spoken of ?' 

Here it is not comprehensible what is the antecedent 
(qualified and referred to) of the pronoun ' jaih ' (there 
being no noun with the instrumental ending),— it being 
not possible to co-ordinate it with c yesdm ' and thus corre- 
late it with the ' demons * (ksapdchdripdm ' with the 


^55Rf tftepf qrft^ ^rfcr ^rsrsr: 1 
sre zrfeqr^r grfefa ^retflfom ^r ^ft ^rfer i 

genitive ending, which is the antecedent of the pronoun 
c yesdm 9 \ because, according to the dictum of Jaimini 
(Mima. Su. 3.1,22), when there are several subordinate 
factors (in the present case, the pronouns ' yesdm \ in the 
first line, c yazb 9 in the second line and c yesdm 9 in the 
third line), they are all equally subservient to something 
else, and as such cannot be mutually correlated. The 
necessary co-ordination (and antecedent) would be got at, 
if we read c fcvp$chdr:Ll:h \ (with the instrumental ending, 
in place of < ksapdchdrhidm \ 

Another example of the same defect we have in the 
following — 

c Tvamevam satmdarydh sa cha ruchiratdydh parichitah 
Kaldndm simanam paramiha yuvdmeva bhajaihah 
Apt dvandvam distyd taditi subhage samvadati vdm 
Atah shesam yat sydj jitamiba taddmm guyitaya 9 . 

tf You are endowed with such beauty, and he is not 
unfamiliar with handsomeness ; both of you possess the 
highest proficiency in the finer arts ; thus fortunately 
the pair of you two is quite compatible ; if the subsequent 
issue were what it should be, then indeed would the en- 
dowment of qualities become duly glorified.' 

Here the relative pronoun c yat 9 (in the fourth line) 
requires a corresponding c tat \ and the term c taddnlm 9 


'tcFTT^' ffr VJft: ITS: | zpqT 3T 

requires a corresponding 'yaddnlm'; but both these are 
absent [and hence the desired connection becomes im- 
possible]. The right reading would be ' chet sydt 9 (for 
*yat syat 9 ). 

Another example of the same. 

c Sangrdrndngaytarndgatena bhavatd chape samdropite 
c Devdkarnaya yena yena sahasd yad yat samdsdditam 
Kodanclena shardh sbarairarishirastendpi bhumaydalam 
Tena tvam bhavatd cha kirtiratuld kirtyd cha lokatrayam ? . 

' O king ! listen to what was attained by what, when 
you came to the field of battle and stringed your bow : 
The bow obtained the arrows,— the arrows, the enemy's 
head, — this head, the earth, — the earth, yourself (for its 
master), — you, unrivalled fame, — and the fame, all the 
three worlds/ 

As objectives of the verb ' listen ', all the nouns men- 
tioned should have the accusative ending — c Kodandam 
shardn' and so forth. If the whole of the subsequent 
sentence were to be treated as the objective of the said 
verb, then the form would be c Kodaydah shardh 9 [as what 


"O c\ v. 

W^t ^TT%W ^PTf ^Tc#*T I f*R3% TOlY 

are meant to be ' listened * to are (1) the thing that attains, 
and (2) the thing attained ; and in any enumeration of 
these, both of them should be spoken of by means of 
nouns with the nominative ending]. — Nor is it possible 
for the ' Bow ' and other things to be regarded either as 
included in the denotation of the pronoun * yat 9 (in the 
first line, which is the objective of the verb to listen), or 
as a qualification of that denotation. Nor lastly is there 
any such question as—' what was attained by what ?'— 
' kena kena kirn kirn * — (which would have established the 
intended connection between the two sets of sentences). 
Another example of the same defect — 
c Chdpachdryastripuravijayl kdrtikeyo vijeyah 
Shasiravyastah sadana?mtdadhirbhuriyam hantakdmh 
Astyevaitat kimu krtavatd renukd-kanthabddhdw 
Baddbaspardbastava parashtmd lajjate chandrahdsah > 
(For translation see above, stan2a No. 201 ) 
What is intended here is the deprecation of Parashu- 
rama himself (for having killed his mother) ; while the 
term ' krtavatd > qualifying the axe> makes the said de- 
precation appliable to this latter. The reading c krtavatah > 
(which would qualify c tat>a ') would afford the intended 

224 kavyaprakasa 

Another example — 

Chatvaro vayamrtvijah sa bhagavdn karmopadestd harih 

Samgrdmddhvaradiksito narapatih patnt grhitavratd 

Kauravydh pashavah priydparibhavakleshopashdntih phalam 

Kdjanyopanimantrafiaya rasati sphitam hato dundubhih' 

c We four are the sacrificial priests ; the blessed Hari 

is the spiritual adviser ; the king has been initiated for 

the battle-ritual ; and his wife is keeping the vows ; the 

Kurus are the animals (to be sacrificed) ; the result aimed 

at is the allayment of the pain caused by the molestation 

of our beloved wife ; the battle-drum is being sounded 

for the purpose of inviting the Ksattriyas (to the 


Here the term c adhvara \ c sacrifice \ has been made a 
subordinate member of the compound, and hence what is 
denoted by it fails to be connected with all the sacrificial 
details mentioned. 

The following is yet another example ;— 

' Janghdkdridorundlo nakhakira$aksatkesardlikardlab 


"^^■^^d-w cr«rrPr mm i 

^$t ^<r*i^ifrd<Mw 

s^r 'anfcftf^r' ^m^m<h{ Wr#ar: cRHteiFr 


Bharturnrttdnukdre jayati nijatanusvachcbhddvaqydvdpT- 
Sambhutdmbhojashobhdm vidadhadabhinavo daydapddo bhavdnydff* 

(Translated above as stanza No. 150) 

Here the expression c nijatatm \ appearing in the com- 
pound, is understood as refering to the Dandapdda, while 
it is intended to refer to BhavdnL 

(13) In the following we have an example of the 
c Omission of a necessary Statement \ — 

c Aprdkrtasya charitdtishayaishcha dr stair 
Aiyadbhutairapahrtasya tatbdpi ndsthd 
Kopyesa plrashishukdkrtiraprameya- 
Satmdaryasdrasanmddyamayah paddrthah \ 

' Though I am captivated by the apparently excellent 
and marvellous deeds of this extraordinary person, yet 
I have no faith (in the fact that the bow has been broken* 
by him) ; for this is an indescribable entity constituted 
by the very essence of illimitable beauty, appearing in the 
shape of a heroic boy/ 

Here what should have been expressly stated was the 



direct affirmation of Ms having ' become captivated ', — 
the right reading being c apahrtosmi ' (for c apahrtasya'); 
specially as the use of the expression c tathdpV could be 
justified only as occurring in a totally different sentence 
[hence it is essential that there should be a finite verb in 
the preceding sentence, without which there would not 
, be two distinct sentences.] 

Another example of the same : — 

' Esohamadritanaydmukhapadmajanmd 
Prdptah surdsuramanorathaduravartz 
l^aksmiphaldmasurardjasutdm vidhdya \ 

' I, born of the lotus-face of Parvati, who am beyond 
the reach of the longings of gods and demons, have come 
here, after having made the daughter of the demon-king 
such as has her exquisite beauty rendered fruitful through 
association, in a dream, with Aniruddha/ 

[Here the sense intended to be conveyed is that c I 
am beyond even the longings of the gods and demons ;' 
[ and this idea the words used fail to convey ]. 

Similarly in the following verse also — 

Tvayi nibaddharateh priyavddinah 


Kamaparddbalavam mama pashyasi 

Tj^^i tndnini ddsajanam yatah. 


3T5T '3FTCTWT <*<WW f% «IH^ II 

are 'wte fepsf^r' ^r ^t^w i wr ^t 

' O proud one ! what trace of fault do you find in me, 
which makes you abandon me, your servant ? — I, whose 
love is centered in you, who always talk to you affec- 
tionately and whose mind is ever averse to any breach 
of endearment/ 

Here also what is meant to be expressed is c even the 
slightest trace of a fault/ 

(14) The following is an example of the * Misplaced 
Word — 

' Priyepa sangrathya vipaksasannidbd- 
Vupdhitdm vaksasi pivarastane 
Srajam na kdchid vijahau jaldvildm 
Vasanti hi premni gut}d na vastusu? 

c The lover had carefully knitted a garland and placed 
it over her chest covered with her high breasts, in the 
presence of her rivals ; and though this garland had 
become sullied with water, yet not a certain girl did 
remove it ; the value lies, not in the presented object, 
but in the love that prompts it/ 

What is intended to be expressed is that ' a certain 
woman did not remove the garland ;* and to this end 
the * na * should have come before c vijahau \ 

228 kavyaprakIsa 

[As it stands, the expression means c not some one, — but all — 
removed the garland.'] 

Another example of the same — 

hagnah kelikachagrahashlathajatdlambena nidrdntare 
Mudrdnkah shitikandharendtishakakndntahkapolasthalam 
Vdrvatyd nakhalaksmashankitasakhtnammsmiiahrtiaya 
Vronmrstah karapallavena kutildtdmrachhavih pdtu vah* 
c May the curved red mark made on Parvati's cheek 
by Shiva's moon-digit, while she slept on his matted 
locks, tired during dalliance, protect you I — the marks 
wiped off by her tender hands, when she was abashed 
by the smiles of her companion who suspected the mark 
to be of nails/ 

The epithet c kutildtdmrachchhavih ' (' red and curved *) 
should have been placed before the term ' nakhalaksma etc' 
[As it is the 'curvature and redness' that supply the grounds for 
the companion's suspicion.] 

(15) The following is an example of the * Misplaced 
Compound ' — 
! ' Adydpi stanashailadurgavisame simanttntndm hrdi 

Stbatum vdnchhati mdna esa dhigiti krodhddimlohitah 


sfl^l^<d<Miltr<d+<: m^t mmJ3 

Vrodyaddurataraprasdritakarah karsatyasau iatksaijdi 
Vhullatkairavakoshanissarodalishreffikrpdiiam shashl \ 

c Even yet this pride wishes to stay in the hearts of 
women, fortified by the hill-like breasts ! Woe be to 
me ! — Saying this, and becoming reddened with rage, 
the moon immediately puts forth his arms (rays) far and 
wide and draws the sword in the shape of the line of 
black bees issuing forth from the blooming lily/ 

Here the first line represents the speech of the enraged 
moon, and the rest that of the poet ; the long compounds 
however, appear in the latter and not in the former (where 
it would have been more in keeping with the sentiment 

(16) The following is an example of c Confusion \ — 
i.e., where the words of one sentence are found in the 
midst of another — 

* Kimiti napashyasi kopam pddagafam bahugunam grhdtjemam 

Nanu muncba hrdayandtham ka%the manasastamorupam? 

c Why do you not look upon your heart's lord, the 
receptacle of many good qualities, fallen upon your 
feet ? Embrace him on the neck and renounce your 
anger, which hangs like a gloom onjrour heart \ 


The sentences meant here ate — c Atra pddagatam 
bahuguyam brdayandtham kimiti m pashyasi, — imam kaythe 
grhd%a> — manasastamorupam kopam muncha? 

The difference between this (confusion) and * obs- 
curity 9 lies in the fact that in the latter it is the words 
of a single sentence that appear in a confused order (while 
in the former they appear in several sentences), 

(17) In the following we have an example of the c Paren- 
thetical Expression* — 

* Pardpakdraniratairdurjanaih saba sangatib ' 
Vaddmi bhavatastattvam na vidbeyd kathancbana 

c Association with bad men bent upon injuring others, 
— I tell you the truth, — should never be maintained/ 

Here the third foot of the verse (' vaddmi bhavatastatt- 
vam 9 ) occurs in the middle of a sentence. 

Another example of the same — 

hagndm rdgdvrtdngyd sudrdbamiha 

Mdtangdndmapuhopari parapurmair- 
ydcba drstd patantl 


^RT: sftf?W>l 1^1 P«t^Rw T^F|f«r qw #fr: 1 1 ?? \ 1 1 
«Kd1Pd fW'^fd*<JJI 

Tatsaktoyam na kimchid gayayati viditam 
testu tendsmi dattd 

Bhrtyebhyah shrmiyogdd gaditumiva gate — 
tyambudhim yasya Mrtih ' 

c Whose fame repaired to the ocean to deliver the 
following message to him under orders from the Goddess 
of Wealth — " This Sword (woman), corroded with blood 
(full of passion) fell upon the neck [(a) in the act of cutting, 
(b) in the act of embracing] of the enemy, and which was 
seen by strangers to fall upon elephants (to repair to Chan- 
dalas), — being attached to this same Sword (woman), 
this king cares for nothing else, and — be this known to 
you — I am being given away by him to his dependents". 

Here the clause ' viditam testu % * be this known to you ', 
is unnecessarily inserted ; in fact it has the implication 
that c the Goddess of Wealth is going to desert the king % 
which is entirely repugnant to the context. 

(18) c Opposed to Usage or Convention ' is that which 
contravenes such conventions as the following — " The 
sound of the anklet and such ornaments is to be described 
as c ranita ' (jingling), that of birds as * JkSftta 9 (warbling), 
those produced at the time of embraces, as 6 staniia y 
(murmur), ' mayita 9 (cooing) and so forth, and that of 
clouds as c garjita' (thundering)". 

232 kavyaprakasa 

fdW ^TRTfet^W^^: 5*: 11 W II 
3pT^t W^Tfe^5rf^^^^^f# f^TT? II 

^fr^RTfaw^ i 

f^^rrer f| sstpjst tost tocpc *nrfer irv^ii 

We have an example of this in the following — 
6 Mahdpralayamdrutaksubhitapuskardvartaka — 
J?rachandaghanagarjitapratirutdnukdn muhuh 
Ravab shravanabhairavah sthagitarodasikandarah 
Kutodya samarodadherayamabhutapurvah purah\ 
c Whence this unprecedented ear-splitting sound of the 
ocean of battle, pervading the entire valley between the 
earth and the heavens, and resembling the echo of the 
thundering of clouds tossed about by storms during uni- 
versal dissolution ?' 

The word ' rava 9 (sound) that is used here is generally 
used in the sense of the noise made by frogs and such ani- 
mals, and not in that of the particular leonine roar, here 
referred to. 

(19) The following is an example of c Broken Unifor- 
mity % /. e. where the c uniformity', /. e. continuity of sequ- 
ence, is broken ; — 

c Ndihe nishdyd niyatemiyogdd 
Astam gate hanta nishdpi ydtd 
Kuldngandndm hi dashdnuriipam 
Ndtah param bhadrataram samasti? 

CHAPTER vir 233 

3^ 'im' ^r ww$ 'mm' 5% siw: i 

^ ^ q^ fe snft^t sttct' *^*mi ^tfwre f^- 

fT% #|cTl4d^ I 3??> Wf>W 'KPT feSRftT: I ^3^ I 

^gfa fW swcr cfw q^JT ^r#?rrwt ^r ^nftrf f^rr 


star: i ^rrf|; — 

' Under the ordination of destiny, the Lord of Night 
having gone to set, it is well that the Night also has de- 
parted ; for noble women, there is no better condition 
and more in keeping with the state of things than this'. 
The statement, having opened with c gata' (gone), 
ends with c ydta ' (departed) ; thus violating the unifor- 
mity of the verbal root. The right reading would have 
been c gatd nishdpi \ 

[which would have been more appropriate in describing the 
exact following by the wife in the foot-steps of her lord.] 

Objection :— " In another work (Vamana's sutras) 
It has been laid down that no word should be repeated twice, 
and in this work itself the Repetition of words has been 
described as a Defect ; how then should it be regarded 
advisable to repeat the same word gatd 9 ) as suggested ?" 
Our answer is as follows :— The prohibition of the 
repeating of a word is meant to apply to cases other than 
the one where what is spoken of subsequently is meant to 
be precisely the same that has been mentioned previously ; 
[as in the case in question the going of the night is meant 
to be precisely the same as the going of the moon ] where, 
on the other hand, such identity Is meant, it would be a 
positive defect if the same noun were not repeated, either 


by itself, or by a corresponding pronoun ; as for instance, 
in the folllwing— 

c Udeti savitd tdmrastdmra evdstameti cha 
Sampattau cha vipattau cha mahatdmekarupatd\ 

c The sun rises red, and sets red also ; great beings 
retain the same condition both in prosperity and adversity\ 

Here if the form adopted in the second clause were 
* rakta evdstameti ', though the meaning would be the same 
expressed in different words, yet it would not afford the 
idea intended (of unchangeahkness\ — the use of different 
words giving rise to the notion that the condition spoken 
of is different from that spoken of before. 

The following is an example of the * Violation of Uni- 
formity \ as realating to the affix — 

* Yashodhigantum sukhalzpsayd vd 
Manusyasankhydmatiyartitum vd 
Samutsufavdnkamupaiti siddbih\ 

'To those who exert themselves without flurry,— 
dither to obtain fame, or with a desire to obtain pleasure, 
or th surpass ordinary humanity, — success comes to the 
lap, as if it werea&dous to reach him\ 


m src*FTFT I 'WsHftfed *rf 1% ^RcT: TT5: I 

ftlS ^T^R" WsTPf ?rfs^:T: *?PTSFT: II W II 

sR^sqnPT iT5frt| w fswnw ^Wto^t Hawaii 

Here the uniformity of the affix (Infinitive) is broken. 
The right reading would be c sukhamthitum vd\ 

In the following we have an example of the ' Violation 
of the Uniformity ' of the Pronoun— 

c Te himdlayamdmantrya punah preksya cha shulinam 
Siddhamchdsmai nivedydrtham tadvisrstdh khat?mdyayuh 9 
c Having asked Himalaya and seen Shiva, communica- 
ted to him the fulfilment of the purpose, and, having ob- 
tained his leave, repaired to the skies'. 

Here the uniformity of the pronoun is broken ; the 
right form would have been c anena visrstdh ' (in place of 
* tadvisrstdh \ which latter points to some one different 
from the person, Shiva, just mentioned). 

In the following we have an example of the* Violation 
of the Uniformity * of the synonym — 
c Mahibhrtah putravatopi drstis — 
Tasminnapatye na jagdma irptim 
Anantapuspasya madhorhi chute 
Dvirephamdld savishesdsangd 9 . 
' Though he had sons, yet his eyes were never tired 
of feasting upon that child ; though spring is full of endless 
flowers, yet the line of black bees has a special attachment 
for the mango/ 

236 kavyaprakasa 

The right reading would have teen ' mahibbrtopatyava- 
topi * (which would be in keeping with ' apatya 9 in the 
second line). 

Some people defend the original reading on the ground 
that it affords the meaning that — 'though he had sons* 
male children, yet, he had special love for the daughter, 
the female child \ [A meaning which will not be available 
if the suggested emendation were made]. 

In the following we have an example of the c Violation 
of the Uniformity * of the prefix, as also of the synonym — 

' Vipadobbibbamntyavibramam 
Niyatd lagbutd nirdyater — 
Agariydnna padannrpashriyah? 

6 Calamities press upon one who is devoid of courage ; 
future prospects desert one who is beset with calamities ; 
disrespect is the certain lot of one who is deprived of future 
prospects ; and he who commands no respect is not the 
receptacle of kingly splendour/ 

[la the first sentence we have the term t npat\ which is replaced 
in the second sentence by c apaf the prefix being changed; again in 
the preceding sentence we have the term Vagbuta*, whose place in 
the following sentence is taken by its synonym < agpriyar?^ 

The right reading would be-*- 

(a) * Tadahbibbavab fmrnte nirdyatm 9 


^prr wr fcrof^NRnro rt infer* u s% w i 

(£) ' iMgjmtdm bhajate nirdyatih 9 

(c) ' haghutdvanna padannrpashriyah ' (fourth line) 

In the following we have an example of the ' Violation 
of the Uniformity ' of number. 

c Kdchit kirnd rajobhirdivamanuvldadbau mandavaktrendn- 

Asbrlkah kdschidantardisha iva dadhire ddhamudbhrdfi- 

Bhremurvdtyd ivdnydh pratipadamapardh bhumivat kam~ 

'Prasthdne pdrthivdndmashivamiti pure bhdvt ndryah 

' At the time of the king's departure the women fore- 
boded impending calamity ; — while one was beset with 
menstrual impurity and had her moon-like face bedimmed, 
thereby resembling the atmosphere (dusty and with a dull 
moon, a sign of coming trouble), — others, devoid of all 
splendour and their minds unsteady under the fire of the 
pangs of separation, resembled the quarters (dull and 
amazing all animals by their red glare, another inauspicious 
sign); — others again flitted about like storms (an inauspici- 
ous sign), and another shook like the earth (earth-quake 
being a premonition of impending disaster).' 

[In the first we have the noun in the Singular number, while 
throughout the following sequences of the verse, the Plural number 
is used ; and in the last sentence again we -find the Singular number.] 

238 kavyaprakaSa 

The right reading would be — 

' Kdshchit ktrya rajobhirdivamaMvidadburmqndavctktren- 
dushobhdh, nibsbrikab &c, &c ' kampamapuh 9 

In the following we have an example of c Violation 
of the Uniformity ' of the case-termination — 

* Gdhantdm mahisd nipdnasalilam shrngairmuhustdditam 
Chhdydbaddhakadambakam mrgakulam romantbamabbya- 

Vishrabdhaih kriyatdm varabapatibhirmustaksatih palvale 
Visbrdntim labhatdmidam cha shithilajydbandhamasmaddha- 

nuF ; 
c The wild buffaloes may now dabble in the pools, 
striking the water frequently with their horns ; the deer 
herded under the shade may practise rumination ; the 
huge boars may fearlessly destroy the long grass along 
the tanks ; — this very bow also may obtain rest on having 
its string slackened/ 

[While we have the Active nominative ending throughout the 
vet se, in the third line we have the Passive nominative ending]. 
The tight reading would be-y 

* Visbrabdbd racbayantu shukaravard mustdksatim? 


3H&ddMW^n4Mf¥*r wlrf^rr- 

*m^Ri TH^Icmfrl: m<ftH<H4iguim ^ WWl II 

In the following we have ' Violation of the Unifor- 
mity ' of sequence — 

c AkalitatapastejovJryaprathimni yashonidbd- 
Vavitathamadddhmdte rosdnmundvabhigachchhati- 
Abhinavadhanurvidyddarpaksamdya cha karmane 
Sphurati rabhasdtpdyih pddopasangrahaydya cha. 9 

c On the arrival of this sage, who is endowed with 
greatness due to illimitable ascetic virtue, and is the 
receptacle of fame, puffed with real haughtiness— my 
arms suddenly throb for such action as would be in keep- 
ing with the efficiency newly acquired in the science of 
archery, and also for clasping his feet/ 

The presence of ' ascetic virtue ' is mentioned before 
that of * haughtiness % hence in the corresponding passage, 
'the clasping of the feet* c pddopasangrahamya? which 
would be the correlative of the presence of ascetic virtue, 
should have been mentioned first (before the 6 efficiency 
in Archery' which would correspond with the sage's 
c haughtiness \) 

Other similar examples may be cited. 
(20) In the following ^e have the example of the 
' Absence of Uniformity \ 


' Dmyangatam samprati shochaniyatdm 
Samdgamaprdrthanayd kapdlinah 
Kald cha sd kdntimafi kaldvatas- 
Tvamasya lokasya cha netrakaumudt. 9 
(For translation, see above stanza No. 186). 
The presence of the particle ' cha 9 after ' tvam ' would 
be proper (making the two correlated clauses more uni- 

Another example of the same — 

* Shaktimistrimshajeyam tava hhtgayvgak ndtha dosdkarasnr 
Vaktre pdrshve tathaisdprativasati mahdkuttam khadgayastih 
Ajneyam sarvagd te vilasati chapurah kirn maydvrddhayd te 
Prochyevettham prakopdchchhashikarasitayd yasya kirtyd 

* " O Lord ! you have in your hands (in your arms, in 
your embrace) this -strength of your long sword (a prosti- 
tute); in your face you have the splendour of the moon 
(the receptable of blemishes); by your side hangs this 
sword, a mighty slaughterer (a pandering woman); your 
com#na&d, all-pervading (going to all men) dances before 
you ; — what* use can you have of myself* overgrown 


are '^r sfN^* ^r ^i^ i ^n* 
(w) smcr: Mt^fa w?T^pff *rsr i W 

TPFF'TW^r a i fsa I f :^T jg3*T fa*l H <)' I 

i^Rf^K^r<rfir^rT ^fcr&prerfa ^m m i i wi i 

3TW ITft ^tt feWFT ST^R^ 53fo:3f^rd#: ii^yii 

(old) as I am " — Having said this the king's Fame, white 
as the moon's rays, went forth, as if in a rage/ 

Here the proper order of words would have been 
4 tttham prochyeva? 

Another example of the same defect we have in the verse 
'hagnam rdgavrtdngya etc! (quoted above, stanza No. 241) ; 
where the proper form would have been c iti shriniyogdt '. 
(21) In the following we have an example of 
4 Undesirable Second Meaning'; i.e. where the words 
have an implication repugnant" to the context : — 

tf The demoness, struck in her heart by the unbearable 
arrows of the Cupid-like Rama, went to the abode of the 
Lord of Life, being smeared all over with her own sandal- 
like stinking blood.' 

Here the sentiment desired to be described is that of 
Disgust,— and repugnant to this is the erotic sentiment 
which is implied by the words used. 54. 

The author now describes the defects of meaning {Ideal 
Defects, as distinguished from Verbal Defects described 


fk^^[%iwm&^^ n \\a u 

( I ) arf^RRTTO^^ I 

T#<? meaning £r— (1) irrelevant,, (2) obscure, (3) inconsistent, 
(4) tautophonous, (5) irregular, (6) w^ar, (7) dubious, (8) 
inconsequential, (9) opposed to prevailing notions, (10) opposed 
to scientific notions, (11) monotonous, (12) Aw unspecific, (13) 
Aw specific, (14) /w restricted, (15) /<?<? unrestricted, (16) 
incomplete, (17) misplaced, (18) mismatched, (19) 0/ repugnant 
implication, (20) #//£ improper predicate, (2) iw$ improper 
adjunct, (22) resuming the concluded, and (23) indecorous. 55-57 

The * meaning ' here referred to is to be understood 
as the ' defective ' meaning. 

The following are the examples of the d^Zx 0/ >%?<?<3W- 
&g in due order : — 

(1) * Having renounced the pleasures of ease during 
his constant journey through the very wide-spread ethereal 
path, and making to smile the lotus which has its fragrance 
wafted by the breeze — the sun shines resplendent/ 

The epithets c very wide-spread ' ( c path ') and the rest 
are such that even if they were dropped, there would be 
no harm done to the sense ; hencejthey are ' irrelevant ' — 
not ' inconsistent > or * tautological '. 


(?) SP3T *F% %W I ?H'A'H ^cTPt^F^T^T 

wre err ttctt ^^qrfTter: #r Tr^rt 

f^TFT? ^TR^r =^R^R ^ftr 3T: *P^<+MHftf^: 

(2) The following is an example of the c obscure ' 
meaning — 

c Sadd madhye ydsdmiyamamrtanisyandamadhurd 
Sarasvatyudddmd vahati babumdrgd parimalam 
Presddam td etd ghanaparichitdh kena mahatdm 
Mahdkdvyavyomni sphuritamadhurd ydntu ruchayah? 

c How can the imaginative flashes of great poets attain 
simplicity, when within them flows untramelled the Goddess 
of Speech rendered sweet and passionate with the flow 
of nectar, decked in various styles and carrying a peculiar 
charm,— flashes which, assiduously practised, waft sweetness 
in the atmosphere of Poetry ? — How too (second entendre) 
can the rays of the Twelve Sons become pleasant, when 
in their midst flows untramelled the river Sarasvati 
sweet with flowing water, running in diverse directions 
and spreading sweet fragrance,— the rays accompanied 
by clouds and wafting sweet water in the atmosphere ?' 

The meaning of this, expressed too succinctly is as 
follows— (a) 'The flashes of the poet's imagination, 
wherein speech produces a peculiar charm through the 
styles— the lucid, the picturesque and the medium,— 
and which are found in deep poetry,— how can these 
be easy, like ordinary poetry ?— (b) c The sun's rays, 

— / 

244 kavyaprakasa 

*refapr: II 

^nr 5 xrfof *rrar #£ f^fr^Rfen" 

(v) td^kifa^ife n^^H 

among whom flows the Triple stream (Gafiga), which 
are interspersed with clouds, — how can these be plea- 
sant ?* 

[And this, second meaning, is extremely obscure]. 

(3) [Example of the Inconsistent] — 

* In the universe there are several f most excellent 
things, — such as the fresh lustre of the moon and so 
forth — which are, by their very nature, sweet and which 
enrapture the heart ; but for me, the one ubilant event 
in my life has been this that she, who is like moonlight 
to the eye, iias come within the range of my vision/ 

Here, the very person to whom moonshine and other 
things are described (in the first sentence) as being very 
insignificant, regards the woman's likeness to moonlight 
as a ground of excellence ; and herein lies the inconsis- 

(4) In the verse ' krtamanumatam Sec. 9 (see above, 
stanza No. 39), the mention of Arjuna in the compound 
* sabhtmakiritindm 9 is ' tautophonous, ' where the speaker 



has already mentioned the name of Arjuna twice in the 
words preceding the verse. 

Another example of the same we have in the follow- 
ing :— 

e While my father, the preceptor of all the foremost 
archers, is acting like the submarine fire in the midst of 
the ocean of the enemy-warriors licked by the flame of 
his weapons, remains the commander of the army, — there 
is no ground, O Karna ! for this flurry I O Krpa repair 
to the fray ! O Krtavarman, give up all fear ! While my 
father, aided by his bow, is bearing the brunt of the battle, 
where can there be any room for fear ? ' 

Here what is said in the last foot of the verse is a need- 
less repetition. 

(5) [ Example of the € Irregular ']— 

c O best of kings, who are known to rejoice in the 
bestowing of wealth,— give to me a horse, or an elephant 
in lethargic intoxication/ 

The correct order would have been to mention the 
c elephant ' (the larger gift) first. 


^rt^rer. II 

(6) [Example of the ' Vulgar '] — 

' While this person is asleep, I sleep by your side ; 
what do you lose by that ? — So, you may remove your 
elbows and spread out your thighs/ 

The speaker here is entirely vulgar (in the expression 
of his desire). 55. 

(7) In the verse c mdtsaryamutsdrya etc J (see above, stanza 
No. 133), the meaning is 'dubious' or doubtful until there is 
some determining factor in the form of context and the like. 
When, on the other hand, it is known whether the speaker 
is a man of the erotic or the quietistic temperament, there 
is no doubt regarding the meaning. 

(8) [Example of the ' Inconsequential '] 

c O weapon ! though such conduct was not consistent 
with his caste, yet thou wert taken up by my father to 
guard against ill-treatment ; through his valour, there 
was nothing that did not fall within thy range ; now 
thou hast been relinquished by him, not through fear, 
but through grief for his son ;— I also am going to leave 
thee in a place, where all may go well with thee I 9 


( % ST) vWMf<*K J|Wl=|A|'?: qfersraTs^TT: 

^T<f«IHH<l ^HIWH^r^f^t^tcrFT I 

This supplies no reason why the speaker is giving up 
his weapon. 

(9) [Example of what " is contrary to prevalent 
notions "] — 

< O thou, whose face abashes the lotus I who has told 
you this, by virtue of which thou entertainest the notion 
that this thing is a bangle of gold ? In reality, it is the 
disc of the Love-god placed, through his love for you, 
on your wrist, as the weapon capable of striking the most 
invulnerable of men !' 

The idea of the Love-god holding a disc is c contrary 
to all prevalent notions ' regarding him. 

Another example — 

' O travellers ! Give up this path that passes along 
the Godavari, and look out for another path ; as on this 
spot the red ASoka tree has grown fresh sprouts through 
the action of the lotus-feet of some mischievous woman '. 


cT^T ^fci": ^tf%: #^3%^ ^ m 

( ? o) g-^T Frranr f^fert ?iw ^rr ^: i 

"What is known as a poetical convention is that the touch 
of woman's feet leads to the appearance of blossom, — and 
not sprouts — on the Asoka tree. ■ 

In cases where what is described is in keeping with 
poetic convention, it is not defective, even though it may 
be contrary to popular notions. For example, in the 
following verse, though Fame, which is popularly known 
to be formless, has been described as having the form of 
light, — and to that extent it is contrary to popular notions, — 
yet it is not regarded as defective, as it is in keeping with 
poetic conventions. — 

c While a certain beautiful-eyed woman, decked in white 
garments and ornaments, was proceeding fearlessly in the 
bright moon-light, the moon went down; after that your 
fame was sung by some one, whereby she proceeded 
unhesitatingly to the house of her lover ; — where is it that 
you are not a source of happiness ?' 

(10) [An example of what is V Unscientific/]— 

(a) c The learned man always bathes at midnight and 
expounds and listens to lectures upon the various scrip- 
tures throughout the day/ 


tf^TCRrfe^ f^RT wft ftr snf^i \w u i fos¥*r i 

( % o 3TT) f^TO ^ ^TWfT^Fr^TT I 

Bathing at night, except on the occasion of an eclipse, 
is contrary to the Scriptural Code. 

(b) * In the case of the king the strength of whose 
arms is unequalled, the following of the dictates of ' the 
Science of Six Limbs ' (Political Science) is entirely useless.' 

This is contrary to the Code of Polity. 

(e) ' The woman, who is the very altar of the Love- 
god, threw away her armlet, and wore (in its stead) the 
series of nail-marks made by her lover.' 

Nail-marks are not laid down as to be made on the 
place where the armlet is worn ; hence what is said here 
is contrary to the Science of Erotics. 

(d) 'By the strenuous practice of the eight-limbed 
Yoga, having laid aside the whereabouts of the unattain- 
able success, — the chief of Yogins obtained the desired 
discriminative wisdom and became released.' 



3TW M^TT%^Rr: ^5f?TRRRTf«r: M^K^M¥ T- 
(U) 5TFcTT: Tm: W*A*\MgiM<i : ftn? 

safarc w&rft £mte: for 

The doctrine of the Science of Yoga being that—//™/ 
of all one obtains discriminative wisdom, then concrete 
meditation, then abstract meditation and then Release ; 
and Release is not obtained immediately after discrimina- 
tive wisdom. Hence what is here stated is opposed to the 
Science of Yoga. 

Similar examples of opposition to other Sciences may- 
be cited. 

(11) [Example of « Monotony ']— 

' All-affording wealth has been attained ;— what then ? 
The foot has been placed on the head of the enemy ;— 
what then ? Friends have been fully supplied with riches ; 
— what then ? The bodies of men have lasted for a whole 
cycle ; — what then ?' 

Here the frequent repetition of ' what then ' is mono- 
tonous. This ' monotony ' is avoided in the following— 

' If fire burns,— what is the wonder ? If mountains 
are full of gravity,— what then ? The water of the ocean 
is ever salty. To great beings freedom from depression 
comes naturally/ 


(12) [Example of the < Too unspecific ' or « Too 
generalised '] — 

'In view of the Chintdmctni jewel, the entire creation 
of God becomes purposeless ; any mention of its excellences 
would be the highest insult to it ; and its plentiful richness 
has exceeded the bounds of human desire ; and yet when 
it gets mixed up with pebbles, which have been rendered 
gem-like through its reflection, it should be regarded as a 
pebble only'. 

Here some such specification as c through its mere reflec- 
tion ' is necessary ; and the right reading of the last foot 
therefore should* be — ' chhdjdmdtramamkrtdshmasu mayes- 

[Such specification would imply that the other gems belong to 
an inferior category; and the absence of this specification places 
the Chintamani on the same level as the other gems, which is not 
what is intended by the poet.] 

(13) [Example of the c Too specific ']— 

€ The Sarasvati river (Goddess of Learning) resides 
permanently in your lotus-like mouth ; your under-lip 
is the Shona (red) itself ; your arm , which is capable of 
reminding people of the valour of « Kakutstha, is the 


are <sftw tTsr' ^r fasFft ?r ^t^t: ii 

southern ocean (adorned with rings) ; these rivers (armies) 
never leave your side even for a moment ; your inside 
being the pure Manasa lake (your inner heart being 
clean), — how can there be any thirst of water for you ?' 
Here the specification — c Shona itself 9 — is one that 
should not have been made. 

(14) [Example of the 'Too unrestricted']— 

c Make the night black with brushes of dense ink ; 
destroy the beauty of the white lotuses by means of in- 
cantations or herbs ; smash the moon to pieces on a slab 
of stone ; so that I may be able to look upon all the quarters 
marked with the stamp of her face/ 

Here the € night ' should have been restricted to the 
* bright, moon-lit.' 

(15) [Example of the ' Too restricted ']— 

' O, thou abode of alligators ! do not ill-treat these 
gems by striking them with stones thrown about by the 


waves; was it not due to the Kaustubha-gem that even 
Lord Visnu himself was made to appear before you with 
hands spread out to beg ?' 

[Here the restricted mention by name of one particular 
gem, the Kaustubha, is not very effective] : — the statement 
should appear in a more generalised form — ' was it not 
due to one of these gems that even Lord etc. 5 
(16) [Example of the ' Incomplete '] 
* Arihitve prakatlkrtepi na phalaprapiih prabhoh prafyuta 
Druhyan ddsharathirviruddhachariio yuktasatayd kanjayd 
Utkarsam cha parasya mdnayashasorvishramsananchdtmanah 
Stfiratnam chajagatpatirdashamukho devah kathath mrsyate* 
6 O Lord ! even though you exhibited beggarliness, 
yet the desired object has not been attained ; on the 
contrary, to her has been wedded the son of Dasharatha, 
your enemy, whp hates you. How can you, the ten* 
faced lord of the world, bear this superiority of the enemy, 
and the derogation of your own pride and fame, — as also 
the jewel among women ?' 

Here the intended assertion is — c How can you bear 
the idea of giving up the jewel among women 9 ; and inasmuch 
as the passage as the term ' stfiratnam ' otily, it is, to that 
extent, c incomplete/ It might be urged that the term 


(\6) ^^fe*4*H<i ^rT^^r^Rt ^^fro^nr 1 

* striratnam ' may be construed with 'parasya \ — the sense 
being c how can you bear the idea that the jewel among 
women belongs to another*. But such a consttuction is not 
possible, [the term c parasya ' having been already cons- 
trued with c utkarsam '] 

(17) [Example of the * Misplaced/]— 

' His command is borne by Indra on his head ; the 
sciences constitute his efficient organ of vision ; his devo- 
tion rests in Shiva, the lord of beings ; and beautiful 
Lanka is his residence ; and his birth is in the family of 
Brahma ; thus, then, no such other bridegroom could be 
found f— only if he were not Ravana (the Terrible) ! 
But wherein can all good qualities be found ?' 

The sentence should have ended with ' only if he were 
not Ravana'. 

[As what is meant is that this single disqualification nullifies all 
the aforesaid qualifications, and as such puts him out of court 
as a suitable bridegroom. This sense is prevented by the subsequent 
clause — 'wherein &c/ — which is a sort of a palliative excuse for 
the presence of a single disqualification as against a large number 
of qualifications, which tends to indicate the suitability of Ravana]. 

(18) [Example of the c Mismatched ']— 

* Intelligence is adorned by learning, illiteracy by 
frivolity* woman bv lasdviousness, the river by water, 



w% '^rfatr: ^Tc^r ^erF ffa Wtr; i ^t^t ^t 

the night by the moon, steadiness by calmness, and king- 
ship by policy/ 

Here the excellent things, ' Learning ' and the rest 
are wrongly associated with such inferior things as c illi- 
teracy' and * frivolity'. 

(19) In the verse * lagnamrdgavrtdngyd? (see above, stanza 
No. 241) we have an example of 'Repugnant Implication', 
as the clause c might be known to you ' implies that the 
Goddess of wealth is going to depart from the king. 

(20) [Example of ' Improper Predication ']— 
* PrayatnaparibodMtah &c, <&c? 

c To-night you will sleep so soundly that you will be 
awakened with great effort by means of eulogising songs ; 
the world is going to be deprived to-day of Krsna, of 
Pandavas and of the entire Somaka-tribe ; thus to-day is 
going to be finished all talk of war among the Ksattriyas ; 
may the burden of the forest of our enemies depart to-day 
from the surface of the earth P 

The right form of predication would have been c when 
asleep it will be with great effort that you will be awakened.' 

[With stress upon 'effort', which is lost when 'prayatna' is made 
the subordinate factor in the compound prayatna-paribodhitah\ 


Another example of the same ' (defect of improper 
predication ' when the impropriety consists in the wrong 
order of the things spoken of) — 

' The world was emptied by the snakes, who inspired 
confidence by living upon air ; the snakes themselves. 
were devoured by peacocks undergoing the difficult 
penance of living on rain-drops from the clouds ; these 
latter again were consigned to destruction by the fowlers 
clad in deer-skin ; — even knowing the effects of religious 
hypocrisy, foolish people expect to find excellent qualities 
(in such persons)'. 

The three things mentioned here should have been 

mentioned in the reverse order. 

[The austerities should have been mentioned in the ascending 
scale : the less difficult coming before the more difficult; in the 
passage however the most difficult austerity, living upon air, has 
been mentioned first, and the least difficult, wearing of deer-skin, 
comes last ; this spoils the effect of the climax.] 

(21) [Example of the* Improper (unsuitable) Adjunct*]— 

* O my friend, the Blue Lotus— who \s an ornament for 

the hands of women, and the shelter of the line of black 

bees, who serves to suppress all modesty during love- 


{V() W*T TWHdl^kq'lfc 11^*11 

dalliance, who destroys the lives of separated lover, who 
is an ornament of the best of lakes, and whose petals are 
moving I I am grief-stricken ; remove my bewilderment 
and tell me where the moon-faced one is/ 

Here the adjunct * who destroys the lives of separated 

lovers ' is highly improper. 

[As one who does this can never be expected to help the lover 
in his difficulties, and it is such help that the speaker is seeking.] 

(22) In the verse 'Lagnam rdgdvrtdngyd* c>V/(see above, 
stanza No. 241) though the statement is c concluded * at 
the clause ' be it known to you/ — yet it is resumed again 
in the clause ' by him &c/ [So this is an example of the 
' resuming of the concluded]. 

(23) [Example of the ' Indecorous ']. 
( Hantumeva pravrttasya 

Stabdhasya vivaraisiyab 
Yathdsya jay ate pdto 
Na tatbd punarunnatih? 

c An evil person being always arrogant, bent upon 
mischief, given to fault-finding, — his fall, when it comes, 
is such that he can never rise again/ 


258 KlvrAPRAKA&A. 

■ The words used here have an implication which points 
to the male organ (and thus this becomes c indecorous '). 

Though in several cases, a verse that has been cited 
as an example pf a certain defect, contains other defects 
also, yet these latter have not been pointed out, as not 
being quite pertinent to the context, 55-57. 

In- such expressions as c Kartydvatamsa 7 and the like> 
the introduction of the term c karya ' is for the purpose of 
expressing proximity. 

Such words as ' avatamsa * and the like denote the 
ear-ring itself ; the addition of the term c karya 9 c ear' 
(in the compound c karydvatamsa ') serves the purpose of 
expressing proximity [and hence it cannot be regarded as 
' redundant *]. 

Examples of such use are found in the following 
verses — 

* Asydh karqavatamsena 
Jitam sarvam vibhusanam 
Tathaim shobbatetyartham 
Asydh shravayakuqdalam. 

Chapter, yii 259 

spr ^t*|o|u|n5i<:^5^-: *ffafc|MMdM«ri;: It 

Ayayurbhringamukhardh shirahshekharashdlinah. 
c By her ear-ornament- on the ear, all ornament has been 
subdued ; similarly does excellently shine her ear-ring in 
the ear : — The men came forward,- -rendering all the direc- 
tions fragrant with excellent perfumes, with bees humming 
about them, and wearing crown-jewels on their heads. 9 

Here the terms c kar%a\ c shravaya 9 and e shirah 9 
(when the terms ' avatamsa ', c kundala ' and c shekhara 9 
denote respectively, the ear-ornament, the ear-ring and the 
head-ornament), serve the purpose of expressing proximity 
{i.e., the fact of the ornament being actually worn on the 
occasion spoken of). 

Similarly in the following verse: — 

' Vidirydbhimukhdrdtikardle sangarantare 
DhctirAv^rkliAchlhum dosnd visphuritam tava 9 , 

' Throbbing was thy arm, hardened by the marks 
made by the bow-string of thy bow, and terrible through 
the rending of opponents during battle '; — the addition 
of the term ' dhanuh 9 ' bow * (when c jyd 9 itself denotes 
the how-string) serves to indicate the fact of the string 
being placed upon the how. 

(That the addition of the term 'bow', is meant to 

260 kavtaprakaIa. 

convey this additional idea is shown by the fact that) in 
other cases (where no such idea is meant to be conveyed), 
we find the term c jya\ c bow-string/ used alone by itself ; 
e.g., in the following — 

6 Jjdbandhanispandabhujena jasya 
Kdrdgrhe nirjitavdsavena 
L,ankeshvarenositamdprasdddt 9 

c In whose prison, there lived, till propitiation, the 
king of Lanka, the subduer of Indra, who had his arms 
paralysed by being tied up with the bowstring, and the 
line of his mouths panting/ 

In the following. — 

' Prdyeshvaraparisvangavibhramapratipattibhih 
Muktdhdrena lasatd hasativa stanadvayam\ 

c The pair of breasts, beautified by the pearl-necklace 
is smiling as it were, under the consciousness of the joys 
of the embrace of her lover /—the addition of the term 
c muktd\ c pearl 9 (when the term € bdra\ 'necklace', 
itself signifies the presence of pearls) is meant to express 
the fact that no other gems were mixed with the pearls in 
the necklace. 


Similarly in the following — 
' Saundaryasampat tdrut/yam yasydste te cha vibhramdh 
Satpaddn puspamdleva kdn ndkarsati sd sakhe. 

€ She who is endowed with a richness of beauty, youth 
and excellent graces, — whom does she not captivate, O 
Friend 1 in the same manner as a flower-garland attracts 
the bees ?' — 

The term 'puspa* 'flower', has been added in the 
sense of excellent flowers, — the word * mala ' c garland % 
without a prefix, denoting merely a string of flowers 
(without any idea of the quality of the flowers strung). 

This is a justification of only such instances as are actually 
found (in standard works). 58. 

It is not meant to justify such usage by modern writes) ; 
so that it would not be right to use such expressions as 
'jaghanakdnchf\ on the analogy of the expression 
' Karndvatamsa ' (justified above p. 258). 

In such expressions as 

c Jagdda madhurdm vdcham vishaddksarashdlimm ' (* uttered 
a speech, sweet and clearly worded'), it is not right 


■«K«ltHr<9||«Kr^|Wlw(M 5^T I 

to justify (as Vamana has done) the addition of the 
noun € vdcham \ c speech ', [which would appear to be 
superfluous on the ground of the verb 'Jagdda ' c uttered \ 
itself denoting the c uttering of speech '], on the ground 
that c even though the sense of the noun may have been 
obtained already, it is added for the purpose of adding 
qualifying epithets to it '; because the purpose sought to 
be served by the adding of these epithets could be more 
easily served by the use of adverbs (qualifying the verb 
itself) ; [So that the addition of the noun should not be 
necessary, even for that purpose]. 

[The expression with the adverbs could appear in the 
form c jagdda madhuram vidvan vishaddksarashdli chd\. 

As an example of the propriety of the justification 
suggested by Vamana we have (not the aforesaid sentence 
cited by him, but) the following — 

c Charanatraparitrdnarahitdbhydmapi drutam 
Pdddbhydm dUramadhvdnam vrajannesa na khidyate. 

c He is not fatigued even when he walks long distances 
swiftly with feet deprived of shoes/ — [Where the purpose 
served by the addition of adjectival epithets to the noun 
' charaya ' is such as could not be served by the addition 
of any adverbial expressions]. 58. 



I# ^w #$#•* jm&*/ is stated is a well-known fact, 

c inconsequentially 9 is not a deject. 
As an example we have the following— 
< Located in the Moon, grace does not imbibe the 
qualities of the lotus ; and when located in the lotus, it 
partakes not of the beauty of the Moon ; but when it 
rested in Urna's face, the fickle grace obtained the charm 
belonging to both (Moon and Lotus). ' 

The statement that grace ' does not imbibe &c. &c. ' 
does not need an explanation ; as it is well-known that the 
lotus is closed up during the night, and the Moon is 
lustreless during the day. 

In imitation, all the dejects {cease to he dejects). 
c All the dejects '— unmelodiousness ' and the rest. 
As examples we have the following— 
' Mrgacbaksusamadraksamityadi kathayatyayam 
Pashyaisa cha gavityaha sjtframavaih yajeta da. 9 
' He says " I saw the fawn-eyed one ' and so forth ; 
he says " see the cow " and also " offer sacrifices to Indra." 


[ (a) c Mrgachaksusam > is unmelodious ; — (b) 'gavit? is ungramma- 
tical ; — and (c) 'sutramdnaM* is unconventional; but being only- 
reproductions of what has been said by another person, they do not 
constitute defects in the reproduction.] 

By virtue of the special character of the speaker and the 
rest, sometimes a defect becomes an excellence, and 
sometimes it is neither the one nor the other. - 59. 

By virtue of the importance attaching to the 
character of — (a) the speaker, (b) the person spoken to, 
(c) the meaning suggested, (d) the thing described, (<?) 
the context and so forth, — a defect sometimes becomes an 
excellence ; and in certain cases it is neither a defect nor 
an excellence. 

For instance, when a grammarian is the person speak- 
ing, or the person spoken to, — or when the passion of 
* Fury * forms the suggested meaning, — the Harshness of 
words becomes an excellence. 

Examples in otder : — 

(a) c Didhinvevlnsamah kashchid 
Kvipprafaymibhah kashchid 
Yatra sannihite na te? 


^TT^JTFt <KI**U*T Wmffi ^ m%*{ IR^SlI 

' Like the toots " didhm " and " vevin ", some people 
ate not amenable to excellence and ptospetity (en and #, 
changes, to which the said toots ate not subject) ; othets 
again ate like the " kvip " affix, by vittue of whose proxi- 
mity, the said two things (excellence and ptospetity) do 
not exist 

[Here since the speaker is a grammarian,, the obscurity attaching 
to the expressions becomes an excellence. J 

(b) c Yadd tvdmahamadrdksa'm 

Upddhydyam taddsmdrsam 
Samasprdksam cha sdtnmadam? 
'When I saw you well-versed in gtammatical lote, 
I was teminded of my own teachet and became elated with 

[The person spoken to being a grammarian, obscurity is an 

(c) c Antraprotabrhatkapdlanakkakriirakvapatkankana — 
Vydlolastanabhdrabhairavavapurdarpoddhatam dhdvati \ 

* c She is tushing fotwatd with ptoud attogance, filling 
the atmosphete with the jingling of het dangling ornaments 
consisting of sculls and thighbones strung on the enttails,— 
het body appearing frightful on account of het dangling 

266 kavyaprakasa 

$nr f%| ^r^ <rw: *pst: II 

breasts bespattered with the muddy blood that she has 
drunk and vomited/ 

[The passion of disgust being suggested here., the harshness of the 
words • becomes a source of excellence.] 

(d). The following is an example where the defect (of 
Harshness) becomes an excellence by virtue of the character 
of the thing described. — 

' Mdtatigdh kimu valgitaih kimaphalalrddambarairjambukdh 
Sdrangd mahisd madam vrajata kim shunjesu shurd na ke 
Kopdtopasamudbhatotkatasatdkoteribhdreh purah 

Sindhudbvdnini hunkrte sphuratijat tad garjitam garjitam' 

c O elephants, what of your cries ! O jackals, what of 
these useless struttings ! O deer and buffaloes, wherefore 
are you so proud ? Who is not brave, in solitude ? 
Roaring would be real roaring, only in the presence of the 
ocean-like rumble of the lion with his name ruffled in 
anger.' t 

In the latter half of this verse, the lion being the 
thing described, the harsh-sounding words are a source 
of excellence. 

(/) The following is an example of a defect becoming 
an excellence, by virtue of the context or occasion. 



are %^£#t fftRTFT ^^% ii 

c Raktdsboka krshodari kva nu gatd 

No drsteti mudhaiva chdlayasi kirn 

vdtdvadbutam shirah 



Tatpdddhatimantareifa bhavatah puspod- 


c O red Ashoka tree, whereto has the slender-waisted 
one gone, leaving her lover ? — Why do you dishonestly 
shake your wind-blown head as if denying your having 
seen her ? — Without the touch of her feet, whence could 
there appear in you these blossoms, which have their petals 
bitten off by the swarms of black bees hovering round in 
their anxiety (to get at the flowers) \ 

The latter half of the verse is spoken by the^speaker 
on an occasion when he has become enraged by* the dis- 
honest behaviour of the tree shaking its head, [and hence 
the harshness of the words used is an excellence]. 

-In some caafes, where there is no Passion depicted, 
Harshness is neither a defect nor an excellence. For 
example — 


*fr ^W##f ^fof^TO 5^T ^tf eft 

c Shirnaghrdfidnghripd%Tn vrayibhirapagha- 

Dlrgbdghrdtdnaghoghaih punarapt ghatayat- 

yeka ttlldghayan yah 
Gharmdmshostasya vontardviguitaghanaghrw- 

Dattdrghdh siddhasanghairvidadhatu gbryayab 

shighramamhovighdtam. 9 
c May the tays of the sun, to whom water-offerings 
are made by the hosts of gods, bring about the destruction 
of your sins ; — the sun who restores and rejuvenates the 
bodies of lepers which, beset with hosts of sins, have the 
nose, legs and hands shattered and ulcerated, and whose 
voice is indistinct ; and whose disposition is affected by 
doubly intensified pity.' 

[Hete since no Passion of any kind is meant to be described, the 
high-sounding words do not constitute either a defect or an exce- 

* Unconventionally ' and * Suppression of Meaning ' 
are not defective in passages where we have the figure of 
Paronomasia* For instance, in the following verse : — 

* Yem dtwasfdmanobbavena balijitkdyah purdstribrto 
Yashbodprttahbujangahdrapalayogangdm cha yodbdrayat 


CtfT ^T ^ T HW1*KI: 

Yasydhuh shashimachchhirohara iti stutyam cha ndmdmardh 
Pdydf sa svayamandhakaksayakarastvdm sarvadomddhavah. 

(A) (Applied to Krsnd)— May the all-giving husband 
of Laksmi protect you ! — He who has destroyed the de- 
mon Shakata, and himself unborn, conquered Bali, assumed 
a female form, subdued the serpent Kallya ; in whom all 
sound becomes merged, who upheld the mountain and the 
earth, whose praiseworthy name the gods declare to be" 
* the chopper of the head of Rahu \ and who established 
the residence of the Andhaka race/ 

(B) (Applied to Shiva) — ' May the husband of Uma 
ever protect you !, — He, the destroyer of the mind-born 
Love-god, who turned into an arrow the body of Visnu 
(the subduer of Bali), who has large serpents as his necklets 
and bangles, bears the Gariga, and the moon also on his 
forehead, whose praiseworthy name declared by the gods 
is c Hara ', and who destroyed .the demon Andhaka \ 

In this verse the terms c shashimat 9 and * andhakasaya ' 
are ' unconventional ', when applied to Krsna (but are not 
regarded as defective). 

The c Indecorous 9 is an excellence in certain cases ; 
for instance, in conversations leading upto sexual dalliance ; 
in accordance with the dictum of the Science of Erotics 
that c secret matters are to be concealed by means of words 
with double meanings '; — e. g., in the following verse— 


Karihastena sambddhe pravishydntarvilodite 
Upasarpan dhvajah pumsah sadhanantarvirajate. 
Similarly also in conversation dealing with the quiet- 
istic sentiment ; e.g. 

e Uttanochchhunamatidukapdtitodarasannibhe 
Uedini strwraye saktirakrmeh kasya jdyate? 
Further, in the following verse, ' Indecorousness ' is 
regarded as an excellence, by virtue of its affording a 
premonition of impending calamity — 
e Nirvayavairadahandh prashamadarifidm 
Nandantu pan4utanaydh saba mddhauena 
llaktaprasddhitabhuvah ksatavigrajbdshcha 
Svasthd bbavantu kururdjasutdb sabbrfydh 9 
'May the sons of Pandu along with Krsna rejoice, 
oii having the fite of animosity extinguished by the death 
(or p^Oe&ipiess) of enemies I and may the sons of the 
Ki^^feg, t iio%:with their dependants, rest %t peice (or 


in heaven), after having ruled over the world-kingdom 
attached to them (or, after having covered the earth with 
their blood), and having their quarrels set at rest (or 
having their bodies cut up).' 

[Here the thing that is wished to happen is indicative of inaus- 

In cases where, the force of the character of the thing 
described tends to point to a definite meaning, c Ambiguity * 
is regarded as an excellence, on account of its leading up 
to the Figure of Dissembling Eulogy. For instance, in 
the following versu — 

* Prthukdrtasvarapdtram bhusitanihshesaparijanam deva 
Vilasatkaretiugahanam samprati samamdvayoh sadanam 9 . — 

' O Lord, at present the houses of both of us (you and 
I) are similar : yours being full of large golden vessels 
(and mine, full of the piteous shriekings of children), with 
all the servants decorated (mine, with all the inmates lying 
on the ground), and teeming with large elephants (mine, 
covered with mouse-dust) ; 9 — 

[The fact of the words being addressed to the king point to the 
figure of Dissembling Eulogy, whereby the king's affluence is 

In cases where the speaker and the person spoken to 
are both learned men, c unintelligibility ' is an excellence. 
For instance, in the following verse— 

272 kavyajrakaIa. 

*r ^f# ^Tfir aw WlRwi tt m*ctia 


^^r^^w: 3lfWr: *lPkHl*T: W^o6\\ 

< Atmdrdmd vihitaratayo nirvikalpe samddbau 
Jndnodrekdd vighatitatamogranthayab sattvanisthdh 
Yam vtksante kimapi tamasdm jyotisdm vd parasiat 
Tarn mobdndbah kathamayamamum vetti devam purdqam. 

< How can this man (Duryodhana), blinded with delu- 
sion as he is, recognize the eternal God, whom only those 
perceive who, fixed in Goodness, have outgrown Dark- 
ness and Passion, and who have the knot of ignorance cut 
by the current of knowledge, given upto abstract medita- 
tion, and rejoicing in the contemplation of the god-head'. 

[This is said by Bhimasena to Sahadeva, both, highly educated 
princes : hence the use of Yoga technicalities is not a defect,] 

In soliloquy also Unintelligibility is not a defect ; e.g., 
in the following — 

Hrdi vinihitarupah siddhidastadviddm yah 
Avichalitamanobhih sddhakaimrgyamdnab 
Sajayati paripaddbah shaktibhih shaktindthah '; — 
* Glorious is Shiva, the Lord of the Female Divinity, 
po&ses$ed of manifold potentiality, having his soul located 
wlthii* the circle of the sixteenfold artery, who has his 


Faffed <£ Ttm\ *TW: I q*TT 

form in the heart, the ordainer of success to those who 
know Him, and who is looked up to by devotees with 
steady minds', 

c Vulgarity ' is an excellence in the speeches of low- 
born persons. 

c Phullukkuram kalarnakurariiham vahanti 
Je sindhubarabidavd mahaballahd de 
Je gdlidassa mahisidahitw sarichchhd 
De kirn cha muddhaviaillapasutiapunjd \ 
c Those branches of the Sindhuvara trees are dear to 
me, which bear fruits like rice ; as also are those masses 
of Mallika flowers which resemble the squeezed curdled 
milk of a she-buffalo'. 

In this the terms ' kalama ', c bhakta ', c kura ', ' mahisl ' 
and * dadhi ', though vulgar, are not regarded as defective, 
as they occur in the speech of the clown. 

c Verbal deficiency 5 is in some cases an excellence, e. g. } 
in the following : — 

' Gddhalinganavdmantkrtakuchaprodbhutaromodgamd 


fd^+lM«l^lkil»lwPir^l ^ ^ SIT f^qr% 

Mf «fcf mdnada mdti mdmalamiti ksdmdksarolldpini 
S'Mptd kim nu mrtd nu kim manasi me Una vilind nu kim \ 
Her breasts dwarfed by firm embrace, and the body- 
thrilling all over, her beautiful clothing slipping away 
from her waist, under the intensity of deep love, she uttered 
broken words — " Do not I O 1 do not 1 my love ! not 
too much ! Ah me ! Enough 1" — After which I know 
not if she went to sleep or was dead, or having entered into 
my heart, became assimilated therewith'. 
[Here the broken utterance serve to intensify the feeling depicted.] 
In certain cases the same defect of * Verbal Deficiency 9 
is neither a defect nor an excellence ; e.g., in the follow- 

c Tisthet kopavashdt prabhdvapihitd dlrgham na sd kupyati 
Svargdyotpatitd bhavenmayi pmarbhdvdrdramasyd manah 
Tdm hartum vibudhavisopi na cha me shaktdh purovartinim 
Sd cbdtyantamagocharam nayanayorydteii koyam vidhih? 

c May she be lying concealed ? — She angers not for 
long ! Might she have flown to the heavens ? — Her 
heart bore deep affection towards me. Even the demons 
could not wrench her away from before me. — And yet 
she has passed completely beyond the range of my vision. 
What a process of fate T 


sre fq%TT ^ciWd < 'tort:' fc#?#: #fwr- 

After c pihitd\ c concealed \ there should have been 
the expression — c it is not so, because ' and so forth; but 
this deficiency cannot be regarded as an excellence, because 
it does not afford any additional suggestion (as is done in 
the proceeding case); nor can it be regarded as a defect, 
because inasmuch as the second statement ( c she angers not 
for long ') by itself sets aside the first one, there is no real 
harm done by the omission of the words. 

' Redundancy ' is sometimes an excellence ; e.g. in the 
following — 

* Yadvanchandhitamatirbahuchdtngarbham 
Kdryonmukhah khalajanah krtakam braviti 
Tatsddhavo na na vidanti vidanti kimtu 
Kartum vrthd pra^ayamasya na parayanti \ 
c The deceitful and cunning way in which evil people 
tell lies in business, — it is not that the good men do not 
know it they do know it, even though they are unable to 
frustrate their hypocritical attachment', 

The second ' vidanti \ c they do know', serves the pur- 
pose of excluding others from the knowledge in question 
[and- as such the repetition is not a defect]. 


far fewdrter |% <rc m 5# uwu 

Another example of the same — 
' Vada vada jitah sa shatrur-na hato 

jalpamshcha tava tavdsmiti 
Chitram chitramarodtddhd hetiparam mrte putre\ 
c Say, say, if the enemy has been conquered'; — * he 
was not killed, saying I am yours, yours and most curiously 
did he weep on the death of his son\ 

Here the redundant words are not defective, as the 
speakers are under the influence of too much joy (in 
the first sentence), or too much fear (in the second). 

Repetition also in some cases is an excellence. For 
instance, (a) in Lata-alliteration, (b) where the expressed 
meaning is transferred to another meaning, and (c) where 
what has been asserted before is referred to again. For 
instance — * 

(a) 6 Sitakarakararuchiravibhd- 

Vibhdkardkdra dharayidhara kirtih 
Vaurusahzmald kamald 
Sdpi tavaivdsti ndnyasyaS 
c O Lord of the Earth, who resemblest the Moon, like 
the Moon's lovely sheen is thy fame ; thine alone too is 
the prosperity attendant upon valour'. 

|Here the repetitions in kara-kara, vibha-vibha and kamala-kamala 
are not defective, since they serve to accomplish the Alliteration]. 


(b) c Tdld jdamti gutidh 

Jala de sahiaehim gheppanti 
Honti kamaldim Kamaldim. 
6 Excellences appear when they are appreciated by 
really appreciative men. It is only when favoured by the 
Sun's rays that lotuses become lotuses 9 . 

[Here the second lotuses' connotes full-grown fragrance, and 
hence having its expressed meaning transformed it is not a defect]. 

(c) e Jitendriyatvam vinajasya jkdraiiam 

Gunaprakarso vinayddavdpyate 
Guyaprakarseya janonurajyate 
Jandnurdgaprabhavd hi sampadajf. 
Subjugation of the senses leads to humility ; by means 
of humility is excellence of qualities attained ; through 
excellent qualities, people become attached ; and prosperity 
follows from the attachment of the people'. 

[The 'humility' described in the first sentence as the effect, is 
again referred to in the second sentence as the cause, and so on; 
and under the circumstances, the use of the same words and expressi- 
ons only serves to lend force to the idea that what appears as the 
cause in the following sentence is precisely the same as that spoken 
of as the effect in the preceding sentence.] 

' Receding Excellence ', is sometimes an excellence ; 

as in the verse 'Prdgaprdpta-Scc 9 . (see above, stanzaNo. 209). 

[Where the softer language adopted in the fourth line is only 

right and proper, as it involves the remembrance of the speaker's 


278 kavzaprakaSa 

rfm <m 1 q-qr — 

' Resumption of the Concluded ' is neither a defect nor 
an excellence in cases where the resumption is not for the 
purpose of adding a further epithet, but is introduced as 
a distinct statement; an example of this also we have in the 
verse just referred to (' Prdgaprapta-etc. stanza No. 209). 

c Misplaced Compound 9 is an excellence in certain 
cases ; e. g., in the verse ' Kaktdshoka &c\ (See above, 
stanza No. 300). 

[Where., though the long compound is not quite appropriate in the 
delineation of the erotic passion, yet, as serving to intensify the 
displeasure felt by the suffering lover, it helps to heighten the 
said passion and becomes, as such, an excellence.] 

Similarly the ' Parenthetical 9 also is an excellence in 
some cases ; e. g., in the following : 

' Hum avahatthiareho 
Niramkuso aha vivearahio vi 
Smyevi tumammi putfo* 
Pattibi hhattiih tja pasumardmi '. 

6 Though devoid of the steady decorum of behaviour* 
tintestrained and indiscreet, I do not even dream, believe me > 
of disobeying you'. 59. 


3T«FF>§ 5R?^#?R^<iwi%f^f?r: \\^\ II 

SR^Fnf^«TR ^ TH store S^"te5n: II ^ ll 

( $ ) wy«^MKH* sqfwft«ft SPTT 

pmw ^rftwnsn - =^jcT^rt^r i 

*\ o \5 

The parenthetical clause e believe me ' is insetted for 
the purpose of emphasising the assertion. 
So may others be illustrated. 

(1) (2) (3) — The mention by name of the variant sentiments, 
the "Passion and of the latent sentiments, — (4), (5) Far-fetched 
Indication of the Ensuant and the Excitant, — (6) Admission of 
adverse Concomitants,— (7) Repeated Heightening,— (8) Unti- 
mely Introduction,— (9) Untimely Interruption, — (10) Excesive 
dilatation of the Subordinate Factor, — (11) Neglect of 
the Principal Factor,— (12) Perversion of Characters, -and 
(13) Mention of what is not Germane »; such are the defects in the 
delineation of Passion, Rasa. 60-62. 

(1) Example of the mention by name, of the variant 
emotions — 

c Savridd dayitdnane sakarund mdtangacharmdmbare 
Satrdsd bhujage savismayarasd chandremrtasyandini 
Sersyd jahnusutavalokanavidhau dlnd kapdlodare. 
Pdrvatyd navasangamaprat}ayini drstih shivdydstu vah\ 


' «qK*U <(qdl«H q$fckll MW^*iYH< 

<\$<m — 

' May the glance of Parvati, full of love at the first 
meeting of her husband, ordain your welfare ; — the glance 
which is affected by bashfulness when turned towards 
the face of her beloved, — imbued with pathos, when fall- 
ing upon the dress of elephant's skin,— full of fear when 
turned towards the serpent,— struck by wonder at the 
nectar-dripping moon,— burning with jealousy when look- 
ing at the Ganga,— and humiliated at the sight of the 
begging-bowl \ 

Here the mention, by name, of * bashfulness * and other 
variant emotions is defective. The right reading would be— 

* vydnamrd dayitdnane mukulitd mdtangacharmdmbare 
sotkampd bbujage nimesarahitd cbandremrtasyandini 
miladbhuh surasindhudarshanavidhau mldnd kapdlodare 9 
(where the same emotions are mentioned, not by their 
names, but by means of their physical effects). 

(2) Example of the c mention by name 9 of Passion, — 
(a) by the word ' passion/ ' rasa ', itself, and (b) by the 
names of the particular passions, the * Erotic ' and the 
* est. ' 


(3) ^^rrf^fr q^rr 

(a) c Tdmanangajayamangalashriyam 


Netrayoh krtavatosya gochare 

Kopyajdyata raso nirantarah 
' When he got her within the range of his visions- 
she, the auspicious glory of the victory of the Love-god, 
and having the slight elevation at the end of her arms 
rendered perceptible, — there became manifested in him 
a peculiar unimpeded passion? 

(b) c Alokya komalakopolataldbhisikta — 

Pasbyaisa bdlyamativrtya vivartatndnah 
Shrngdrasimani tarangitamdtanoti? 
e See how this young man, just passed his boyhood, 
behaves, — striking like waves as it were, on the boundaries 
of the Erotic, on seeing her of beautiful form, graceful and 
exquisitely handsome, through the loveful blush on her 
soft cheeks/ 

(3) Example of the c mention by name 9 of the Latent 

Emotion — 

e Samprabdre praharayaih prahdrdqatn parasparam 

Thayatkdraih shrutigatairutsdhastasya kopyabhut? 

'When he heard the sound of weapons dashing in 

battle, there appeared in him a peculiar daring/ 


Hete the mention of ' utsaha ' (Daring) is defective. 

(4) * On the atmosphere being washed by the flood 
of the camphor-like bright light of the Moon, — she, having 
the appearance of her breasts brought about by a sportive 
manipulation of her veil, came within the range of the 
young man's vision/ 

What are described here are the two kinds of excitants — 
{a) basic (in the shape of the woman) and (b) aggravative 
(in the shape of moonlight)— of the Erotic Passion ; and 
these do not serve to indicate the corresponding ensuants 
(in the young man, in the shape of thrilling and so forth) ; 
and it is with some difficulty that they become compre- 
hended. This is what is meant by the ensuants being 
' far-fetched/ 

(5) 'He shuns pleasure, interrupts his thoughts, 
trembles and rolls about ; thus, Oh ! a violent.. condition 
is attacking his body ; what shall we do ?' 

What are described here are the ensuants (certaineffects 
produced- in the young man) ; and it is only with some 
difficulty tliat one can comprehend that the loved woman 



(^) 5rcnt ?^ft st^jt ^ ^fc^rsr ^ 

is the excitant ; specially as the ensuants described ate such 
as could be due to the Passion of Pathos also. 

[This is what is meant by the excitant being ' farfetched '] 

(6a) c Do be propitiated ; O my love ! give expression 
to joyfulness and give up anger ; let thy nectarine voice 
sprinkle my withering limbs. Just for a moment keep 
your face, the very fount of felicity, before me. O lovely 
damsel, past opportunities never come again/ 

What is described here is : (1) an excitant, in the shape 
of the man's expression of the notion of the impermanence 
of pleasures, and also (2) a variant ejnotion, in the shape 
of self-disparagement, — both of which arc concomitants 
helpful to the Quietistic Passion, but adverse to (and marring 
the effect of) the Erotic (which is the Passion described)* 

[Thus, this is an example of the admission of adverse concomitants 
in the shape of discordant excitant and variants.] 

(6b) 'Her eyes having fallen upon her lover, while 

she was among her elders, she withdraws her heart from 
all work and is anxious to proceed to the forest/ 

284 kavyaprakaSa 

The ensuants depicted here are the &riȣ of interest in 
all work and proceeding to the forest ; and both of these are 
helpful to the quiestistic Passion (and adverse to the Erotic.) 

[Thus this is a case of the 'admission of adverse concomitants', 
in the shape of the ensuant.] 

There would be nothing objectionable if there were 
something to indicate that the desire to proceed to the 
forest was for the purpose of meeting the lover, under the 
pretext of fetching fuel and such things. 

(7) As an example of 'Repeated Heightening' we 
have ' Rati's "Lament 9 in the Kumdrasambhava. 

(8) An example of ' untimely introduction ' we have 
In the Second Act .of the Venlsamhara, where, while the 
slaughter of numerous heroes is proceeding, the poet 
proceeds to describe the loving dalliances of Duryodhana 
with BhanumatL 

(9) An example of "untimely interruption ' we have 
in the Second Act of the MahavJracharita, where the Heroic 
sentiment between Rama and Parashurama having reached 
the highest pitch, Rama says — c I am going to unfasten 
the nuptial bracelet/ 


(?^) srf^nft fen sr^rr feomfeomw nU<V 
srfef1rR^%^r fc^Mft I f% 5 ^T: *ft>l*l^-K- 

(10) * Excessive Dilatation of the Subordinate Factor ' 
we find in the lengthy description of Hayagriva in the 
Hayagrivavadha — Kdvya. 

(11) c Neglect of the Principal Factor 9 we find in the 
Fourth Act of the Ratndvalt, where, on the approach of 
Babhravya, Sagarika, the heroine, is completely ignored. 

(12) c Characters 9 are of three kinds — Divine, Non- 
divine, (Human) and Humo-divine. Each of these again 
is (a) firm-noble, (b) firm-haughty, (c) firm-gay, and (d) 
firm-calm, according as they are under the influence 
respectively of (a) the Heroic, (b) the Furious, (f) the 
Erotic and (d) the Quietistic Passions. [Thus there are 
12 kinds ]. Each of these again is either High, Medium or 
Low. — Now among these, Love, Mirth, Grief and Wonder 
are found in Divine as well as Human characters ; but it 
is not right to describe the Erotic Love-dalliances of a 
High-Divine character ; in fact such a description would be 
as highly improper as that of the love-dealings of one's 
own parents* 


^tsf 5pft ^X *ffTfa WK f*TC: # WTT W&3 I 

wm«kT w*t# *r q^rr f^rrfeaqit swnfa i 

«\ ss .*. N5 

Further, it is only in the case of Divine characters that 
there can be either such heroism as involved in the under- 
taking of a journey to the Heavens or the nether regions, 
the jumping over the ocean and so forth, or such anger as 
is immediately effective, though not accompanied by 
any visible physical signs as the curvature of the brows 
and so forth ; such anger, for instance, as is delineated in 
the following verse — 

c " O Lord, withdraw your wrath — do please with- 
draw it ", — by the time that these words of the gods go 
forth into the skies, the fire emanating from the eye of 
Shiva reduced the Love-god to ashes \ In the case of 
non-divine or human characters only such activity should 
be described as is known from past experience to have 
been possible ; if more than this were attributed to a 
human character, it would bear the stamp of untruth, and 
as such, fail to lead up to exhortation (which is the aim 
of poetry) that ' one should behave like the hero, and not 
like his opponent'. — Lastly in the case of humo-divine cha- 
racters, both the above kinds of actions may be described. 
This being the right course to adopt, if things are 
attributed to the Divine and other characters, or to the 
Firm-noble and the rest, which are not in keeping with the 


t^wFftf^TFr fen#nfe ql Ostein wm^W T- 

above-mentioned proprieties, — it involves the '-perver- 
sion '' (of the characters). Similarly there is c perversion 
of character * also in the case of the infringement of such 
rules as the following : — (a) such forms of address as 
' tatrabhavdn 9 and ' bhagavdn ? are to be used only by the 
higher, and never by the lower characters, — and these too, 
only with reference to sages, and never to kings ; — (h) the 
address * bhattdraka 9 is to be used, in reference to 
kings, only by such characters as do not belong to the 
higher order, — Similarly too the dress and actions of the 
characters are to be described in due accordance with the 
time, place, age, caste and such other circumstances, 
[And if this is not done, it involves ' perversion of 

(13) An example of ' what is not germane 9 ,— L e., not 
helpful in the delineation of the Passion concerned,— we 
have in the KarpMramanjan, where the king ignores the 
description of the spring by the heroine and also that by 
himself, and goes on to praise that by the bard. 

288 kavyaprakaAa. 

€ 5W# * (in the text) is meant to include such descriptions 
as that of the Lover getting angry at being struck by the 
feet of his loved one and so forth. 

(In regard to Defects) the Author of the Dhvani has 
made the following declaration — 

4 Apart from impropriety, there is nothing that mars 
the Passion ; as Propriety is the highest secret of the right 
delineation of the Passion'. 60-62. 

In certain cases the said Defects are not defective. 
This is what is explained next. 

In some cases the c mention by name ' of a variant emotion 
is not a deject. 

For example, in the following — 
* Autsukyena krtatvard sahabbuvd vydvartamdnd hriyd 

Taistairbandhuvadhiijanasya vachanairmtdbhimukhyam punah 

Drstvdgre varamdttasddhvasarasd gauri nave samgarnt 
, Samrohatpuhhd harem hasatd shltstd shivdydstu vah\ 

chapter vir 289 

' Hastening through longing, turning back from in- 
born modesty, carried before her husband by the exhor- 
tations of her female relatives, showing some fear on 
seeing her husband before her, — may Gaurl, on the 
occasion of her first meeting, embraced by smiling Shiva, 
and with her hairs thrilling, ordain your welfare V 

Here the variant emotion of Autsukya y c Longing V is 
mentioned by name, because the mere mention of the 
ensuants (the effects of the emotion) would not have been 
equally significant [as the said effects might be due to 
causes other than Longing ; hence the mention of the 
name of ' Autsukya * is not regarded as a defect.] 

.Similarly in the verse — c Durddutsukamdgate &c. ''(see 
abpve stanza No 29), though the poet has described the 
emotions of modesty, affection and the rest, through 
their respective ensuants, in the form of c turning aside ' 
and so forth, yet the emotion of ' Longing ' has been 
mentioned by name * utsuha \ because the mere mention 
of its ensuants, in the form of approaching nearer* would 
not be equally expressive of what is intended. 

The mentioning of c adverse concomitants ' in the form 
of variant emotions {excitants and ensuants) is conducive t& 
excellence, when they are spoken of as suppressed. 63. 

That is, when they are mentioned in such a manner 
as to indicatcrmat they are to be understood as being 


'^TFFPf ^SSFTW: qpr ^ f*W' CT^t Il^^ll 

srw fsRretffos ^r^fq- termor fo*rrf%fr% 
*w% fscm ^ fw snsf ^rc^f ^ ^3: 1 

suppressed, such mention is not very defective ; on 
the contrary, it serves to heighten the principal Passion 

As an example we have the verse 'Kvdkaryam shashalaks* 
maqah &c \ (See above, stanza No. 53), where though the 
variants, ensuants and excitants, in the form of c argu- 
mentation \ ' doubt ' and so forth (which are adverse to 
the Passion depicted) are mentioned as appearing, yet 
they are all represented as becoming merged into painful 
reflection, which tends to heighten the Passion depicted. 

Similarly, in the following verse— 
- ' O friend, thy face is pale and emaciated, and heart 
full of substance, and body languid ; all this indicates 
the presence of an incurable disease of the heart ? — 

though Paleness and the other effects mentioned are in 
a sense adverse to the Erotic Passion depicted (inasmuch 
as they can be the effects of the Pathetic Passion also) ; 
— yet, inasmuch as they are common (to the Erotic and to 
the Pathetic), they cannot be regarded as entirely 


Similarly again, in the verse — 

* It is true that women are heart-ravishing, and riches 
also are pleasing ; but life itself is as unsteady as the 
amorous glances of a love-intoxicated woman \— 

The first half (though adverse to the Quietistic Passion 
meant to be depicted) is spoken of only as something 
that is suppressed or negatived by the* second half; the 
sense thus being that — * the glances' are more unsteady 
or transient than c life '; and this mention of a parallel, 
which is universally known to be transitory, only serves 
to heighten the Quietistic Passion ; which is what is de- 
picted here, and not the Erotic (as has been held by the 
author of the Dhvani) because we do not recognise in the 
verse any such accessories as would point to this latter 
passion. — It has been argued (in support of the view that 
the Erotic is the passion depicted here) that it is the Erotic 
that is meant to be depicted, but only with a view to 
engaging the attention of the pupil addressed (by the 
depicting of a more agreeable subject, and through that, 
leading him on to the Quietistic). — But this can not be 
right ; as there is such a large gap between the Erotic and 
the Quietistic (that one cannot lead on to the other), — 
Another explanation (in support of the view in question) 
is that the Erotic is depicted here with a view to lending 
a charm to the poetry. — But this also cannot be accepted ; 
because charm could be added to the poetry either through 

292 ' kavyaprakaSa 

^tv(\ n m +^^t«pt#t fester ^r srfawRr^r 

1% "<*IKK*HI< ^m JPTT ?fFTFF$ *dM^ sffacT- 

.some other Passion than the Erotic (/. e. } through the 
Quietistic itself), or through mere Alliteration [so that for 
purposes of this charm also, it would not be necessary to 
introduce the Erotic]. 63, 

If one Passion is repugnant to another when found together 
in the same substratum, they should be delineated in different 
substrata ; and if one Passion is repugnant to another when 
appearing in close contiguity, they should be separated by some 
other Passion. 64. 

The Heroic and the Frightful are found to be repug- 
nant to one another, when found in the same person ; 
hence the Frightful is to be depicted as subsisting in the 
hero's opponent (while the Heroic belongs to the hero 
himself). — And between the Erotic and the Quietistic, 
there is incompatibility only when they appear in close 
contiguity ; hence a third Passion should be made to 
intervene between these two. For instance, in the Ndgd- 



^RftW: ^apPTt FETSfa: 

^rfarfir: ^q^nf^: h^vii (ar)ii 

nanda 9 when the Quietistic Jimutavahana is described as 
falling in love with Malayavati, the passion of Wonder is 
brought in between the two, by the sentences 'what a 
song ! what music I* , 

This incompatibility is warded off in this manner not 
only as occurring in course of a complete poetic work, but 
also in the same sentence. For instance, In the following 
verse : — 

' The heroic men, lying upon magnificent beds in the 
flying cars, their chests perfumed by the pollens of the 
fresh Parijata-garlands, embraced by celestial nymphs, and 
fanned by silken cloths made out of the celestial trees, wet 
and fragrant, — saw their own bodies rolling in the dust of 
the earth, pointed to by the damsels through curiosity, em- 
braced by jackals, and fanned by the flapping wings of the 
carnivorous birds dripping with bloody — 

294 kavyapraka&a 

the Heroic has been made to intervene between the 
Disgustful and the Erotic. 64. 

Even if two Passions are incompatible, they do not mar each 
other, — (a) when one is merely remembered, or (b) when it is 
intended to be equal fo the other (in importance), or (c) when the 
two become subservient to a third Principal (Passion). 65. 

For instance, (a) in the following * verse — c Ayam 
sa rashanotkarsi <&c. 6 This is that same hand &c.' 
(see above,) — which contains the speech of the wife of 
Bhurishravas when she saw his hand lying on the battle 
field, — the remembrance of her past experience, even 
though savouring of the Erotic, only serves to heighten 
the Pathetic. 

(b) In the following verse — 

* The teeth-marks and the nail-tearings made in your 
thrilling body by the blood-thirsty (loving) lioness (wo- 
man), wer^ looked at even by the sages, with coveting 
eyes *.<'•' 


few I WT ^T <TT: ^r^TTt ^^FTR^fS^ 

The meaning is that the marks made on the body 
of the Buddha by the lioness looked as charming as those 
made on the body of the lover by his beloved woman ; 
or that/ just as the erotically inclined man looks covetingly 
upon the marks of endearment made by a woman upon 
the body of another man, so did the sages look covetingly 
upon the marks upon Buddha's body made by the lioness ' ; 
and here both the Passions (the Heroic and the Erotic) are 
meant to be of equal importance* 

(/) In the following verse — 

* The frightened wives of your enemies sprinkle, 
with their feet on the grassy ground, blood issuing from 
their fingers, and appear as if dropping the red paint of 
their feet ; their faces are washed with flowing tears ; 
and supporting themselves on the hands of their husbands, 
they walk round the forest-fire, appearing as if they were 
again going through their marriage-rites '. — 

The principal factor meant to be delineated by the 
clever statement is the speaker's regard for the king, and to 
this principal factor, both, the Pathetic as well as the Erotic, 
are equally subservient ; and under the circumstances, 

296 kIvyaprakasa 

«CTR>ar^% mt$ fasten I 

thete is no incompatibility. Just as there is no incongruity 
in the mention of two mutually contradictory actions, 
when these are mentioned as subservient to a. third act ; 
e.g., in the verse—" tome "—" go "— " fall down "— 
" rise " — " speak " — " keep quiet ", — in this manner do 
the rich make fun of the needy men who are held in by 
hopes for ' getting something/ — * coming ' and ' going * 
are both subservient ' to the act of making fun *. 

Similarly in the following verse — 

' May the fire of Shiva's arrows burn your sin, — the 
fire which, upon embracing the young ladies of Tripura, 
was shaken off by them with tearful eyes,— was thrown 
aside, on touching their hands, was swiftly struck back, 
when catching hold of their cloth-^end, —thrust aside, 
when touching their locks,— not even perceived, through 
flurry, when fallen on their feet ; and thus appeared like a 

CHAPTER Vtl 297 

guilty lovet of theirs,' — the principal object of delineation 
is the superior majesty of-Tripura's enemy (Shiva) ; and to 
this is subservient the Pathetic, to which latter the Erotic 
is subservient ; and even though in view of the Erotic 
being subservient to it, the Pathetic might be regarded as 
the predominant factor, — yet it has to be regarded as only 
a subordinate factor in view of the fact that the delineation 
of the Pathetic does not form the end of the describes 
Or, the sense may be that — c the fire of the arrow behaved 
in the same manner as a guilty lover has done *, — wherein 
the principal factor (greatness of Shiva) becomes heightened 
by the Pathetic as strengthened by the Erotic [so that in 
this sense also the Pathetic is not the end arrived at.] 

In support of our view, we have the following state- 
ment — c It is only when it has undergone a purificatory 
process that the subordinate factor approaches its Princi- 
pal, and it is only thus that it tends to help that principal/ 

In this connection it has to be borne in mind that there 
can be no 'incompatibility' between one Passion and 
another, — when we understand Passion to be what it has 
been described to be above (under Ch. IV) ; nor can there 


r^r^t ¥^% ^% <*i««<4w wIV-hm ^q^^d \\%\\\ 

be any relative subserviency between them ; hence in the 
present context,- the term ' rasa \ c passion \ should be 
taken as standing for the corresponding c SthayT-Bhava * 
* Latent FeeEng.* 65. 

[ Ttflms encb the Chapter VH dealing with tffye it|astrations of 
Faults of Poetry in the Kavya-Prakasa. ] 

Tmfoft TWT T <^|ThW II 

H«ii**t ?n:: J ^K^^KW^ii^Pr fecRrTffemT#*r 


Having described the Defects, the Author next pro- 
ceeds to describe the difference between c Excellences ' 
rand * Ornaments ' or ' Figures of speech — 

Those properties that belong to the Passion, the principal 
jactor, — conducive to its maturity and having an unceasing 
existence,— -are called ' Gmjas % c Excellences \ in the same 
manner as Bravery and such qualities belong to the SouL 66. 

Just as Bravery and such qualities belong to the Sotd % 
not to the body , — so Sweetness and the other Excellences 
belong to the Passion, not to the letter. 

In some cases it so happens that people find bravery 
co-existing with the large-sized body, and come to speak 
of the body itself as 6 brave ; and hence in another case 
also, on seeing a large body, they are led to believe, from 



the analogy of the former case, that this other man also* 
must be brave ; — and thus, even a really brave man comes- 
to be believed to be not brave on the ground of the smallness 
of his body ; and such beliefs are very common ; — in the- 
same manner people (like Vamana and others) have come- 
to speak (a) of the soft — sounding letters as ' sweet ',. 
though in reality they are only suggestive of sweetness ; — 
and they come to speak of such passion and its accessories 
as are not really ' sweet % as ' sweet ', simply by reason of 
the softness of the letters (expressing them) ; in the same- 
manner, they also speak of the really c sweet ' passions, 
and accessories as ' not sweet \ when they are expressed 
in such words as are not soft-sounding ; — and in all 
this, they do not take into account the Passion at all (attri- 
buting as they do, the sweetness to the letters). 

It is in view of all this divergent usage that it has beea 
asserted (in the text) that sweetness and other excellences 
are properties really belonging to the Passion, and what 
the properly selected letters do is only to render such, 
qualities perceptible ; and those qualities do not subsist 
in the letters entirely. In what manner the letters serve. 
to manifest the qualities is going to be shown by means o£ 
examples. 66. 


mh<M wmvt $*» fR ^ ^ 1% ^w: i 

17w<? dualities which sometimes adorn the existing 'Passion, 
.through its components,— just as the necklace and the like ( do 
for the Soul, through the body), — are the ornaments {figures 
of speech), Alliteration, Simile and the rest. 67. 

Those qualities that adorn the principal factor, — 
L e. the Passion — where it exists, — by imparting 
■excellence to its components, in the shape of the expres- 
sive words and their expressed meaning, are called "or- 
naments ', because they resemble the necklace and other 
things which, by imparting beauty to the neck and other 
parts of the body, come to adorn the soul also. Where, 
however, the Passion does not exist, the said ornaments 
lend to become merely fanciful expressions. In certian 
cases, even when the Passion is present, they do not serve 
to adorn it. 

Examples in order : — 

(1) In the following verse [and others] the ornament 
(Alliteration) adorns the Passion through the expressive 
words — 

Apasdraya ghanasdram kuru hdram dura eva kirn kamalaih 

Alamalamali mrnalalriti vadati divdnishaw bald. 


tfvwu'^; <?tefe f^RFqfe forts i 

cc Remove the camphor ; throw away the garland ;. 
what is the use of lotus-flowers ? O Friend, enough,, 
enough of these lotus-stalks !"— Thus does the young 
girl go on speaking day and night/ 

(2) In the following verse the Figure (Stringed Simile) 
adorns the Passion through the expressed meaning— 

' The galling all-conquering love is freely circulating like 
poison ; it burns fiercely (smokelessly) like fire fanned by 
the wind; it afflicts every limb, like high fever; neither father 
nor mother nor your ladyship is able to save me from this. 

In the following verse, the ornament (Alliteration) 
adorns only the words (and not the Passion depicted) — . 

c Chitte cthnttadi tja tuttadi sd gunesum 
Sejjdsu lottadi visappadi dimmuhesum 
Bolammi vattadi pavattadi kavvabandhe 
Jhhdnena tuttadi chiram taruni tarattl. 9 

6 The young woman acts sensibly ; she is not devoid 
of excellences ; she rolls about on the bed, moves all round 
and talks freely ; she engages in poetical composition, and 


Weft ^tN+to 1 

^W#^ fe^MI Gmridl dMlfedl^ksHdl 

* * ss * c 

fot long periods of time she does not break off her con- 
templation P 

(4) In the following verse, the Figure (Simile) adorns 
only the expressed meaning — and not the Passion depicted. 

c When the sun had gone away,, the lotus had closed 
its mouth in anger, and the bees had begun to cry (in grief), 
the forlorn Chakravaka bird, seeing the Crane seated closed 
to his beloved, did not either eat or give up the lotus- 
fibre ; it was only retained in the throat, like a bar, as it 
were, to the outgoing life-breath/ 

As a matter of fact, under the sorrowful circumstances 
depicted, a lotus-fibre cannot serve to keep back the 
breath ; so that the Simile, as it stands, only mars the effect 
of the Passion (Erotic — Privative) depicted (and does not 
help it). 

Such is the actual difference between c Excellence > 
and c Ornament \ And this puts out of court all such 
assertions as the following (in the Bhdmabavriti, by Bhattod- 
bhata) — "The difference between such Excellences as 
Bravery and the rest, and such Ornaments, as necklace and 


the rest, may be that while the former subsists by in- 
herence) the latter is present only by conjunction ; [this may be 
true in the case of the Body and its excellences and orna- 
ments but (in the case of Passion and its delineation) we 
find that both, — excellences like Floridity and the rest, as 
well as ornaments, like Simile, Alliteration and the rest — 
subsist by inherence only ; consequently any distinction 
drawn between these two must be regarded as merely 
based upon a blind tradition — a case of sheep blindly 
following another." 

Then again, some people (Vamana and his followers), 
have stated the distinction in the form that cc while Ex- 
cellences serve to produce charm in poetry, Ornaments serve 
to heighten the charm already produced." — This also is 
not right. Because the questions would arise — Is poetry 
to be regarded as such only through the presence of all 
the excellences, or through that of a few of these only ? 
If the former, how could the Gaudl and Pdnchdll dictions, 
which are not possessed of all the excellences, constitute 
the c soul of Poetry ' (as has been held by Vamana) ? — If, 
on the other hand, it is only the presence of a few of the 
Excellences that renders Poetry capable of being so re- 
garded, — then, it would be permissible to regard as e poetry% 



even such statements as — 

c adrdvatra prajvalatyagnimchchaih 
prdjyah prodyannnl lasatyesa dhumah? 

[' In this hill fire bums high, because there arises 
thence a dense volume of smoke '], 

where some of the Excellences, Floridity and the rest* 
are present. — 

Further, in such verses as the following — 

€ This handsome woman represents the acquisition of 
the Heaven in this human form, and the loveliness of her 
lips puts nectar itself into the shade', — 

we find that it is regarded as c poetry \ through the 
presence of the two Ornaments or Figures c Peculiar 
Allegation ' and ' Dissimilitude \ independently of the 
presence of any excellences. 67. 

The Author next proceeds to describe the varieties of 

Sweetness, Floridity and Lucidity — they are these three, 
and not ten. 

He states [one by one] the definition of each of these 
three — 

c Smetness * is a source of delegability ; it is what leads to 
mollification in the case of the 'Erotic Passion. 68. 


%-^tx sr«r% ^NW \ $A*]?<A*Mfw* i ^^ g^ncter: 

It leads to ' mollification \ — i.e., soft flow or melting 
as it were, — in the case of the c Erotic \ i.e., of the 
agreeable kind. 

As for mere melodiousness, it belongs to Floridity and 
Lucidity also (and as such cannot form the differentia of 
sweetness, as has been held by Bhaskara). 68. 

In the case of the Pathetic, the Privative— Erotic and 
the Quietistic, it {Sweetness) is present in an excessive degree. 

c Present in an excessive degree ' — because it leads 
to excessive mollification. 

Floridity, the source of the lustrous expanding of the 
heart, resides in the Heroic Passion. 69. 

[ For the variant reading 3flcR$rc5f&: — Floridity the source of self- 
forgetfulness through illumination.] 

Floridity brings about that glow of the heart which 
appears in the form of its expansion. 69, 

It is present in an excessive degree in the Disgustful 
and Furious Passions, in order. 

In the Disgustful, Floridity is present, in a greater 
degree than in the Heroic ; and in a still greater degree 
in the Furious. 


awfefa i ^TT^rfe fwr i «43fa i wr -#r *r% 
T^mr ^ n 

I^Rx^T ^T^R^TI ctaHJuiMI^I 3TT¥K *f!4**H I IV9 o-V9 $ II 

That xvhich quickly pervades the other like fire among 
dry fuel) or like a clean stream of water, is Lucidity, whose 
presence is proper everywhere. 

c The other ' — /. e., the heart. € Every where 9 — i.e., in all 
Passions and in all forms of composition. 

These {excellences) are held to subsist in words and their 
meanings only indirectly. 70-71, 

* Indirectly 9 — /. e., figuratively. 

' These 9 — Excellences. 

These excellences (really subsisting in Passion) are 
figuratively spoken of (even in Mammata's own definition 
of Poetry) as subsisting in words and their meanings, in the 
same manner as Bravery and such qualities are attributed 
to the body (though really belonging to the soul). 70-71. 

" Why should the number of these excellences be three 
only, and not ten (as described by Vamana) ? " 

The author answers this question — 

(a) Some (of the ten) are included under these (three) ; (b) 
others are resolved into the mere negation of certain defects ; 
(c) the rest, in certain cases, have the character of Defects ; — 
for this reason they are not ten. 72. 


(Among the ten enumerated by Vamana) are — (1) Sbksa y 
Coalescence, defined as that property whereby several words 
have the appearance of a single word, — (2) Samddhi^ 
Smoothness, defined as consisting in the proper adjustment 
of ascent (high-flown language) and descent (simple langu- 
age), — (3) Udarartd, Magnificence, consisting in the fanciful 
grouping of words, — (4) Prasdda, Simplicity, consisting in 
dullness mixed with floridity ; — and all these are included 
in c Floridity ' (as defined by ourselves) ; — (5) Mddhurya, 
Sweetness, consisting in the distinctness of words, has, 
in a way, been admitted by us also under the same name ; — 
(6) Arthavyakti, Clearness of Meaning, is included under 
c Lucidity', — (7) Samatd, Uniformity, consisting in the 
sameness of style, is, in some cases, a defect ; e. g*> in 
such verses, ' mdtangdih kimu 8cc.' (see above stanza No. 
229.), where too, the abandoning of the softer diction, 
in the description of the Lion (in the fourth line), is a posi- 
tive excellence, — (8) Saukumdrya> Softness, consisting in 
the absence of harshness, and (9) Kdnti, Polish, consisting 
in the brightness of style, are admitted as the negations 
respectively of ' harshness ? and * vulgarity \ which have 
been mentioned as defects. 


^r sit sftfe afar ^wf ^ ffaarom *t *j*t: i 

Thus it follows that the number of excellences pertain- 
ing to awvfr is not ten. 

As regards those same Excellences as pertaining to 
the meanings (1) the first (mentioned by Vamana) is 
Praudhi, Boldness, also called (the first kind of c ojas * 
4 strength '), which has been defined as consisting (a) in 
the use of a sentence for the expressing of what can 
be expressed by a single word, (b) in using a single word 
for the expressing of what would be expressed by a sen- 
tence,^) in expansion, (rf) in brevity and (e) in the effective- 
ness of epithets. But this is merely a flourish of style, 
and not an c excellence '; since expressions are regarded 
as ' poetical ' even in the absence of the said (five kinds of) 
Boldness. — (la) the second kind of c ojas \ * strength ', 
which has been defined as consisting in significance (a preg- 
nancy of meaning), is only the negation of the defect of 
Irrelevancy ; — (2) c Prasdda \ consisting in clearness of 
meaning, is the negation of the defect of ' redundancy'; 
— (3) c Mddhurya \ consisting of fanciful expression, is the 
negation of the defect of c monotony '; — (4) Saukutndrya, 
consisting of freedom from ruggedness, is the negation 
of the defect of c Indecorous Inauspiciousness 9 ; — (5) 
Uddratd, consisting in the absence of vulgarity, is the 

310 kavtaprakaSa 

negation of the defect of ' vulgarity/ — (6) Arthavyakti^ 
consisting in the distinctness of the character of things, 
is included under the Figure of Svabhavokti, e natural 
description/ — going to be described later on ; (7) Kanti, 
consisting in the brilliance of Passion, is included under 
the c Suggestion of Passion \ either as the predominant 
or the subordinated factor. — (8) Sblesa, — consisting of a 
combination of several circumstances, such as (a) sequence 
of several actions, (b) deceit (c) well-known character, 
and (d) statement of, reasons, — is only a flourish of the 
poetic fancy. — (9) Samata, consisting in the non-relinquish- 
ment of continuity, is only the negation of a defect (of 
c Broken Uniformity '), and not a positive excellence ; what 
man, unless he were mad, would ever begin with one thing 
and then speak of a totally different thing ? — (10) Samadhi, 
consisting in the true appreciation of the meaning (as 
being original or imitated), is not an excellence ; because 
unless one comprehends the true meaning of a poem, 
and recognises whether it is an original idea of the poet 
concerned, or has its source in the idea of some other 
poet,— how can the composition be regarded as ' poetry * 
at all ? 72. 




H3^#raT: ^PT^ft 'WFm: ftrcfij fa^lk^4di: 

F^r these reasons, the excellences {held by others) as pertaining 
to the meaning should not be mentioned sep arately). 

'Should not be mentioned 9 — do not deserve to be 

Those excellences that have been spoken of as pertaining 
(indirectly) to words, (though really be longing to Passion depicted) — 
these are suggested by Letters^ compounds and diction. 73. 

The text proceeds to describe what is suggestive of 
what excellence. — 

(a) The 'sparsha ? [mute] consonants, with the exception of 
those of the c fa '-group, combined with the last consonant of 
their group > — (b) the consonants c r * and n 9 when short, — (c) 
expressions free compounds, — (d) compounds of medium length, — 
and (e) harmonious diction — are (suggestive) of Sweetness. 74. 

(a) All the consonants from k to m — except /, th> d 
and dh — combined with the last letter of their res- 
pective groups, (b) r and n combined with short vowels ; 
— these are the ' letters ' (suggestive of Sweetness). 

As for 'compounds 9 — (e) 'expressions free from com- 
pounds ' or (d) c compounds of medium length ' (are suggestive 
of Sweetness). 


HKIlft*IKU4<£KHlfa II^YV3||V9YUI 

cox * 

(e) ' Harmonious diction 9 — /, e*, such diction in which 

the words are so combined as to make it soft — is also* 

suggestive of Sweetness. 
Example- — 

' Anangarangapratimam tadangam 


Kurvanti yundm sahasd yathaitdh 

Svdntdni shdntdparachintananiJ* 

c The exquisite body of the slender-bodied one, re- 
sembling the sportive altar of the Love-god, accompanied 
by graceful motions makes the innermost hearts of young- 
men think of things other than the quietistic.' 74. 

(A) The combination — (a) of the first and of the third 
consonants of a group with the consonant following them, — (by 
of any consonant with r, — and (e) of any two similar 
consonants ; — (B) the consonants beginning with t — (C) the- 
consonants sh and s — (D) long compounds, — and (E) the 
bombastic diction, — these are suggestive of Floridity. 75. 

(a) The combination of the first and third letters 
idf a group with those following them — i.e., with the 
;$econd and the fourth respectively ; — (b) any consonant 


"fsR^T W^T sftjRT: | 

having r either above or below it ;—(c) the combination 
of ' similar consonants * i.e., that of a consonant with 
itself — (J) the entire /—group with the exception of p — 
(e) the consonants sh and s—(J) long compounds — and 
{g) bombastic dictive ; — all these are suggestive of Flori- 

As an example we have the verse ' Mitrdhndmiidvrtta 
<&c? (see above stanza No. 285.) 

Lucidity has been held to be that excellence, common to 
all, by virtue of which the comprehension of meaning of words 
follows on the mere hearing of it, 76. 

'All'—/, e., all Passions and all styles or diction. 
Example. — 

' Parimldnam p'wttr, uf^HintsaKj/idiuljcyctcis 
Tanor madhyasydntah panmilanamaprdpya haritam 
Idath vyastanydsam shlathabhujalatdksepabalanaih 
Krshdngydh santdpam vadati Hsinipatrashayanam? 
' This bedding of lotus-leaves shows the distress of 
the slender-bodied one,— being as it is withered at its 

314 kavyaprakaSa 

tHi^rmfcr: p$dftqR hHidfoqfci«iid : 

two ends where it has come into contact with the plump, 
breasts and thighs— green in the middle where it did 
not come into contact with her slender waist— and ruffled 
by the throwing about of her unnerved arms.' 76. 
[Although Construction, etc. are subservient to Excellence—] 
The diction, the compounds and the letters are sometimes 
altered, in accordance with the nature of {a) the speaker, (b) 
the subject and (c) the form (of the composition). 77. 

(a) In some cases the Diction &c, are made to 
accord with the nature of the speaker, irrespective of 
the subject or of the composition ; as an example of which 
we have the following — 

Konaghdtesu garjatpralayaghanaghatd-nyonyasanghattachandah 
Kendsmatsimhanddapratirasitasakho dimdubhistdditosau. 

' By whom has this trumpet been blown,— appearing 
as it does like the echo of my lion-roar, the forward 
messenger of Draupadi's wrath, the cyclone presaging the 
annihilation of the Kuru-race, resembling, at each stroke 
©f the beating-stick, the terrible clash of the thundering 


are f| T ^t^t ^ife^*^*^ i srfwrrt' ^ 

*foRFT: II 

mW«3<4 M ^MW«M m -H =1 rtt'fe+^M Mid- 

f^r ^Tfc*^4^RiPw wit ^ w^^tmt 

clouds at the time of universal dissolution, being as deep 
as the tumbling of the Mandara mountain tossed about 
and having its caves overflowing with the water of the sea 
thrown about, as it were, by the churning rod/ 

Here the subject described *is not one suggestive of 
anger, or any such violent emotion ; the form of the work 
also is one to be staged ; so that the bombastic diction is 
not compatible with either of these two conditions ; and yet, 
since the speaker is Bhimasena (well-known as a c Furious * 
character) [the bombastic diction is quite suitable.] 

In other cases the diction and other things are altered 
in accordance with the character of the subject portrayed, 
irrespective of the speaker or the form. For instance, in the 
following : — 
c VraudhachchheMnurupochchhahnaray 

Trdsdkrstashvat : sja£va!:hw^ 

Kurvat kdkutsthaviryastutimiva marutdm kandhardrandhrabhdjdtu 

Bhdnkdrairbhimametannipatati viyatah kumbhakartiottamdngam? 

'Here falls from the sky the head of Kumbhakarna, 

terrible on account of the curious humming of winds 

contained in the holes in his shoulders, and hence appearing 



&nf% — 

snwfwnrt % ^rcftr^r ito#i: i ^rrqiTWr 

ii««fl^wi: I ^TCTFT^ Ttirfa T <lq*WWK4: II 

3I*£*r>^Ki: II 6 II 

as it were, singing the praises of Rama, — and being looked 
at by Aruna (the Sun's charioteer) wheeling about the 
sun's chariot and pulling up the horses on one side, 
fearing it to be Rahu, on account of the force with which 
it has shot forth under the impact of the powerful stroke 
(of the sword)/ 

In other cases, the Diction &c. are altered in accordance 
, with the nature of the form, irrespective of the speaker 
and the subject. — For instance in an Akhjayikd soft letters 
are not admissible even in the delineation of the Erotic 
Passion ; — in a Katha, even in the delineation of the 
c Furious \ bombastic words are not used ; — and in dramas 
and works of that kind, long compounds are. not used even 
in the depicting of the ' Furious \ Similarly in other cases, 
the proprieties are to vary with the circumstances. 77. 

[ Thus ends Chapter VIII dealing with the determination of 
Excellences as different from Ornaments (Figures of Speech).] 

^urM^- f^FTT!": MMMtKi: 1% #5Ttf *PST- 
«M>KM1^ — 

•O ^ ND 



The Excellences having been examined, the author now 
describes the Verbal Figures of Speech. 

(1) — yflhm what is said by one person in one sense is construed 

by another person in a different sense — either through punning 

or through intonation, — it is Equivoque (Vakrokti) : and 

thus it is of two kinds. 78. 

'Thus'— i.e., (1) Equivoque based on Punning and (2) 

Equivoque based upon Intonation. 

The following is an example of Equiyoque based upon 
pun due to the breaking up of words :— 
' Ndnyamanukfdamdcharasi chejjdnasi kashcheiano 
Vdmdndm priyamddadhdti hitakrnnaivdbaldndm bhavdn 
' Yuktam kirn hitakartanam nanu balabhdvaprasiddhdtmanah — 
Sdmarthyam bhavatahpurandaramatachchhedamvidhdtwh kutah* 


ar^t *£fefr ^fef^in m fatten i 
fwrr «r^ 3"fe# 5 srsTqt ^fer 113^11 

"If you behave satisfactorily towards women, then 
you are wise". — "What intelligent person does what is 
agreeable to his enemies ?" [This reply being based upon 
the pun involved in breaking up the term c ndfindm \ 
spoken by the first speaker in the sense of c towards women', 
into two terms c na-arinam \ c not to enemies '] — " Then you 
are not a benefactor of the weaker sex." [This rejoinder 
takes the term c vdmdndm \ used by the second speaker in 
the sense c of enemies \ in the sense c of the weaker sex \] — 
" Would it be proper to destroy the good of a person known 
to be weak ?" [This answer is based upon the term 
< hitakrt \ used by the former speaker in the sense of hitam 
karoti c benefactor, one who does good \ being taken in 
the sense of hitam c krntati\ c one who destroys the good']. 
— " Whence can there be any power in you to bring about 
the destruction of what is desired by Indra ?" [This reply 
is based on the expression c baldbhdvaprasiddhdtmanah \ used 
by the former speaker in the sense of 'one known to 
be weak \ being taken by the latter in the sense of c one 
who is known by his killing of the demon Bala, i.e., 

The following is an example of Equivoque based upon 
Paronomasia, not involving the breaking up of words. 

e Aho kemdrshi buddhirddrum tava nirmiid^ 
Trigu^d shruyate buddhirna tu ddrumayi kvachit \ 

" Oh I By whom has this Intelligence of yours been 
made so cruel ?" — " Intelligence is known to consist of 
the three attributes, and never of wood". [The reply 


^rfef^tf^rarfw #isj% *r% ^dwrwhi^Kvii^u 

C C "\ V3 

is based upon the word c ddrund\ used by the first speaker 
in the sense of ' cruel \ being taken by the other in the 
sense of c of wood \] 

The following is an example of Equivoque based on 

''Gurujanaparatantratayd durataram deshamudyato gantum 

AlikMlakokilalalite naisyati sakhi surabhisamayesau' . 

' Being obedient to his elders, he is prepared to go 
to a far remote country ; and O friend ! will he not come 
during the fragrant season (of spring), which is beautified 
by the presence of swarms of black bees and cuckoos ? ? 
[ To this the friend is supposed to reply c will he not come ?* 
this reply in this sense being obtained by giving to the 
word ' naisyati \ c will not come \ the intonation of a ques- 
tion ; so that the word used by the first speaker in the 
former sense is taken by the second in the latter sense > 
which carries the further meaning c he is sure to come/] 

Alliteration (Anuprdsd) consists in the similarity of letters. 

The c similarity of letters ' meant here is the sameness 
of the consonants, even though the vowels may be different. 

The figure is called c Anuprdsa \ because it consists in 
•such c prdsa'—prakrsta nydsa, i.e., excellent allocation (of 
letters) — as is ' anu ' — anugata, favourable, to the delineation 
of Passion and other things. 


1/ £r <?/7w ^//wfr^ — as pertaining to (a) chheka {experts) and(b) 
vrtti (diction). 

6 Chheka 9 — Experts ; c vrtti ' — that function of letters 
which affects the delineation of Passion ; — c pertaining to > 
these, — Le. } the two kinds of Alliteration are (a) c chhekdnu- 
prdsa ' and (b) Vrttyanuprdsa' 

[These are merely fanciful names,, as is clear from the definitions 
that follow, according to which the two kinds may be called (a} 
'Isolated' and (b) 'Complex' Alliteration.] 

The author states the characteristics of these two kinds 
of Alliteration. — 

The former is the single repetition of several. 

When there is a single repetition of c several' — consona- 
nts, it is c Chhekdnuprdsa \ c Isolated Alliteration/ Example — 

c Tato ' runaparispandamandikrtavapiih shashi 
Dadhre kdmapariksdmakdminigandapdndutdm \ 

c The Moon, having his body eclipsed by the advent 
of the Sun 5 bore the paleness of the cheek of a woman 
emaciated by the pangs of love/ 

[Here we have 'single repetition of the consonants (a) c n-d' and 


TOPTqII b->*|cM*F§MH |4| \ <<*> Mid \ 

smrr^r ^nr f^ ^r fr ^ f% ^m: \ 

T#<? /<sr//<?r consists in several repetitions of one also. 79. 
When there are ' several ' — two or more — c repetitions ' of 

* one ' — consonant — ' also ' — ue., or of several consonants, — 
we have the c Vrttyanuprdsa\ the "Alliteration of Diction'. 79. 

As regards ' Vrtti \ c Diction ' : — 

(a) That (Diction) which is characterised by consonants suggestive 
,of sweetness is called c Upandgarikd 9 c Polished ' ; and (b) that which 
is characterised by consonants suggestive of floridity is called 

* Parusd\ c Harsh \ 

Examples of both these have been cited above (in Ch. 
VlH, under 'Sweetness' and ' Floridity '). 

(c) That characterised by others is called c komald\ c soft 9 . 80. 
' Others ' — Consonants other than the two kinds mention- 
ed above. 

This last diction some people also call * grdmyd\ * Vulgar/ 
. Example — 

' Apasdraya ghanasdram him hdram duramwa Mm kamalaih 
Alamalamdli mrqdlairiti vadati divdnisham bald. 

For translation (see above stanza No. 341.) 80. 


By some people these styles of diction have been called the- 
c Vaidarbht ' and the rest. 

According to others — U. } Vamana and his followers, — 
the three styles of diction just described have been called,, 
respectively, (a) c Vaidarbhi\ (b) c GaudV and ' PdnchdlL' 

The hdtanuprdsa is verbal ; the difference lying only in the* 
import. 81. 

When there is Alliteration (repetition) of words (not 
mainly of single consonants as in the other twa 
kinds of Alliteration), — and though the form and the 
meaning of the words thus repeated are the same, yet 
there is difference in the syntactical relation of the words, — 
it is * Ldtanuprasa,' so called because of its being popular 
among the inhabitants of the Lata country. 

Others have called this the 'Alliteration of Words/' 

['Words' are here divided into the (A) verbal forms complete- 
with the terminations ; and (B) simple basic substantives. In the: 
Alliteration of (A), there may be repetition either (a) of several words* 
or (b) of a single word; and in that of (B), the repetition may be. 
either (a) in the same compound or (b) in different compounds. 
Each of these is next dealt with.] 81. 

{Ad) This pertains to several words. 

* This 9 — /x The Ldtdnuprdsa* 


Example — 

' Yasya na savidhe dayitd davadahanastuhinadldhitistasya 
Yasya cha savidhe dayitd davadahanastuhinadldhitistasya? 
c To one who has not his beloved near him, even the 
cool-rayed Moon is like the forest-conflagration ; while to 
one who has his beloved near him, even the forest-con- 
flagration is like the cool-rayed Moon.' 

[Here we have the repetition of several -words (a) 'yasya-savidbe 
dayitd' and (a) c davadabanab-tuhinadzdMtih-tasya\] 

(A) It pertains to a single word also. 

The particle c api\ 'also', indicates that the pronoun 
c sah 9 of the preceding text is to be construed here also. 

Example. — 

* Vadanam varavaniinyastasyah satyam sndhdkarah 
Sudhdkarah kva nu punah kalamkavikalo bhavet? 
c The face of the fair-complexioned one is really the 
Moon ; — where else could the Moon be free from stains ?' 
[Here we have the repetition of the single word c sudhakarah\] 

(B) It is (repetition) of the same substantive base, either [a) in 
the same compound, or (b) in different compounds, or (c) once in 
a compound and once in a non-compound, 


t% ^rctw ic*nfMr ^r^ ^#3" wr f^n i 

The repetition of the substantive base, — not of the 
word (with terminations), — either (a) in one and the same 
compound, or (b) in different compounds, or (c) occurring 
once in a compound and for the second time in a non- 

Example — 

(a) Sitakarakaramchiravibhd vibhdkardkdra (b) dharanidham 

(c) Paurusakama/d kamald sdpi tavaivdsti ndnyasya\ 

(See above stanza No. 314). 

[Here in (a) we have the repetition of the substantive 'kara* in the 
same compound; in (b) we have the substantive 'vibba' occurring ia 
two distinct compounds and in (c) the substantive 'kamala* occurs 
first in a compound and then by itself, not in a compound.] 

Thus is Alliteration of five kinds :[82]: (3) The repetition of 
letters in the same order, with a different meaning, — when then 
is meaning, — constitute c Yamaha \ c Chime \ 

6 If there is meaning' '; — this has been added in 
anticipation of the objection that — " in such expressions 
as * samarasamarasoyam* ( c one whose passion for war ia 



uniform'), the letters c sa-ma-ra\ when occurring first, 
have the sense of 'war', but when repeated, the same 
letters have no sense, (as they form part of the compound 
* samarasah ') ; so that it is not right to say that Chime 
consists in the repetition of letters with a different meaning" 

' Sd \ c in the same order \ — this is meant to exclude 
'such repetition, as in * sarorasa ' (where the consonants are 
not repeated in the same order). 

As occurring in the several feet of a verse or in several 
parts thereof > — it becomes manifold. 83. 

(1) The first foot repeated in the second foot, (2) the 
first foot repeated in the third foot, (3) the first 
foot repeated in the fourth foot ;— (4) the second foot 
repeated in the third foot, (5) the second foot repeated in 
the fourth foot; — (6) "the third foot repeated in the fourth, 
— and (7) the first foot repeated in all the other three feet. — > 
These make seven varieties, — Then there are two varie- 
ties — viz : — (8) the repetition of the first foot in the 
second foot, and that of the third in the fourth foot — and 
(9) the repetition of the first foot in the fourth and that of 
the second in the third. — Thus there are nine varieties 
of Chime as occurring in the several feet of a verse. — In 
addition to these there are two varieties — vi^ — (10) the 
repetition of one half of the verse and (11) the repetition 
of the entire verse. 


Then again, each foot of the verse being divided into 
two parts, there may be repetition of the first part of the 
first foot in the first part of the second foot and so forth, — 
and repetition of the second half of the first foot in the 
second half of the second foot and so forth ; — such partial 
repetition as occurring in different verses are not counted 
as such ; — so that in this way there are twenty varieties. 

If each foot is divided into three parts, similar repe- 
titions give rise to thirty varieties ; and when each foot- 
is divided into four parts, there would be forty varieties.. 

The latter end of the second half of the first foot chim- 
ing with the former half of the second foot, and so forth,, 
would give rise to several varieties. For instance, (1} 
The latter half of the first chiming with the former half 
of the second foot, — (2) the former half of the first chim- 
ing with the latter half of the second foot, and (3) the 
combination of these two ; — (4) (each of the feet being 
divided into three or more parts) the middle part of the 
first chiming with the first part of the second foot, — (5) 
the first part of the first foot chiming with the middle part 
of the second foot, (6) the third part of the first chiming^ 
with the middle part of the second foot, — (7) the middle 
part of the first chiming with the last part of the second 


sparry I TsqTfcRaT I fof m^W. I cFTT crfFrt^qTT 


foot, — (8) the combination of the last three. — Similarly 
there can be repetition of the first and other parts in the 
middle, and other parts of the same foot, — or again, the 
repetition may be without any fixed order, any part of 
one foot being repeated in any part of another ; and so 
forth,*there would be many varieties. 

All this however is a mere excrescence in the body of 
poetry ; and hence any detailed definition of these varieties 
has not been attempted ; examples also we are citing of 
only a few kinds. — 


Sannarlbharaitomayastatastvam p?;thivim Jay a. 9 

c Having worshipped the Moon-crested God, who 
has obtained the jew T el of pure women, may you win the 
earth, — you, who are free from deceit and in whose battle 
your enemy's elephants have perished.' 

(2) c Vmdyameno nayatdsukhdiina 
Vina yamenonayatd sukhddind 
Mahajanodlyata mdnasddaram 
Mahajanoil yatamdnasddaram. 


srr ^ to^t w 5pw wrt ^tpt 113 V*u 

< The soul-bir d, great and destmctive of the annoyers 
of the good, was estranged from the mind by the Death- 
god, who carries away people without fault, devours 
life and strips off all pleasure/ 

(3) c Satvdrambharatovashyam — 

abalam vitatdravam 
Sarvdddranamdnaisl — 

ScttvtlvctnihhcrctQvas^cw — 

Sarvaddrana mdnaifi 

davdndlasamasthitah. 9 
' The king, quick in action, devoted to Visnu, always 
acting rightly, anxious to reach the heart of the people, 
and resembling the Submarine Fire, — always brought 
his enemies to battle, who were weak and noisy, who had 
not been subdued and hence resembled trees still standing 

(4) . vedhd na veda yam 
Yd cha mdieva hhajate pranate mdnave daydm 

(5) ' Yaddnatoyaddnato naydtyayam na ydtyayam 
Shivehitdm shive hitdm smardmitdfh smardmi tarn? 

(4) ,€ I meditate upon Patvati,— whose immanent 


majesty even Brahma cannot fathom, and who, like a 
mother, bestows her grace upon devoted man/ 

(5) C I meditate upon Her who was sought after by 
Shiva, — by bowing to whom man, being auspiciously 
favoured by Her who is ever favourable to us, never goes 
beyond the bounds of propriety.' 
(6) c Sarasvati prasddam me sthitim chittasarasvaii 
Sara svati kuru ksetrakuruksetrasarasvati? 

c O Sarasvati, who art in the body, like the river 
Sarasvati in Kuruksetra ! Be propitiated and make the 
ocean of my heart thy splendid abode. 

(7) ' Sasdra sdkam darpeija kandarpetja sasdrasd 

Sbarannavand bibhrapd ndvibbrdya sharannavd 
c The excellent autumn, accompanied by the lotus and 
fresh-looking carts, conducive to the ripening of the long 
grass, not devoid of the song of birds, slunk away along 
with the arrogant Love-god/ 

(8) ' MadhupamjiptV'djHamdniw- 

janamanahsumanah surabhi shriyam 
Abhrta vdritavdrijaviplavam 
Sphutitatdmratatdmravaqath jagat* ' 

'The world acquired resplendence,— bearing the 
sweet fragrance of the flower-like hearts of love-quarrelled 
women subjugated by the appearance of lines of black 


's^^^f ^^': f% 33R ^mmhT FTC* t 

bees, discontinuing the destruction of the lotus and ad- 
orned with blossoming, tawny and wide-expanding mango- 

In the above manner, we may deduce the examples 
of endless varieties of Chime. 83. 

(IV) When words that are different by reason of 
the difference in their denotations coalesce (become identified) 
through the sameness of their pronunciation, it is a case of 
Coalescence or Pun ; and through Letter and other factors, it 
is of eight kinds. 84, 

There is the theory that words having different 
meanings must be regarded as different, — and also 
that in poetry, accents do not count ; and in accordance 
with the former theory, even though two words may be 
the same in their verbal form, yet they are regarded 
as different and in accordance with the latter, when 
these words (though differently accented, by reason of 
their meanings) come to be pronounced in exactly the 
same manner, they are regarded as c coalescing \ i.e., 
as having their differences undiscernible ; — and when 
this happens, it is a case of Coalescence, Pun. 

This Pun is of eight kinds, as based upon the eight 
different factors of (1) letters, (2) words, (3) gender, (4) 


dialect, (5) crude forms, (6) affixes, (7) terminations 
(declensional and conjugational) and (8) number, 

The following are the examples in this same order : — 

(1) ' Aknkdrah shankdkaranarakapdlam parljano 

Vishirnango bhrfigt vasu cha vrsa eko bahuvaydh 

Avastheyam sthdnorapi bhavati sarvdmaraguror 

Vidhau vakre mfirdhni sthitavati vayam ke punarami* 

c For his ornament the fearful human skull ; for his 

attendant Bhrngi of the broken limbs ; for his property, 

u single aged bull ; — when such is the condition of even 

Shiva, the revered of all the gods, when the curved moon 

(untoward Fate) stands on his head, who are we (that we 

should not suffer from untoward Fate) ?' 

(2) c 'Prthukdrtasvarapdtram bhmitanihshesaparijanam deva 

Vitesatkare%ugahanam samprati samamdvayoh sddanam 
(See above stanza No. 306.) 

(3) and (8) 

"* Bhakiiprahvavilokanaprcinayhu mlotpalaspardhim 
Dhydndlambanatdm samddhwirtilainutehiUiprdpiiys 


ludvanyasya mahdnidht rasikatdm laksmidrshostanvatt 
Yusmdkam kurutdm bhavdrtisha?nanam netre tanurvd hareh. 

' May (a) the eyes or (b) the body of Visnu set at test 
your worldly troubles ! — (a) the eyes looking tenderly 
upon devotees, and (a) the body looked upon by persons, 
in humble devotion, — (a) the eyes and (b) the body both 
vying with the lotus, mediated upon by yogins for the 
attainment of their highest ends, — the ocean of beauty* 
and producing charming sensations in the eyes of 

(2) Here again we have also the coalescence of the two- 
numbers [Dual and Singular, the form of the various, 
epithets being the same in both numbers ; the Neuter- 
Dual forms being the same the Feminine-Singular]. 
(4) c Mahadesurasamdbamme 

Harabahisaratmrn tarn chittamoham- 
avasaraume sahasdS* 

[This couplet, when taken as Sanskrit, means— 'O 
Uma, who ordains happiness,- please safeguard my devo- 
tion to Vedic studies, which lead to union with the gods, 
and in proper time destroy the ever-growing delusion of 
mty m mdi*?-- 


And when taken as Prakrit, its meaning is as follows — 
c O Consof t of Shiva ! produce in me a regard for virtue, 
and destroy my desire for birth and re-birth, which has 
1 n source in Tamas ! — Thou art my sole refuge ; so please 
xemove the delusion of my mind.' — 

Thus in this case we have the coalescence of the two 

(5) c Ay am sarvdni shastrayi hrdi jnesu cha vaksyati 

Sdmarthyakrdamitrdndm mitrdndm cha nrpdtmajah\ 

[' The son of the king shall (a) bear in his heart, and 
ib) discuss with the learned, all the sciences, and he shall 
be the (a) strcttatKr'rr to his friends and (b) the strength- 
destroyer of his foes.] 

(6) c Kajaniramanamauleh pddapadmdvaloka- 

Pramathanivahavtedhye jdtuchittvatprasdddd 
Ahamuchitaruchih sydnnanditd sd tathd me? 

* Having obtained a thousandfold splendour on the 
occasion of looking at the lotus-feet of the Moon-crested 
<rod, and having acquired the right devotion through 
your grace, — may I among Shiva's hosts, {a) become the 
joy-giver and (b) attain the position of Nandl, their 
leader V 

334 kavyaprakasa 

(7) Sarvasvam hara sarvasya 
Tvam bhavachchhedatatparah 
Aydsi tanuvartdnam. 

[This may be construed either (a) as addressed by a. 
devotee to Shiva, or (b) as addressed by a thief to his 
son : — (a) c O Shiva 1 you are the all in all of the entire 
universe, — addicted to the destruction of the worl4 ; as. 
such you have a body wherefrom emanates all that is 
conducive to good and virtue"; — (b) c O Son, take away 
all the property of all men ; employ yourself in cutting 
the walls ; do away with the idea of returning good for 
good ; and extend your livelihood at the cost of others/ — 

[Here we have the coalescence (a) of the declensional termination, 
the vocative, and the conjugational termination, imperative, in. 
the word 'tiara'; — (b) of the conjugational termination, imperative 
and the declensional termination, the genitive, understood in the 
word 'bhava 9 ; also we have (V) the coalescence in the word 'aydsi 9 , of the 
possessive* ending '$ini 9 and the conjugational termination, the 
present.] 84, 

There is also the ninth kind (of Pun), where there is no> 
difference in the crude form or other factors. 

'The particle c api\ "also*, is to be construed with 
* namtna^ % c ninth \ 


Example — 

c Yosakrtparagotrdndm paksachchhedaksatjaksawah 
Shatakotidatdm bibhrad vibhudhendrah sa rdjate? 

There being no defining factor in the shape of con- 
text and the rest, this couplet is equally capable of affording 
> both* the meanings — (a) c The king of the learned is 
resplendent, being capable of repeatedly destroying in a 
moment the prosperity of his enemy's people, and bearing 
the mark of having given away hundreds of millions '; — 
(b) ' The king of the gods, Indra, is resplendent, — capable 
of cutting off in a moment, the wings of the great moun- 
tains, and bearing the character of striking with the thun- 

[Here we have a coalescence, where there is no difference in the 
two cases, in any one of the eight factors mentioned above. — This 
kind has been called the e Abhanga»shlesa* 'Unbroken Pun', on the 
ground that it does not necessitate the breaking up of the words into 
its various factors; — the necessity of which breaking up leads to the 
above-mentioned eight kinds of Pun being called * Sabhangarshhsa* 9 
'Broken Pun/] 

- An objection is raised in this connection : — " A com- 
position consists (a) of words that are pronouncible by 
diverse c efforts ' on account of the divergence in their 
accents, c samahara 7 and other qualifications, — and also 
(b) of words that are pronouncible by similar c efforts ', 
by reason of there being no difference in the said qualifi- 


cations ; in such a composition, 'coalescence ' serves the 
purpose of intimating the Simile and such other figures 
of speech ; the c Coalescence ' or ' Pun ' is of two kinds, 
* verbal ' (based upon the forms of words) ; and ' ideal * 
(based upon the meanings of words) ; and since both 
these kinds of Pun have been included by others among* 
' Ideal Figures of Speech ', why should it be treated as a 
verbal figure of speech (as it is done in the present context) ?" 
The answer to the above is as follows : — 
In the present connection, when we divide defects or 
excellences or figures of speech into c verbal ' and ' ideal \ 
such a division is based upon a consideration of concomi- 
tances, positive and negative. 

[That is to say, when a certain defect pertains to and is concomi- 
tant with only the verbal form of words and takes no account of 
the meaning, it is classed as 'verbal'; while it if is found tobeconcom- 
tant with and pertaining to the meaning of words and is not affected 
by the verbal forms, then it is classed as 'ideal']. 

For instance, Harshness (defect), Floridity (excellence), 
Alliteration (figure of speech) and the rest are classed as 
' verbal ',, because they are dependent entirely upon the 
presence or absence of the verbal forms of words ; and 
'Irrelevancy* (defect), Boldness (excellence) and Simile 
(figure of speech) and the rest are classed as ' ideal \ be- 
cause, they are dependent entirely up6n the presence or 


SPTRrM'cI IH IMH^<A<4%TW II ^V9V9ll ^r^PT*^: 

<r*f ^t ^iwi43%^r i spfq^wr 5 *r fwr: ^r 

absence of the meanings of words. For example, in the 
following two passages — 

(a) ' Svayam cha pallavdtdmrabhdsvatkaravirdjitd, 

(b) prabhdtasandhyevdsvdpaphalalubdhehitapradd. p 
['Gauri — (1) adorned by hands red as the fresh 

leaf, and (2) fulfilling the desires of persons seeking for 
results hard to attain, — resembles the morn, which is (1) 
adorned by the shining sun red like the fresh leaf and 
fulfills the desires of persons intent upon performing the 
rites of the early dawn,' [ — we have, in the first an ins- 
tance of ' broken pun \ [Since it involves the breaking 
up of the expression c bhasvatkaravirajita ' into ' bhdsvat — 
kara-virdjitd 9 in one case, and into c bhdsvatka — ravi — 
rdjitd 7 in the other], and in the second an instance of 
the 'unbroken pun ' [since the pun rests in the word c asvdpa \ 
which retains the same form in both cases and has not 
got to be broken up]. 

[The commentators have made a hopeless" muddle of this passage, 
being landed into it by the wrong reading whereby the first passage is 
spoken of as t abhangd > and the second as 'sdbhanga'i while, as a matter 
of fact, the case is just the reverse. The commentators say that 
*asvapa involves a 'broken pun' ; but in both cases the word retaining 
the same form, — where is the breaking ? ] 

> Since both these puns are based upon the verbal forms 
of the words, it is only right that they should be regarded 
as ' verbal \ It is not possible for even the first half to be 
regarded as "ideal % because that Pun alone can be regarded 


'sRssfoer -m w^m^^^^wf ferret m^m 

as c ideal \ where the pun remains unaffected even when 
the words are changed ; as is the case in the verse — 
6 Stokenonnatimdydti stokenaydtyadhogatim 
aho susadrshi vrr;:si:iIdkoter khalasya cha ? ] 
[ c Rising with little and falling with little, — the character 
of "the wicked is exactly like that of the balance-beam '] — 
[where the Pun remains unaffected even when other 
synonyms are substituted for the words c stokena\ 
i unnatim ' and 6 adhogatim \] 

Nor would it be right to regard the instance cited above 
(' svayancha pallavd &c.\ stanza No. 377.) as only serving 
the purpose of indicating the Semblance of a Simile [as 
has been held by the objector], for in reality it is the Simile 
(the similitude between * Gaurf s hands' and c Morn ') that 
serves the purpose of indicating the Semblance of the Pun. 
[It will not be right to urge that " the similitude between 
* Gaud's hands ' and the * Morn ' resting merely on the 
fact of the verbal form of certain epithets being applicable 
to both, it can not be a case of Simile " ; because] even 
such instances as J Sakalakalam purametajjdtam sampratt 
sudhamshubimhamiva' ['This city has become sctkalakala, 
full of humming voices, and hence resembles jthe disc 
of the Moon which is sakakkala, complete with all its 


t =3" Wtffin wit' ^nfe ^reTWPfsRftwsr 

^T*rTfwr 5% 3R^ ^Rf "JwfnTFTT f^fWR^FTW: 1 1 

digits '] [where the similitude lies in the verbal form of 
the epithet c sakalakakm y being applicable to both the 
city and the Moon], — it is just as right to regard it as a case 
of Simile, as in the case of such passages as c kamalamiva 
mukham manojnametat kachatitaram '] * This face, blooms 
beautifully like the lotus '] where there is similitude of 
quality (beauty) or of action (blooming) or of both. — It 
has been well said by Rudrata — c Simile and Conjunction 
are clearly ideal figures ; but in the case in question (of the 
passage - c sakalakalam etc. 9 ) also they are possible, on the 
basis of the similitude in verbal expression only/ 

Some people have held the following view : — " It 
is only those passages that do not contain any terms ex- 
pressive of a common property — e.g., ' the face is like the 
lotus ' — that can be regarded as instances of Simile [ and 
those that contain such terms fall under 'Pun*; so that 
the passage ' this face blooms beautifully like the lotus ' 
should be regarded as a case of Pun pure and simple ". 

But this cannot be right ; for if it were so, then there 
would be no instances, of the complete Simile (where the 
expression of the common property is essential). 

As regards Pun however, we have instances of it, 
which are entirely free from all tinge of Simile and the 
other figures of speech ; e.g. 9 in the following : — 


Dmz tvameva pdtdla?ndshdndm tvam nibandhanam 
Tvam chdmaramarudbhumireko lokatraydtmakah 
[Which, (a) as addressed to Visnu, means — ' O Visnu, 
you are the nether region, the bounds of space, and the 
land of the immortals; — thus centralising in yourself all 
the three regions' :— and (b) as addressed to the king — 
c O king, you alone are the thorough protector, the ful- 
filment of all desires ; you are also the recipient of the 
wind flowing from the royal chowries ; thus though one, 
you are threefold'.] ; — 

If, however, we admit the presence of both the figures 
here, it will have to be regarded as a case of c combina- 
tion ' of figures. In reality however, on a full review 
of all the circumstances, the passage in question (' the 
face is blooming like the lotus ') must be taken as an ins- 
tance of Simile ; for if it were not so, there could be no 
instance of the ' Complete Simile ' at all 

[As in the case of Simile, so in the case of Contradic- 
tion also] some people have held that in certain cases 
Pun is indicative of the c semblance of Contradiction ' 
also, e.g. j in the passage c Abindusundan nityam galalld- 
vayyabindukd. ' (' She is dripping with loveliness, and is 
(a) beautiful as the Moon reflected in water (b) beautiful 
without drops) the Pun contained in the word c abindusun- 
dan * serves to indicate the c semblance of contradiction * 
(as between ' without drops 9 and * dripping '.) 


This, however, is not right ; as here also the case is 
just the reverse : it .is the Contradiction that serves to 
indicate the ' semblance of Pun \ And the reason for 
this lies in the fact that there is in reality no such verbal 
Pun as has a clear double meaning (which is the necessary 
element in all Puns), for the second meaning (' beautiful 
without drops ') is merely hinted at and is not sufficiently 
complete or explicit (the epithet ' beautiful without drops * 
not being expressive enough to have any force). Nor is 
the mere Semblance of Pun a Figure of speech, in the same 
manner as the Semblance of Contradiction (Apparent Con- 
tradiction) is. 

All this leads to the conclusion that in cases like^hose 
cited, it is the other figures of speech that are predominant 
and serve to indicate the mere semblance of Pun. For 
instance, in the following four passages — 

(a) c Sadvamshamuktdmanib ' — e The pearl-gem in the 
noble family [' growing a nice bamboo ? ], — (b) c Nalpah 
kaviriva svalpashloko deva mahdn bhavdnj — ' O king, you 
are great, and are not of little fame, like an inferior poet, 
whose poems are insignificant ;' — 

(c) c Anurdgavati sandhyd divasastatpurassarah 

aho daivagatishchitrd tathdpi na samdgamah ; 9 — 


' The evening (girl) is ted in the atmosphere (full 
of love), and the Day ( her lover ) goes before it (is 
present before her), and yet such is the curious way of 
Destiny that the two never meet ;' — 

(d) c Addya chapamachalam krtvdhinam gunam visamadrstih, 
yashchitramachyutasharo laksyamabhdnksmnamastasmai '. 

c Having taken up the bow immovable {in the shape 
of the Himalaya mountain), putting to it a string worn out 
{in the shape of the lord of serpents), and having an arrow 
which never moved (in the shape of Visnu), the Being with 
deranged vision ( the Three-eyed God, Shiva), shattered his 
target in a strange manner; — salutation to Him !' ; — the 
Figure that is predominant is, not ' Pun ', but respectively, 
(a) Partial Metaphor, {b) Dissimilitude based upon Pun, 
(c) Modal Metaphor and (d) Contradiction. 

Then again, the objector calls the Figure in question 
' Verbal ¥xm \ and yet he includes it among * Ideal Figures ;' 
— what sort of principle is this ? 

Further, a Figure of Speech is only a form of imagery 
or fancy, — and this imagery can belong to only that (word 
or idea) which forms the final goal of the poet's imagi- 
nation ; and it is only this (Word or Idea) that forms the 
substratum of the Figure of Speech. [So that it cannot 
be tight to say that all Pun is Ideal, as the objector has 


?t^#^ ^r^^fa sra^nfa? wrife fpt f^3w*r 1 1 

held]. — It might be argued that — " The words (in which 
the Pun rests) always look up to ( depend upon ) their 
meanings [so that in the long run, they must be regarded 
•as ideal]" — But the same thing happens in the case of 
Alliteration and other Figures (which even the objector 
•regards as verbal) ; so that why are not, these also called 
< verbal ' ? As a matter of fact, even though Alliteration 
and the other verbal figures are dependent upon the mean- 
ings of words, and also upon all those factors that serve 
to suggest a Passion or Sentiment and the rest, — yet they 
are regarded as € Figures of Speech ' ; [and according to 
the objector, these should have to be regarded as Ideal], — 
Further, the Excellences and Defects of words also are 
to be regarded only as bearing upon their meanings [so 
that according to the objector these should all be regarded 
as ideal, bearing upon the meaning only]. Further, even 
those Excellences, Defects and Figures that are regarded 
(by both parties) as belonging to the meaning or Idea 
are^dependent upon the verbal form of the words ; so 
that, on the same principle, these latter should be held to 
belong to the verbal forms only. — Lastly in such passages 
as ' vidhau vakre murdhni & c. y (See above stanza No. 369),, 


tot ^Tcrnrt ^£:fw ^rrprftt i 

where the Pun tests in single letters, though the two words 
are entirely distinct [e.g., 'vidhi 9 and 'vidhu 9 ), yet on the mere 
ground of the word ( c vidbau in both cases) being such as* 
is pronouncible by the same ' effort ', it may be possible 
to speak of these as instances of c Ideal* Pun. 

All these points have to be left to your intelligent 

V. Where the letters assume the form of such objects as- 
the sword and the like, it is the Figure Pictorial. 85. 

In cases where the letters arranged in particular- 
ways appear in the form of (a) the sword, (b) or the 
drum, (f) or the lotus and so forth, we have Pictorial. 
Poetry (i.e. Poetry with the Pictorial Figures). 

As this sort of poetry is extremely difficult, we are 
citing only a few examples — (a) The Sword 

' Mdrdrishakrdrdmebhamukhairdsdraramhasd 
Sdrdrabdhastavd nityantaddrtiharayaksatnd 9 

c May the primeval Uma, — eloquently eulogised* by- 
Shiva, Indra and Rama, — always removing their troubles,, 
the centre of majesty, free from all anxiety, esteemed by 
the best of women, — ordain our prosperity/ 


T^rrcrrc tot otw^^stottot i 

[The words of this verse lend themselves to being 
arranged in the form Q£thtSword;£ot which seeAppendix-L] 

[ The second stanza has not been translated with 
original translation. It may be rendered us : — Mother of 
the humble, assemblage of prosperities, who has removed 
the fear, the Venerable, the model of women, the first 
of all beings, may such Uma make (me) happy.] 

(b) The Drum 

. ' Sarald bdhuldrambhataraldlibaldravd 
Vdraldbahuldmandakaraldbahuldmald 9 
c Clean, resounding with the humming of the active 
black bees, abounding in swans, with the royal officers 
fully alive to their duties, bright even during the darker 
fortnight — [may the Autumn ever prosper !] ' 

[This verse lends itself to being arranged in the form 
of the Drum, for which see Appendix-I.] 

(c) The Lotus 

c Bhdsate pratibhdsdrarasdbhdtdhatdvibhd 
Bhdvitdtmd shubhd vdde devabhd bata te sabhd' 

c O essence of genius ! your court shines resplendent 

with sentiments, undeterred, with undimmed lustre, in 

which the true nature of the soul has been recognized, 

ever expert in debates and equal to the gods/ 

346 kavyaprakasa 

5T«^ it 

[This verse can be arranged in the form of the Lotus ; 
for which jw? Appendix-L] 

(d) The All-round Square 

' Kasdsararasdsdrasdyatdksaksatdyasd 
Sdtdvdta tavdtdsd raksatastvastvatamksara \ 

* O essence of the Earth ! whose eyes are as large as- 
the lotus, who has destroyed all illusion, and who is. 
vastly generous ! when you protect her, may the Earth,, 
destroy the wicked and remain free from harm V 

[This verse can be arranged in the form of the Square ; 
for which see Appendix-L] 

There are several possible varieties of this form of 
poetry ; but they only serve to display the (perverted) 
ingenuity of the poet, and do not attain to the dignity of 
real Poetry ; it is for this reason that we are not describing 
them here in detail. 85. 

VI. — When it appears as if one and the same meaning is 
expressed by words in diverse forms, — // is Semblance of Repetition. 

When, on the face of it, (there is by chance) an 
appearance of one and the same meaning, in words 
of diverse forms, — with or without meaning, — it is 
* Semblance of Repetition *. 


(a) Subsists in a word ; — 


That is, it subsists merely in a word, either (1) 
broken or (2) unbroken. Example (a) Semblance of 
Repetition in c broken words ' — 

c Arivadhadehasharlrah sahasd rathisutaturagapdddtah 
Bhdti saddnalydgah sthiratdydmavanitalatilakah. 

6 The King, the ornament of the Earth, is glorious* 
through his meekness, being the leader of archers longing 
for the destruction of enemies, whose infantry and cavalry 
are kept compact by charioteers, and who is quite a moun- 
tain in his firmness/ 

[Here we have e Semblance of Repetition ? in -1) * deha — sharzra \ 
(2) c sarathi — suta ' and (3) * dana-tyaga % and each of these cases involves, 
the breaking of the words (1) * vadhadeba % (2) e sahasa ' and (3). 
" * sada 9 respectively.] 

(b) Example of c Semblance of Repetition ' in c un- 
broken words ' — 

c Chakdsatyangandrdmdh kautukdnandahetavah 

Tasya rdjnah sumanaso vibudhdh pdrshvavartinah\ 

c Resplendent are the king's attendants, — who are 
happy at home, who are the source of pleasure to him 
through their arts, well-disposed and learned. ' 

[Here we have the ' Semblance of Repetition ' the words— (1) 
* angaria— ramd % (2) c kautuka-ananda % and (3) c sumanaso— vibudhah \ 
in neither of which there is a breaking up of any word.] 


^T^WT — 

^4^i dr/ro i» both Word and Meaning. 86. 

Example — 
< Tou 'tvi'j-a^/i^r'joso:! karikunjararudhiraraktakharanakharah 
Tejodhama mahahprthumanasdmindro harirjisnuh \ 

* This lion, though slim, is yet mighty, — having his 
sharp nails reddened with the blood of mighty elephants, 
the receptacle of glory, the leader of the glorious and the 
brave, and ever victorious. * 

[Here we have the ' Semblance* of Repetition * in — (1) 
* tann-vapuh \ (2) c kari-kunjara % (3) c rudhira-rakta \ 
(4) * tejo-dhdma-mahah ' and (5) c indro-harir-jisnuh '] ; 
and among these some of the words — c tanu \ c kunjara \ 
< rakta \J dhdma \ c hari 9 and c jisnu 9 — are such as cannot 
be altered without spoiling the effect of the Figure of 
Speech ; and to this extent the Figure subsists in words, 
and is c verbal y ; — while others — ' vapuh \ c kari \ c rudhira ' 
and e indra 9 — are such as can be replaced by their synonyms 
without spoiling the effect, and to this extent, the Figure 
subsists in the meanings and is c ideal \ And thus the 
Figure belongs to both, Word and Meaning. 86. 

Thus ends chapter IX of the Kavya Prakasha, dealing with the 
"Verbal Figures of Speech. 

Tf^Rftf^r atft^r *nT#r mv *f spsr wm i 


The author now describes the Ideal Figures of 
Speech — 

I. Vpa/^d— Simile. 

I. When there is similarity of properties, while there- 
is difference {between the objects themselves), it is Simile. 

What the text is referring to is the similarity of the 
properties belonging to the two objects of comparison, 
(the object compared and the object compared 
to),— and not those belonging to the cause and the effect, 
and such other correlatives ; so that it is a case of Simile- 
when the said objects of comparison are related to some 
common property. 

' While there is difference'; — this has been added with 
a view to distinguish the Figure, Ananvaya, c Comparison 
Absolute \ 

[Simile is of two kinds] — (a) Complete and (b) Ellipticah 


sftensff 5r vr%re* sr*nw ?r%# ct«tt ii <s\s it 

3R?fa" WR^R fa%FR WWFn# I! 

It is a case of Complete Simile when all the factors 
are mentioned — (1) the object compared , (2) the 
object compared to, (3) the common property, and (4) 
terms signifying similitude ; and it is one of 'Elliptical Simile, 
-when either one or two or three of these factors are omitted. 

The former of these is (a) directly expressed and 
(b) implied ; and it appears (1) in sentence, (2) in a 
compound and (3) in a nominal affix. 87. 

c Former \ i.e., the Complete Simile 

Such words as c yathd \ c iva ' and the like (meaning 
< like \ c as \ < just as ' and so forth.) 

As a matter of fact, that object is recognised as the 
4 object compared to ', in connection with which such 
terms (expressive of similitude) as c yathd \ c iva ' and so 
forth are used ; and in this sense these terms serve to 
qualify the * c object compared to' ; but the force of these 
words such that, like the genitive case — ending, they 
directly express relationship ; so that in a passage where 
these terms are present, it is a case of Directly Expressed 
Simile. — So also in cases where the affix c vati 9 is used 
in the sense of c iva \ and other terms expressive of simi- 
litude in accordance with Panini 5. LI 16 (which prescribes 
the use of c vati 9 in the sense of similarity.) 


'fa 3^f *IW( ^T^fTO ^ 'a^TOFT' ^TK> 
^r^c^TTT^Tf^^tqKR STT^ff 3W 'fa ^f fw 

On the other hand, it is a case of Implied Simile, where 
the similitude is implied by the presence of such' terms as 
"* tulya \ * equal ' and the like ; this equality as expressed 
by the term ' equal ' and the like being comprehended by 
the due recognition of similarity (a) in the c object com- 
pared \ — where the expression used is in the form * the 
face is equal to that (*". e. the lotus)/ (b) in the c object 
compared to \ where the expression used is in the form 
* that (lotus) is equal to this* (face)/ and (c) in both, where 
the expression is in the form c this (face) and that (lotus) are 
equal/ So it is also in cases where the affix c vati * is used 
in accordance with Panini 5.1.115 ( which prescribes the 
use of the affix in the sense of similarity of action?) 

We have the directly expressed Simile occurring in a 
compound, in cases where the compound is formed with 
the term c iva \ in accordance with the Vdrttika under 
Panini 2.1.4 and 2.4.71—' There is nitya compounding 
with the term iva; where the case-termination of the pre- 
ceding member is not dropped and where the preceding 
member takes the accent of its crude form/ 

Examples are cited in order. 

(1) [The Directly Expressed Simile } in. a Sentence] — 

352 kavyaprakaSa 

Svapnepi samaresu tvdm 

Vijayashrirna munchati 

Prabhdvaprabhavam kdntam 

Svddhmapatikd yathd. 

c Victory in battle leaves you not, even in a dream, 
just as a woman to whom her husband is devoted leaves 
him not, who bestows deep affection upon her/ 

(2) [The Implied Simile, in a Sentence]— 
c Chakitaharinalolalochandyah 

Krudbi taru0rwi}atdrahdrikdnti 
Sarasijamidamdnanatncha tasydh 
Samamiti chetasi sammadam vidhatte. 

c He goes into raptures when he finds that her face 
and the lotus are equal, — she with eyes like those of the 
" frightened fawn, and face flushed with indignation and 
shining like a brilliant red necklace ! 

(3) [The Directly Expressed Simile in a Compound] — 

c Atydyatairniyamakdribhiruddhatdndw 
Divyaih prabhdbhiranapdyamayairupdyaih 
Shawrirbhujairiva chaturbhiradah sadd yo 
iMksmivildsabhapanairbhuvanam babhdra? 


' The king who held this world in sway through the 
four expedients, just as Visnu does by his four arms, — ■ 
the expedients and the arms bo'th being 'atydyata 9 (the 
expedients efficient, and the arms long), subjugators of 
the wicked, glorious, resplendent and infallible, the abode 
of the sportings of the Goddess of Wealth/ 

[Here the simile lies in ' bhujairiva % which is a * nitya 9 compound 
does not drop the case-termination of the first term.] 

(4) [The Implied Simile, in a Compound r ] — * 
' Avitathamanorathapathaprathanesu 

praguya garimagltashrlh 
Suratarusadrshah sa bhavdn abhilasamyah 

ksittshvaro na kasya 9 

c O King, who is there by whom you are not sought 
-after ? — You who, having your great excellence sung as 
lying in the opening of the way for desires that never 
remain unfulfilled, are similar to the Celestial Tree. ' 

(5) and (6) [The Directly Expressed and the Implied 
Simile, in nominal Affixes] — 

' GdmbhJryagarimd fasya satyamgangdbhujangavat 
Durdlokah sa samare niddghdmbararatnavat ' 

c The profundity of his depth is like that of the Ganga's 
Lover (Ocean) ; and in battle he is hard to look at, like 
the summer Sun/ 

[In the first sentence, the similitude is expressed directly by the affix 
* vati 9 in 'fyhujangavaf , which is used in the sense of Hva\ like \— the 
term ( bhujangavat' being equivalent to 'bbijaiigasja iva? ;— and in 


the second half it is implied only indirectly, by the same affix ia c ratnavat%„ 
which is equivalent to 'ratnena tulyam% so that the affix c vati ' in this 
case can only signify similarity of action; and through this is implied the. 
similitude between the entities acting.] 

[An ' objection is raised — " Fanciful Poetry has been 
defined in Ch. I as that which, " endowed with Excellences 
and Figures of Speech, is devoid of suggestion ;" and. 
Figurative Poetry is Fanciful Poetry ; so that in poetry 
where there is a Figure of Speech, there should be no* 
suggestion at all ; as a matter of fact, however, such is not 
found to be the case ; for instance.] Even in the first 
example cited,, until we recognise the suggested meanings 
that ' the constant attendance of Victory upon the King > 
is as supremely charming as the attachment of the wife to* 
the devoted husband'; — there is no fancy r , in the verse ;. 
and a Figure of Speech is nothing more than a c fancy * 
[so that every one of these examples should be regarded 
as instances, not of ' Fanciful Poetry, but of either Sugges- 
tive Poetry or Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion]/ 

The answer to this is that, though this is so, yet the- 
examples are regarded as either ' Suggestive Poetry ' or 
' Poetry of Subordinate Suggestion ', because in these 
cases the recognition of elegance follows, not from the- 
perception of the tinge of Suggestion that may be present,*, 
but purely from the perception of the fanciful character of 
the expressed meaning itself. 


?t§[5 srs^ sftq smsr ^cft <rfe£ 3*: \ 

spf: m^TN: I <rf^r ^eTOTcft vfiW* II #^T q^ II 

Then, as regards the presence of suggestion of Charm 
and other factors or of Figures of Speech other than the 
one, a particular verse is quoted to exemplify, — this will 
always be found in all cases. Hence when examples of 
particular Figures are cited, all these (concomitant issues) 
are entirely ignored. 

In fact, if we were to cite examples entirely devoid 
of any suggestion (of charm and other factors), they would 
be extremely distasteful. 

For these reasons, it would not be right to urge that 
in citing the above examples there is an inconsistency with 
what has been said before (regarding Figurative or Fanci- 
ful Poetry being devoid of suggestion). 

[The 19 kinds of the Elliptical Simile are next described.] '87. 

The property being omitted \ this {form of Elliptical Simile) 
would he like the foregoing {Complete Simile) ; but in that 
case the Directly Expressed Simile tvotild not occur in a word 
built with a nominal formative affix. 

c Property ' — /. e. 9 the common property. ' In a nominal 
formative affix \ — /. e. 9 in such affixes as < kalpa\ c vd 9 and 
so forth ; in connection with which we* could have the 
Implied Simile only. It is thus of five kinds. 

(1) Example [of the Elliptical Simile, omitting the 
common property, and directly expressed, in a sentence] 



Karanlyam vachashchetah satyam tasydmrtam yathd 

c He being generous and possessed of uncommon 

gentlemanly qualities, his words, true and like nectar as 

they are, should be acted up to/ 

[Here the common property, sweetness, of nectar and words, has. 

been omitted] . 

(2) [Example of the Elliptical Simile omitting the 
common property, implied^ 

c Akrstakarabdlosau sampardye paribhraman 
Pratyarthisenayd drstah krtdntena samah prabhuU 

* Roaming in battle with the drawn sword, he was 
looked upon by the enemies, as equal to the Death-god/ 

[Here the common property, cruelty, has been omitted; and as it 
is the sameness of action that is meant, the Similitude is 'implied/] 

(3)-(4)-(5) [Example of the Elliptical Simile, omitting 
the common property, (a) directly expressed, in a com- 
pound, (b) implied, in a compound and (V) implied, in a 
nominal affix.] 

c Karavdla ivdchdrastasya vdgamrtopamd 
Visakalpam mam vetsi yadi fivasi tat sakhe ' 

c You will live if you know, that (a) his behaviour is 
like that of the sword, (b) his speech is almost like % nectar> 
and "(c) his mind is like poison/ 


^73^w5r ^^nrf^i% g-f^rfaw^* *r ^iftfir tts 

[(*) c Karabala-iva, is a ' nitya ' compound, where the case-termina- 
tion of the first member is not elided, and the common property of 
wurderousness is omitted ; — (b) e amrtopama ' omits the common property 
of sweetness, and the similitude is implied^ the term ' upama ' directly 
expressing merely resemblance in general ; — (c) c visakalpam ' ends in the 
nominal affix c kalpa? which denotes approximate resemblance in general, 
and hence the Simile is an implied one, and the common property 
of harmfulness has been omitted.] 

(6) (7) On the omission of the c object compared to \ the 
Simile occurs in a sentence and in a compound. 

(6) [Example of Elliptical Simile, omitting the object 
compared to, occurring in a sentence] — 

6 Saalakarat}aparavisdmasiriviaranam na sarasakavvassa 
Disai' aha vd iiisammai sarisam amsamsamettetia 9 
* c For affording pleasure to the highest senses, nothing 
is either known or seen to be equal to charming poetry, 
even id its smallest part/ 

[The object to which Poetry is compared is not mentioned, and 
the similitude is implied by the sentence.] 

(7) In this same verse if we read c kawasamam' for 
< kavvassa,' and c nunajn ' for ' sdrisam\ we have an example 
of the same kind of Simile occurring in a compound. 88. 

On the omission of c va 9 and such other terms (expressing 
similitude), it occurs (8) in a compound, (9) in the affix 

358 kavyaprakasa 

* &)W# ' #x denoting the objective, (10) /# //&<? same affix 
as denoting location, (11) in the affix c kyan \ (12) in the 
affix * fiamul 9 used with a substantive used accusatively, and . 
(13) in the same affix used with a substantive used nominative ly* 
The term ' vd ' is expressive of similitude ;. 
and on the omission of this term ' vd ' and of others- 
similarly expressive of similitude, — there are six kinds of 
Simile, as occurring — (8) in a compound, (9) in the 
affix ' kyach * as used in the sense of the accusative, (10) 
in the affix ' kyach 3 as used in the sense of the location; 
(11) in the affix c kyan ' as used in the sense of the nomi- 
native, (12) in the affix ' namul y with a substantive used 
ccusatively, and (13) in the affix ' namul' with a substan- 
ive used nominatively. 

Example of (8) — 

' Tatah kumudandthena kdminlgafjdapd^dund 
Netrdnandena chandrena -mdhendri digalankrtd 

* The eastern quarter was thereupon adorned by the 
Mpon, a joy to the eyes, pale like the cheeks of a 16ve~ % 


* 2^r: ^T^Nk ^<^mlM^r: IIYoXII. 

Another example of the same — 
* Asitabbujagabbtsagasipatro ruharuhikdhitachittatmijachdrah 
Pulakitatanurutkapolakdntih pratibhatavikramadarshaneyamdslf 

"This king, his sword-blade terrible like the black 
snake, and his movements inspired by energy, became 
thrilled, whereupon the freshness of his cheeks became 

(9)— (10)— (11)— 

' Pattra/i/ suttyati jancuh samarantaresd- 
Vaiitahpnrlyati vlchitracharitrachunchuh. 
Ndriyate samarastmni krpdnapdner 
Alokya tasya charitdni sapatnasena? 
4 He treats the citizens as his children ; famous for his 
wonderful deeds, he behaves in battlefield as if it were 
his harem; and the army of his enemies, seeing him, sword 
in hand, performing extraordinary feats in battle, come 
to behave like women. ' 

[(*) In 'stttlyai? we have the ' kyach ' affix ia the accusative sense; 
(b) in * antahpurijati? we have the same affix used in the locative sense, 
and (?) in ' nariyate / we have the affix e kjah ' in the nominative sense.] 

' Mrdhe niddghdgharmdmshudarsham pashyanti tarn pare 
Sa punah parthdsamchdram sancharatyavampatih? 


c In battle his enemies look upon him as they would 
xipon the summer-sun ; and the King himself moves 
about as if he were Arjuna/ 

[In the first sentence the '^wW affix has the force of the accusative 
and in the second that of the nominative.] 

(14)— (15)— On the omission of both these, it occurs 
in the c kvip ' affix and in a compound. 89. 

' Of these two ' — /'. *., of the common property and 
the term expressive of similitude. (14) Example 
(of the Elliptical Simile, omitting both, occurring in the 
affix * kvip ')— 

c Savitd vidhavati vidhurapi savitarati tathd dinanti ydminyah 
Ydminayanti dindni cha sukhaduhkha-vashlkrte manasi*. 

c When the mind is under the influence of pleasure, 
the sun becomes the moon and the nights become days ; 
when, on the other hand, it is under the influence of pain, 
the moon becomes the sun and days become nights ' 

[Here the Simile lies in tfee c Kvip 9 affix in the words 'vidhavati % 
* savitarati ', 6 dinanti 9 and 'yamnqyant? '.] 

(15) [Of the same, in a compound] — 

c Paripanthimanordjyashatairapi durdkramah 
Sampardyapravrttosau . raj ate rdjakunjarah 9 . 


^ <i Hi fa m i «>>+ r=i +w <r«* ^ ^ i 

*4l u ikil<{H^: ^*^WTsffa% IIYo<sn 

' The chief of kings shines resplendent in battle, 
being unapproachable, as he is, by even the dreaming 
desires of his enemies. ' 

[Here the said Simile lies in the compound "rajaktmjarah'.] 89. 


On the omission of the common property and the object 
compared to, it is found in a compound and in a sentence. 
(16) c Tnntunnanto marihisi kafttaakalidim keaivandin 

Mdlaikusumasarichchham bhamara bhamanto yapdvihisi 7 

' O black bee ! thou shalt perish, wandering among 

Ketakl-bowers ; but however much thou mayst wander, 

thou shalt never find anything like the Malati-flower. y 

[The Simile lies in the compound * mdlai-kusuma — saricbcham ]•' 

(17) If we read c kusumeya sa?nam 9 (in place of c kusuma- 

sarichchhath '), the same verse becomes an example of 

the same kind of compound as occurring in a sentence. 

(IS)— On the omission of the term expressive of simi- 
litude and the object compared, it occurs in the affix c Kyach '. 
'Asa' means " nirdsd\ c on the omission/ (18) — 
[Example] — 

' Ardtivikramdlokavikasmravilochanah 
Krpdiiodagradordandah sa, sahasrdyudhiyati * 


^upr 11 . • 

c Having his eyes widely opened by the sight of his 
enemy's prowess, and arms terrible through his sword, 
he disports himself like the thousand-armed king Kartta- 

[Here the king's own self is- the object compared ; the Simile, 
occurring in the affix ' Kyach ' in the word ' Sahasrayudhiyati % means 
£ disports himself like the thousand-armed king \] 

(19) — On the omissibn of the three, it occurs in a compound. 90. 

* Three 9 — the term expressing similitude, the common 
property and the object compared to. 

Example — 
6 Tarunimani krtdvalokand Iditavildsavitmiavigrahd 

Smarasharavisardchitdntard mrganayand bar ate munermanah? 

c Just peeping into youthfulness, surrendering her 
body to graceful dalliance, and having her heart pierced 
by a flight of Cupid's arrows, the fawn-eyed one captivates 
the heart of even the ascetic/ 

This verse forms an apposite example only when the 

compound \ mrganayand' is expounded in accordance 

with the Vdrtika on Panini 2.2.24 (as mrganayand iva nayane 

yasydh) y involving the elision [(1) of the former c nayane \ 

which is the c object compared to \ and (2) of the term 


wfw otstrw SPT II 

' *W ' expressive of similitude ; in addition to these there 
is the omission (3) also of the common property of ' fickle- 

The term ayahshiilikab, c one who behaves like a spear % 
has been taken by some people to be an example of that 
kind of Simile which omits the three factors of (1) the 
object compared — the cruel person , (2) the common pro- 
perty— cruelty and (3) the term expressive of similitude — 
< va ' and the rest. But this is not right ; as what the term 
means is ' ayahshfikm anvichchhati 9 c who behaves like the 
•spear/ and what is done here is that c cruel behaviour * 
is spoken of as the c spear \ and this involves the figure 
of Atishayokti, Hyperbole,— and not that of Simile with 
.three factors omitted. 

These nineteen kinds of Elliptical Simile, along with 
the six kinds of the Complete Simile, make up the twenty- 
iive varieties of Simile. 

As regards other varieties of Simile that have been 
•described by others, we find— (a) the Malopama, String- 
*simile, where a single object is compared to several, with 
its two varieties — one in which the same common property 



■vrforfd P<=i *i fa tf fa Um #eht to^ ^f1 fa <fa fa h & i iiy^ii 

C\ O C\ 

of proivithering appears throughout the c string ' — as in the 
verse.- Like royal splendour, through injustice and corrup- 
tion, — like prowess through poverty, — like the lotus, 
through frost, — she has withered through sorrow ;' 
— and the other in which diverse common properties are 
involved, — e. g., in the verse — c Like light, she is a joy 
to the eyes ; like wine, she is maddening; and like sove- 
reignty, she attracts to herself all the world ;' — and (by 
the Rashanopamd, the c Girdle-simile ', where the object 
compared in the preceding Simile becomes the object com- 
pared to in the succeeding one, with its two varieties, as 
before ; with the same or diverse common properties ; 
e.g., (A) " When the King brings together hosts of suppli- 
cants like waves on his hand which is full of water used,, 
in his continuous gifts of gold, his heart is like his words* 
like his heart his actions, and his fame pure like his ac- 
tions 7 ; — and (B) "Of the King, the body is sweet like 
his heart, his court powerful as his body, and his victory 
irrepressible by enemies, like his court/ 

But we have not described these, because in the first 
place there are thousands of such possible varieties, and 
secondly, they are not such as cannot be included under 
the varieties already described above. 90. 


II — Ananvaya — Comparison Absolute 
When one and the same thing appears in a single sentence 
as both the c object compared ', and the c object compared to 9 
it is c Comparison Absolut e\ 

c Comparison Absolute ' means that there is no other 
thing to which the thing described could bear 

Example — 

' It is not only that possessed of exquisite loveliness, 
that woman shines as that woman herself ; in fact, her 
graces also, which are the abode of the Cupid's blandish- 
ments, are like her own graces/ 

III — Upameyopamd— Reciprocal Comparison 

When there is alternation of these two, it is Reciprocal 
Comparison. 91. 

c Of these two ' i. <?., of the object compared and the 
object compared to ; — there is ' alternation \ interchange, 
in two separate sentences, — this means that there is no 
third thing with which either of them could bear 
•comparison, we have c Upameyopamd— i. e., a figure, 
where there is 'Upamd' — (comparison, of the object 
compared to) with the c Upameya 9 (object compared) itself- 

366 kXvyaprakIsa 

'^I^IW — 

Example — 

c His heart is like Laksmr, — Laksmi is like his heart ; 
his splendour is like his body, and his body is like his- 
splendour ; his fortitude is like the earth, and the earth is. 
like his fortitude.' 91. 

IV — Utpreksa— Poetic Fancy. 

Poetic Fancy consists in the imagining of the thing described 
as {identical) with a similar thing. 

' Similar thing' — i.e., that to which it is meant to be 

Example — 

c O beautiful one ! I think that the beauty of the 
lotus attaches itself to your feet, on being happy at the 
idea that her born enemy the Moon, who brooks not her 
blossoming during the night, has had the pride of his 
beauty quickly suppressed by the splendour of the face 
of this lotus-eyed girl. 

[Here the object compared is the beauty of the girl's feet, and 
this has been imagined to be the beauty of the lotus fallen on her feet,. 
which; in reality, is the object to which the former is meant to be 


fopRfcr cFftfTf^r spfcfrn^Ff *ro: i 

W5ft^5 #*fo?ft STCTOft <* tim: \\\^\[ 

OT«£ f%^?: srsrcfc fesft #<r ftwr I 
^<jf$: f% ^^r^f^^T^r#rfrr fat 
weftwrsft c^t fa^fr faps^R st^ptct: iiy^ii 

In the following verse — 
' himpatlva iamongani varsatlvdnjanam nabhah 
Asatpurusaseveva drstirviphalatdm gat a ' 

c Darkness besmears the limbs as it were ; the sky is, 
as it were, showering soot ; and vision has become as 
useless as the service of a wicked master'; — what is 
done is that the pervading (of darkness) has been imagined 
to be besmearing. 

[And the spreading of darkness has been imagined to be the showering 
of soot : so that this is an instance of Poetical Fancy, and not Simile, 
as some people have taken it to be,, having been misled to this 
view by the presence of the particle c iva '] 

V — Sasandeha — Doubtful. 

The statement of a doubt constitutes the Doubtful; — the 
distinction being asserted or not asserted. 92. 

For example, we have the c difference stated ', in the 
following verse — 

' Is this the sun ? — But the sun is carried by seven 
horses. Is he the Fire ? — Surely, Fire never flames on 
all sides. Is he the Death-god ?— But the Death-god 
has the buffalo for his conveyance. Thus, O King, on 


3TFTT: *PfWt 5RFr%^I^F5Et T ^FTfe^: 

seeing you in battle, do your enemies entertain various 

Inasmuch as the definition speaks of the difference 
being stated, it follows that we have this Figure, not only 
when the certainty is left concealed (implied), but also 
when the cogitation leads on to certainty, e.g. — 

' Is this the moon ? — But where is the dark stigma ? 
Is this the lotus ? — But where is the water gone to ? O 
Fawn-eyed one ! that what was seen was the face 
ascertained later on through the presence of sweet and 
elegant speech/ 

But this variety of the Doubtful has been omitted by 
Rudrata, on the ground that in this case the certainty is 
not merely suggested, as it is in that variety where the cer- 
tainty is left concealed [and hence it loses its effectiveness.] 

The following is an example of the case where the 
difference is not stated — c In the creating of this woman, 
was the position of the creator occupied by the Moon, 


the source of effulgence ? or was it the Love-god him- 
self abounding in the erotic passion ? Or was it the 
season of spring ? — How else could the ancient sage, 
whose sensibility had been deadened by Vedic study and 
whose interest had been withdrawn from all objects, be 
able to create such a heart-ravishing body ?' 92. 

VI— Rnpaka— Metaphor. 

Where there is non-difference between the c object compared 
to 9 and the c object compared? } it is Metaphor. 

What is meant bv c non-difference ' is that idea of 
non-difference which is based upon extreme likeness 
between two objects, whose difference is not entirely 

(1) In cases where what is imposed is directly expressed, 
it is Metaphor Universal. 93. 

In cases where, as the objects imposed upon, so the 
objects imposed also, are directly mentioned by words, 
it is that Metaphor which is called ' Universal \ — in the 
sense that the whole {samasid) of what is imposed (ttyastd) is its 
expressed objective (visaya). 


No significance attaches to the plural number, in the 
term c dropitdh \ 

Example [of Metaphor Universal] — ■ 

c This Nun of the Night, white with the painting of the 
ash of light, wearing the bones of the stars, and delighting 
in vanishing from view, is wandering from continent to 
continent, carrying in the bowl of the lunar disc the magic 
unguent, under the garb of the dark stigma.' 

[Here we have the said Metaphor in the expressions ' jjotsni- 
bhasma % where there is c non-difference ' between light and ashes, (2) 

* idrakasthi ', where there is * non-difference ' between stars and hones, 
(3) in ' ratrikapaliki \ where there is c non-difference 5 between the 
Night and the Nm, and (4) in c chandramudrakapala ', where there is 

* non-difference ' between the lunar disc and the bowl.] 

In connection with this verse, there is no justification 
for the suspicion that it is a case of the ' dubious commix- 
ture ' [of Simile and Metaphor, on the ground that the 
compound expressions concerned are also capable of 
being construed as actually expressing similitude, and 
hence involving so many similes ] ; because in favour of 
its being regarded as ' Metaphor * there is the special 
reason that the property of c delighting in vanishing from 
view ' is one that (while actually belonging to the sentient 
Ntms) is imposed (upon the insentient Night). 93. 

(2) In a case where what is imposed is directly expressed 
as mil as indirectly implied, it is the Partial Metaphor. 


^trt: ^rfa^r^pr f^ror^ ^rfa^TO^r m- 

Where some of the imposed factors are directly 
expressed by words, while some are cognised only 
through the force of the - meanings of the words, — 
it is ' partial ', ekadeshavivarti \ — so called, because of its 
functioning directly (vivartana) in one part (ekadesha). 

c Jassa ranamteurae kare kmiathtassa maridalaggalaam 
Rasasammuhi vi sahasd parammuhi hoi riusend\ 

c When, in the harem of the battle-field, he takes in 
his arms the sword-blade (his beloved wife), the oppo- 
sing army (her rival), even though passionate, turns away 
from him \ 

Here the character of ' harem ' as imposed upon the 
' battlefield ' is directly expressed by the words, while the 
fact of the ' sword-blade ' being the c beloved wife \ 
as also that of the ' opposite army ' being her c rival ', 
is comprehended only through the force of the meaning 
of the words employed ; and thus the Metaphor, being 
particularly, explicit in only a part of it, is called ' partial \ 

This is complex, with all its constituents. 

The two kinds of Metaphor just described are 
equipped with all constituents. 

[/. e t in these what is imposed is not only the object compared to., 
by itself alone., but along with all its accessories.] 


mm § ^f^ra u \v II 

(3) That which is devoid of constituents is the Pure 

[When the object alone by itself is imposed.] 

Example — c While listening to songs, she keeps her 
limbs unmoved, like the doe ; asks her friend the news 
about her lover, even though she has already heard it ; 
she lies down within, without sleep ; from all this I 
gather that the Love-god has begun to water the fresh 
sprout of affection in her heart \ 

[Here, all that is imposed upon the affection is the character of 
the sprout ; and nothing is said regarding any detailed properties of 
the latter.] 

The ' String ' is like the foregoing. 94. 

Just as in the ' String Simile ' so in the * String 
Metaphor ' also, the character of several objects is imposed 
upon a single object. 

Example — c That beloved one is the stream of beauty, 
the joyous effusion of youthful exuberance, the touch- 
stone of resplendence, the abode of loving confidences, 


tar sparer fMh?RfaM i«fN*i i?awfw 

the tutoress of clever conversation, the direct evidence of 
the illimitable efficiency of the Creator, the arrows of the 
Love-god and the crest- jewel of lovely women \ 94. 

(4). Where as a means of the desired imposition, there is 
imposition of something else, it is the Consequential Metaphor ; 
— where the expressive word is either c coalescent ' (in Pun) or 
* distinct'. 95. 

c Vidvanmdnasahamsa vairikamaldsamkochadiptadyute 

Durgdmdrganamlalohita samitsvikdravaishvdnara 
Satyaprltividhdnadaksa vijayapragbhdvabhlma prabho 
Sdmrdjyam varavlra vatsarashatam vairinchamuchchaihkriydh 
c O thou, who art like the swan in the mind of the learned 
[which is like the Manasa-lake] ; like the sun in the shri- 
velling of the prosperity of your enemies [which is like the 
blossoming of the lotus] ; like Shiva is not seeking the 
shelter of forts [which is like the longing for Durga] ; like 
Fire in accepting battle [which is like the consuming of fuel]; 
like Daksa in attachment to truth [which is like displeasure 
with Sati] ; like Bhima in the exuberance of victory [which 
like being the elder brother of Arjuna] ; — bravest of the 

374 kavyaprakasa 

wfiw. ^uHmnm? ^far: *mm *rfer s#ftc 
W sfori store im stfifa ^Wmr: finw: 


brave ! Mayst thou continue to sway your empire for a 
hundred years of Brahma ! 

Here (1) the character of the c swan ' is imposed upon 
the 6 king \ only as a means of imposing (through Pun) 
upon the c mind ' the character of the c Manasa lake ';— 
(2) the character of the c Sun ' is imposed upon the ' king \ 
only as a means of imposing (through Pun) the character 
of c the blossoming of lotuses ' upon ' the shrivelling of 
die enemy's prosperity ' ;— (3) the character of ' Shiva ' 
is imposed upon the c king ', only as a means of imposing 
(through Pun) the character of ' longing for Durga ' upon 
* the not seeking of the shelter of forts ';— (4) the character 
of c fire ' is imposed upon the c king \ only as a means of 
imposing (through Pun) the character of * consuming fuel 9 
upon 'the accepting of battle'; — (5) the character of 
6 Daksa ' is imposed upon the c king * only as a means of 
imposing (through Pun) of the character of c displeasure 
with Sati ? upon the c attachment to truth ' ; — (6) the 
character of c Bhima ? is imposed upon the ' king ' as a 
means of imposing (through Pun) the character of ' being 
he elder brother of Arjuna ' upon the ' exuberance of 
victory \ 

Though (by reason of the Puns being such as do not 
admit of the replacing of the words used by their synonyms) 


^RTRPpT*! HI <M^^PPfeTfW ^Tt 

Bfi«M^i^K>ft *pr# i 

this would be an instance of a verbal figure of speech, as 
lias been already explained above, and as is going to be 
explained also later on, — yet it has been mentioned here, in 
accordance with usage (established by earlier writers on 
the subject), on the basis whereof some people have called 
this an instance of the Partial Metaphor. 

The following is an example of the Consequential 
Metaphor where the expressive words are distinct (and 
not coalescing in a Pun) — 

c O King ! Ever glorious is thy arm, bringing about, 
•as it does the widow-hood of the wives of the heroic ene- 
mies ; — the arm, which is the post for the tying of the 
•elephant of victory, the embankment against the ocean 
of adversity, the Rising Mount of the Sun of the Sword, the 
sporting fellow of the Goddess of Fortune,and the Man- 
■dara Mountain in the process of the churning of the nectar- 
ocean of Battle \ 

Here the imposition of the character of the ' post ' 
upon the arm is rendered possible by the imposition of the 
character of the ' elephant * upon ' Victory ', both of these 
being mentioned by means of separate words ; similarly 
also with the other impositions in the verse. 


[The following is an example of the Punning Consequential 
r Metaphor]. 

c Alaukikamahdlokaprakdshitajagattrayah 
Stuyate deva sadvamshamuktdratnam na kairbhavdn. 

c O King ! brightening the three worlds with your 
superhuman resplendence, and being a pearl in the bamboo 
of a noble race, by whom are you not eulogised ?' 

[Here the imposition of the character of c pearl ' upon the king 
is made possible by the imposition of the character of the ' bamboo * 
■upon the ' noble race/ both of these latter being expressed by the 
punning word e sadvamsha 9 ], 

[The following is an example of the non-punning 
Consequential Metaphor] — 

c Ever glorious are you, the primeval Tortoise-shaped 
God ! the root of the creeper of the fourteen regions > 
whose existence, infinite (in time) and unsupported, is never 
bereft of extraordinary phenomenon/ 

[Here the imposition of the character of the c root ' upon the God 
is rendered possible by the imposition of the character of ' creeper * 
upon the ' fourteen regions/ both of these latter being expressed by 
distinct words*] 

In both these cases we have the Consequential Meta- 
phor, not in the farm of a ' string. 9 


There is ' Girdle-Metaphor * also, in such verses as— 
" The Love-god captivates the hearts of amorous men, 
by means (1) of the hand-like leaves of creepers, (2) of 
the lotus-like hands and moon-like faces of women, and 
(3) of the lotus-like faces of the lotus -pond/ 

This, however, has not been described here as there is 
not much charm in it. 95. 

VII — Apahnuti — Concealment. 

When the object to be described is negatived and another 
is affirmed, it is Concealment. 

Where the c object compared' is 'negatived' — declared 
to be unreal, — and the 'object compared to' is 'affirmed * 
declared to be real, it is the Figure of Concealment. 

Example — 

c O Parvati ! This that you see is not the fully de- 
veloped stigma in the disc of the moon shining with full 
lustre ; I think it is his beloved, Night, fatigued by dalli- 
ance, sleeping soundly on his chest, rendered cool by the 
drops of nectar/ 


3W(wT<r<ji|«|ui|Wd*KRl ^ T*K3T: 

■o CO 

Or again — 

' O friend ! Just see the ill-will borne by the Love- 
god towards lovers already emaciated by separation from, 
their beloved : Under the pretext of black bees hovering 
over the mango-trees in the garden, he has applied poison 
to each one of his arrows \ 

Here the idea meant to be conveyed is that ' what are. 
seen are not mango-trees with black bees hovering about 
them, but so many arrows dipped in poison \ 

Yet another example — 

c Verily, the Love-god, scorched by Shiva, has fallen 
upon the plump thighs of the Fawn-eyed one, — which are 
like the tank of the nectar of loveliness ; as from the hole 
of her naval there is proceeding a line of smoke, in the 
form of the line of hair, which is the first sign of the extin- 
guishing of the fire-embers of his body/ 

The idea conveyed here is that 6 what we see is not the 
line of hair, but the line of smoke.' 


3-cn^wr — 

3r?rrf^rpTT ^f^to iT^wft crraft \\%\w 

Thus may other ways of expressing this Figure be 

VIII — Shlesa — Paronomasia. 

When in a single sentence, there are several meanings, it is 
Paronomasia. 96. 

Where a set of words, expressive of one meaning;, 
is found to have several meanings, it is Paronomasia. 

Example — 

' Udayamayate dinmdlinyam nirdkurutetardm 
Nayati nidhanam nidrdmudrdm pravartayati kriydb. 
Rachayatitardm svairdchdrapravartanakartana m 
Vata vata lasaiiejahpunjo vibhdti vibhdkarah 9 

c (a) The Sun, [ (b) the king named Vibhakara], (a) the 
receptacle of effulgent light [ (b) possessing exuberant 
energy],— who attains (a) the Rising Mount [(b) pros- 
perity], sets aside (a) the darkness of the quarters [ (b) 
the poverty-stricken appearance of the people], destroys 
(a) sleepiness [(b) depression], sets going (a) business- 
operations [(b) the performance of religious rites], puts 
a stop to all (a) free love-making [ (b) unrestrained acti- 
vity], — is shining'. 



As there is nothing in the shape of Context and the 
test to restrict the denotation of the words -used, both, the 
Sun as well as the King, are equally capable of being 
accepted as the object described. 96. 

IX — Samdsokti — Modal Metaphor. 

Where the other object is implied by means of paronomatic 
differentiating adjusts > it is Modal Metaphor. 

When a sentence descriptive of the object meant 
to be described serves to imply something else not 
meant to be described, through the force of adjectives used 
punningly — and not through any force of the object it- 
self, — it is Modal Metaphor, ' Samdsokti \ — so called be- 
cause it consists in a c statement ' (idkti) of two meanings, 
' in brief ' (samdsena). 

Example — 

^'Lahiufia tnjjha bdhtipphawsam 
fie sa ko vi vll&so* 
Jaa-lachchhi tuha virahe 
i}a hujjald dubbald nam sd \ 

' fciyalaksmt (the Glory of Victory) who felt a peculiar 
exhilaration on attaining the touch of your arms, is no 
longer bright, on being separated from you ; in fact she 
is emaciated/ 



' Here the term 'jajalaksmi 9 is so used (with such adjec- 
tives) that it expresses, not only the king's lady love, [but 
also the glory of victory in battle]. 

X — Nidarshand— Illustration. 

Where an impossible relation of things constitutes the 
similitude, it is Illustration. 97. 

It is called c nidarshand \ because it serves the purpose 
of nidarshand* illustrating. 

Example — 

' Where (on one side) is the dynasty originating from 
the Sun, and where (on the other) is my limited intelli- 
gence : through sheer foolishness am I desirous of cross- 
ing the ocean by means of a raft/ 

Here the (impossible) statement made leads on to the 
Simile that — c a description of the Solar Dynasty by my 
intelligence would be just like the crossing ot the ocean 
by a raft/ 

Another example — 

' When (on one side) the Sun is rising with his rays 


shooting upwards, and (on the other) the Moon is setting, 
this mountain acquires the splendour of an elephant with 
two bells hanging on its two sides/ 

The actual acquiring of the splendour of one thing 
(the elephant) by the other (the mountain) being an im- 
possibility, the statement only leads on to the Simile 
that the one appears similar to the other. .. 

This Figure appears in the form of a ' String ' also ; — 


c O Lord ! the man that makes an attempt to describe 
your good qualities, (a) desires to cross the ocean with his 
arms, (b) wishes to catch the moon with his hands, and 
(c) to jump over the Meru mountain/ 97. 

There is another kind of Illustration, where the action 
itself indicates the (causal) relation hetiveen itself and its 

Where the connection between the action itself and 
its cause is indicated by the action itself. — it is another 
kind of Illustration. 


cT^t^FET sperep^ g^*FT% ^ ^o^T u ^ u 

Example — 

" When a low thing attains a high position, it will 
naturally fall/ 5 — so, saying as it were, the stone-dust, on 
the hill-top falls down when shaken by the mild wind/ 

Here it is the action oi falling (of the stone-dust) which 
points to the connection between the action of falling and 
its cause, in the shape of the low person attaining to high 

XI — Aprastutaprasha wsd— Indittct Description. 

Where the description of an irrelevant thing points to the 
object meant to be described \ it is Indirect Description. 98. 

When the description of something not connected with 
the context serves to point to, imply, that which is meant 
to be described, — it is Indirect Description. 98. 

It is of five kinds: — what is meant to be described 
is — (a) the effect, or (b) a cause, or (c) Universal, or (d) 
Particular, — what is actually spoken of is their converse 
(correlative) ; and (e) when what is meant to be described is 
one thing, and what is spoken of is something else of the same 
dass. 99. 


<MKR^TT;T<TT5srfcr*Tt t^ftfa ^suflf f^TT: 

O "O "\ 

c Their converse ' — i.e. (a) cause and the rest. Examples 
in order — 

(a) c " O beautiful one, don't those who go out meet 
again ? Don't be anxious for me ; you are extremely 
weak", — while, with tears, I was saying this, she, with 
her eyes fixed through modesty and absorbing the over- 
flowing tears, smiled and by that smile'she indicated her 
joy at her approaching death/ 

Asked for an explanation of the effect, in the shape of 
the postponement of his projected journey, the speaker 
has described here the cause [in the shape of the beloved's, 
perceptible determination to die on separation.] 

(b) " O King, the princess is not teaching me to talk ; 
and the queens also are sitting silent. O Kubja, feed me. 
Why are not the princes and ministers taking their food: 
even at this time ?" — Thus does the parrot in the empty 
turrets of your enemy's houses, speak, when let out of 
the cage by the passers-by, it sees the figure of its 'master 
on the pictures.' 


3PT 5TPmW Wcf STRICT Wgfo ^HT^: T^P^T 
Ten": 5% ^RW ST^f ^PTJT^nT I 

srwreEnrerefeq i m Era £ r i <\ m h m sr#: 

3*^<=f f^W: ^f«T^T: I 

*r x^r ^r: *r jm^r ^f^T^^f^f ctft *r ^t^ft fare: 

What is meant to be described here is the fact that ' as 
soon as your enemies came to know of your projected 
march against them, they fled away from their houses '; 
and this fact is the cause of the effect that is described in 
the verse. 

(c) 6 What wonder is it to hear from his mouth that a 
certain block-head thought the water-drops upon the 
lotus-leaf to be so many pearls ? — Hear something more 
than this — when that same person proceeded to pick up 
the drops, they disappeared under the light pressure of his 
finger-tips, and since then the fool, intensely aggrieved 
at the thought of his pearls having flown away, goes with- 
out sleep day after day/ 

What was meant to be described was the Universal ox 
general fact that ' foolish people have even misplaced long- 
ings and affections/ — while what is actually described is 
a particular instance of it. 


3?t 5Rp" ^^JnPpTR ^T: 5R7TCT: I ^T: *Ftmftfe 

¥k^m =rr 5^ttct g^R^r iir^q" 1$ i wfteT^ wr~ 

(d) ' When a man wipes away the tears from the eyes 
of his friend's wives, by avenging himself on his enemy, 
then alone does he deserve to be honoured, then alone is 
he to be regarded as a man, as a statesman, an abode of 
majesty ; and then alone is his life worth something/ 

What was meant to be expressed was a particular state- 
ment (addressed to Narakdsttra's (friend) that — ' Then alone 
will you be deserving of praise, when, by killing Krsna 
(who has killed Narakasura), you will have alleged the 
anguish of Naraka's wives'; while what is actually ex- 
pressed is a general statement (without reference to any 
particular case). 

- (e) Of that case, where while what is meant to be 
described is one thing, what is actually described is. 
something else of the same class, — there are three varieties, 
according as the indication of one thing by another of the 
same class is done (1) by a Pun, or (2) by Modal Metaphor* 
or (3) by mere similarity. 

Examples in order — 

(1) ' One may deviate from the standard of manhood,, 
he may lower himself by begging, he may even demeaa 


^n^jjr Trft <rfe *rforr w^r: 


himself, — he may do all this if thereby he can save the 
world ; — this was the way shown by the Noble Person \ 
[What is meant to be described here is a certain noble benefactor 
of men, while what is described is another noble benefactor in the per- 
son of Visnu ; and this latter is made to point to the former by means 
of such paronomatic expressions as are applicable to both cases,] 

(2) c O Moon, when the Sun rises, you become deprived 
of your lustre ; what is proper for you then is to avenge 
yourself, and not to fall upon his feet [ borrow his light- 
rays .] If this has been done by you when you had be- 
come impoverished, then are you not ashamed ? — or, 
that you even now show yourself in the sky may be due 
to your nervelessness [ coolness of your light ]/ 

[What is meant to be described here is the behaviour of a certain 
impoverished person ; and this is indicated by the description of another 
impoverished person in the shape of the Moon ; and this is done through 
Modal Metaphor based upon the Pun involved in the words c pada- 
grahah' and c jadadhdmatd.'] 

(3) c What has the wretched Ocean done with the water 
that he has received from the mouths of rivers ? He has 
rendered it brackish or poured it into the Submarine Fire, 
or thrown it into the innermost recesses of the Nether 


[What is meant to be described is a spendthrift, and this is indicated 
by the description of the spendthrift Ocean ; and this is done through 
mere similarity between the two persons.] 

In some cases of this last kind of Indirect Description 
what is implied is not necessarily imposed (or fastened) 
upon what is directly expressed. As in the following 
verse. — 

c There are many people who, with the help of boats, 
are able to cross the ocean which has covered with water 
the face of the Earth and also the innermost recesses of the 
Nether World ; if, however, somehow or other, the ocean 
were by chance to become emptied, who would be able to 
even look at the holes and cavities in it ?' 

[Here the implied meaning is that ' for the people it is best that 
the king, if wicked, should remain prosperous ;' but the directly 
expressed description of the ocean itself being quite apt, it is not 
necessary for the former to be imposed upon this latter.] 

In other cases the said imposition is essential ; as for 
instance, in the following verse, — 

' Who are you, Sir ?'— Know me to be the fatestricken 
Shdkhotaka tree/ — ' You talk as if you were disgusted 
with life/ — c You have guessed rightly/ — ' But why so ?' — 
I am going to explain : This banyan tree that lies to the 


left of the road, is attended by all pedestrians, while to me, 
though I am standing on the road, does not belong even 
shade enough for rendering help to others.' 

[What is implied here is the condition of a lowbora person whose 
gifts have been refused by a qualified recipient : and the imposition 
•of this upon the expressed description of the tree is essential, since 
the ideas described can never belong to any such entity as the tree.] 
In still other cases, there is only partial imposition ; 
for instance, in the following verse — 

' That curious process whereby the tongue was re- 
versed ; the fickleness of ears ; vision incapacitated by 
intoxication to discriminate between himself and others ;— 
what is the need for saying more ?— All this you have 
forgotten, O brother black bee 1 and you still stick to this 
elephant, with an empty trunk [ hand ] ;— whence this 
peculiar attachment ? 

[ Here what is implied is the relation between an un- 
appreciating master and a devoted servant ; and this is 
imposed upon the case described, of the elephant and the 
black bee]. The imposition here is only partial ; as * the 
reversal of the tongue ' and * emptiness of the trunk ' are 
not such circumstances as would justify the abandoning of 
the elephant by the bee ; it is only the ' fickleness of the 


W^IW % |g: *RT: 5R5T9T ^ fafarnT 1 1 ^11 
friftrfsiFWH § 5Tf cT^ST <re*T ^ \ 
STCfcFR *TS**Tcsf W*ffacft ^ 3FW M^ooll 

f^qfTfcT5T^f^cT: m II 

ears ' that would justify it ; while the presence of the 
* intoxicating ' rut would render the elephant all the more 
attractive to the bee. — 

[And the imposition in this case is done through the Pans involved 
in ' reversal of the tongue ', e fickleness of the ear ' and c emptiness, 
of the hand 5 ]. 99. 

XII — Atishayokti — Hyperbole. 

It is to be known as the Hyperbole — (a) when the object 
to be described is indicated as swallowed by the other ; — 

(b) when the object to be described is represented as another ; — 

(c) when there is an assumption introduced by some term 
meaning c if 9 ; — and (d) when there is reversal of the normal 
order of sequence between a cause and its effect. 

(a) When the ' object compared ' is recognised as 
swallowed within the c object compared to \ — it is one 
kind of Hyperbole. Example — 

c A lotus is found in a place without water ; — two 
blue lotuses are found in a lotus ; — all these three are found 
on a golden creeper ; — and that creeper is tender and 
lovely ; — what a series of portentous phenomena V 


srifff ^^m apron faar ^rr fr srepr^rarr i 
•'repfe?' arfon^ #s^i^r m wt m w?ff{ 

The /^<? (and the eyes and the body) ate represented 
as ' swallowed by ' (identified with) the lotus (the blue 
lotuses and the golden creeper). 

(I?) It is the second kind of Hyperbole, when that 
same object (to be described) is represented ' as another ', 
as something different. Example. — 

c Her tenderness is something quite different ; quite 
different to the brightness of her complexion ; this young 
girl is not the creation of the ordinary Creator/ 

[Here the idea expressed is that the c tenderness ' and other things 
are quite different from the ordinary tenderness and the rcst.J 

(V) It is the third kind of Hyperbole., when there is 
c assumption \ — i.e., of an impossible idea through the 
use of c some term meaning if — /.*., of the term c yacli y 
or c cbet \ 

Example — 

c If the body of the Moon at night were to be spotless,, 
then alone could her face suffer the insult of being equalled/ 

(d) It is the fourth kind of Hyperbole, when, for the 
purpose of indicating the powerful efficacy of the cause, 
the effect is described as appearing before its time. 


^pot <H"l\4*4W &&R&m <ror tost \\v\\\\ 

SffTO^TOT f STT II ?o^ II 


to*st4^ttotscTOT ^rfro^iw i tot 


Example — 

* Malati's heart was occupied by the arrow of the Love- 
god ; and it was only after that that you, O loved of women, 
coming within the range of her vision (occupied it).' 

[The idea here expressed is that ' so powerful was the 
effect produced by her seeing you that she fell in love 
before she actually saw you.'] 

VIII— Vrativastupamd— Typical Comparison. 

Typical Comparison is that where a single common property 
stands twice, in two sentences. 

When the common property is mentioned, both in the 
sentence speaking of the ' object compared ' and that 
speaking of the « object compared to ',— but in separate 
words,— since the repetition of the same words has been 
described as a defect,— is called, Typical Comparison, 
< Prativastupama\ so called because the position of the 
' object compared to ' {upamana) is occupied by what is 
expressed by a sentence {vastu). 

Example. — 

c Having once occupied the position of the Queen, how 
can she revert to the position of an attendant ? Verily, a 



jewel marked with the figure of a god does not deserve to 
be worn/ 

[The common property, c impropriety \ is mentioned in both 
halves of the verse* but in different words.] 

In the following verse we have the c Stringed Typical 

' What is the wonder, if fire burns etc/ 

(See above, stanza No. 272). 

Similarly may other forms be illustrated. 

XIV. — Drstdnta — Exemplification. 

'Exemplification is the reflectional representation of all these. 

The c Drstdnta ' is so called because therein is 
perceived (' drsta 9 ) the * definite recognition ' (' anta ') 
of ' all these ' — i.e., of the Common Property (the object 
compared and the object compared to). 

Example. — 

c As soon as you are seen, her heart, inflamed with 
love, becomes calmed ; it is only in the light of the moon 
that the flower of the Lily-plant blooms/ 

Here we have Exemplification per similarity. 

[ (a) The king, (*) the girl, (c) the heart, (d) the inflammation of 
love and (<?) the becoming calm, being reflected respectively in, (a) 
the moon, (b) the lily plant, (c) the flower, (d) the withering caused 
by the sun's rays, and (e) the blooming]. 

394 kavtaprakasa 

a*"fanm wit* *re^% ftirou ^ u 

Exemplification per dissimilarity we find in the follow- 

c When you, who delight in valorous deeds in battle, 
extended your hand towards the sword, your enemies 
became shattered ; it is only in the absence of the wind 
that dusts lie undisturbed/ 100-102. 
XV — Dlpaka — Illuminator. 

— (a) When the (common) property belonging to 
several objects — that to be described } as mil as those 
not to be described, — occurs once, — and (b) when a 
single substantive occurs in connection with several 
verbs, — // is the Illuminator. 103. 
(a) When a ' common property ', — in the shape of 
an action and so forth, — belonging to c several objects, 
that to be described, as well [as those not to be 
described \ — i.e., the object compared and the objects com- 
pared to, — is mentioned only once, it is Illuminator, 
'Dlpaka 9 ; so-called because the term expressing the 
property, though occurring only once, 'illumines' the 
entire sentence. 


fe^TFf m toft h>wFI &m% #p>f t 

f^RTPr ^qft #^% f^spsfr ftf*PT% fe<*HW-|R< M^ I 

ifcpi^ to: ^uftftKw^nft' wis 

Example : — 

' The wealth of misers, the head-jewel of serpents, 
the mane of lions, and the breasts of girls belonging to 
noble families, — how can these be touched until they are 
dead ? ' 

(/;) It is Illuminator also when a single substantive occurs 
in connection with several verbs, — 

Example : — 

* The newly-wedded wife, when brought to the bed, 
$>erspires, shrinks, turns, moves away, closes her eyes, 
casts side-long glances, rejoices within herself, and longs 
to bestow a kiss. 103. 

It is the Stringed Illuminator where what precedes imparts 
excellence to what follows. 

If what follows is helped by what precedes it,-— then 
we have the Stringed Illuminator. 

Example. — 

* Sangrdmdnganamdgatena 9 etc. 9 ( See above stanza 
No. 229.) 



SlfWT — 

<TPf smf ^f f^f *rcsf <Hwtf *r ^5: i 

XVI — Tulyayogitd. — Equal Pairing. 

The single mention of a property as belonging to a number 
of things of the same kind constitutes Equal Pairing 104. 

c Things of the same kind '—{a) all being such as are 
meant to be described, (i.e. objects compared) or (b) all 
being such as are not meant to be described (i. e* } objects- 
compared to). Examples in order. — 

(a) c Pdndu ksdmam vadanam etc., (see above, stanza 
No. 332.) 

[Here the property, being indicative of the disease, is common to 
several things, every one of which is meant to be described.] 

(b) c In the presence of your eyes, lovely and elegant, 
what is the line of white, red and blue lotuses ? — And 
the Nectar, the Moon and the Lotus have been subdued* 
at a single stroke, by your face \ 

[Here the properties are described as belonging to two sets of 
things. Both of those to which the eyes and the face are compared.] 104„ 

XVII — Vyatireka— -Dissimilitude. 

The dissimilitude of the other to the c object compared to * 
constitutes the figure of the same name, 

'Of the other 9 — i.e., of the object compared, 

* Dissimilitude ' — Superiority. 


fsRTT 5Rlk S^fft affanrfMrlfr TRf § 11*^11 

g^^RPT i are ^^qcrRq^ff^r^f ff-fMrfwr u 
f^t^cn^^ft^f <m m*$ drafts n?o^n 

5IWtf ^RWlftW fcsw aarfNrfle era » 

[ Example ] — 

'The Moon, though reduced again and again, really 
rises also again and again ; but youth, O beautiful one, 
once gone, never returns ; so cease and be propitiated \ 

Here the c superiority ', belonging to c youth ' (which 
is the object compared), lies in its ephemeral character (in 
which point it is superior to the Moon, the object com- 
pared to). So that the assertion of some people that " this 
verse depicts the c superiority " of the object compared to 
(the Moon) over the object compared (youth) ", is not right* 

It is of twenty-four kinds : — (1) When the ground (oj 
dissimilitude) is mentioned ; (2-4) the three cases where the said 
ground is not mentioned ; — each of these (four) has the similitude 
either expressed by word or expressed by meaning, or implied ; — 
mdeach of these (twelve) again occurs in aparonomatic word also. 

The ground of dissimilitude — ue., the ground of the 

♦superiority of the object compared and the ground of 
the inferiority of the object compared to — when both these 
are mentioned [it is one kind of Dissimilitude] ;— where 
one or the other of these, or both, are not mentioned [we 

398 kavyaprakaSa 

;#fo ^raprefNrer: i wfki£<wH — 

s<rn^-o^T<^e| ^ **w>w ifr^t: uy^ii 

have the three other kinds of Dissimilitude]; — we have 
those four kinds, when the comparison is expressed by 
words; another four kinds, when each of the said four has 
the comparison expressed by meaning ; — and yet another 
four kinds when each of them has the comparison only 
implied ; — thus there are twelve varieties (of this figure).-— 
Each of these occurs also in paronomatic expressions 
(expressions with double meanings), — and thus we get 
the twenty-four varieties of Dissimilitude. 

Examples in order— (1-4) ' To this person, possessed 
of great dignity, pride did not come, — as it does to other 
inferior persons, — when he suppressed his enemies with 

the help of his sword only.' 

The person described being * possessed of great dignity** 

and the other persons being ' inferior \ are the grounds 

of Dissimilitude ; — and when either one of these is not 

mentioned, and when both of them are not mentioned, we 

have the other three varieties. — In this case, as the sentence 

£oiitains the word *jva\ the comparison is 6 directly 

expressed by words '. 


(5) * This person, possessed of great dignity, did not 
become proud, — anyatuchchhajanavat, like other inferior 
persons,— when suppressed his enemies with the help 
of his sword only/ 

Here the comparison is ' expressed by the meaning \ 
as it is expressed by the affix c vati \ which denotes simi- 

(6) ' This beautiful-eyed woman subdues ' the spotted 
moon with her spotless face, which has subjugated the 
loveliness of the lotus'. 

In the absence of any such term as ' iva \ c tulya ' and 
the like (which could express it), the comparison here is 
only ' implied \ 

(7) Jitendriyatayd samyag}ndydvrddhanisevhiah 
Atigadhcignmsydsya ndbjavad bhangnrd guyidh. 

c This man, possessed of unfathomable excellences 
and devoted to persons of sound learning, having sub- 
jugated his senses,— his gunas (qualities) are not ephemeral 
like the gunas (threads) of the lotus/ 

* Here the affix ' vati ' is synonymous with * iva ? and the 
term 'gufja 9 contains a Pun. 



(8) c Akhandamandalah shfimdn pashyaisa prthivlpatih 
Na nishdkaravqjjdtu kaldvaikalyamdgatah \ 

c Lo, this blessed Lord of the Earth, with an unbroken 
stretch of empire * has never been deprived of his splendour,, 
as the j WI Moon is of its digits.' 

Here the affix c vati ? is used in the sense of ' iva \ and 
there is a pun upon the term * kaldJ 

Just as we have the c Stringed Typical Comparison \ 
so it is possible to have the ' Stringed Dissimilitude 3 
also ; of which also we may deduce the number of varieties 
(as in the case of simple Dissimilitude). Of these we are 
exemplifying only a few, 
j c Haravaima visamadrstih harivanna vibho vidhutavitaiavrsah 

Kavivaima chdtiduhsahakaratapitabhuh kaddchidasi \ 

jj/ c You, O Lord, are never visamadrsti, partial, — as Hara 

!•! is visamadrstiy possessed of three eyes; you are never 

Jjj vidhfitavitatavrsa^ one who has shaken off the all-impor- 

|i; tant Dharma, — as Hari is vidhFitavitatavrsa, one who has 

| ; ; destroyed the huge demon Vrsasura ; you are never 

,|/ atiduhsahakaratdpitabhfih, one who has oppressed the 
world with very unbearable taxes, — as the Sun is atidnhsaha- 


karatdpitabh/lh, one who has heated the Earth with his 
extremely unbearable rays \ 

Here the affix ' vati ' is throughout used in the sense 
of c iva ' and there are Puns upon the terms * visama 9 and 
the rest. 

' Nityoditapratdpena triydmdmllitaprabhah 
Bhdsvatdnena bhupena bhdsvdnesa vinlrjitah \ 

c The Bhdsvdn, Sun, who has his glory suppressed 
at night, has been subdued by the bhdsvdn , resplendent, 
King whose glory is ever manifest'. 

Here the comparison is * implied *, and there is Pun 
upon the term ' bhdsvdn \ 

Another example of the same kind — 

c SvachchhdtmatagMjasamullasitendubimbam 
Yfmdmatlva pibatdm rajanlsu yatra 
Trsndm jahdra madhu ndnanamangandndm \ 

'During the nocturnal drinking bouts, though the 
wine allayed the desire of the young men for drinking* 
yet women's faces did not allay their desire for kissing ; — 
the wine (a) reflecting the bright disc of the Moon, (b) bearing 
the likeness of the red Bimba fruit, and (c) possessed of natural 


«nfefe^ MK ,« ft* ft* w 

fragrance ; and the face, (*) resembling the shining Moon,, (b) 
ivith lips resembling the Bimba fruit, and (c) with natural 

In die absence of any such terms as ' iva * c tulya ' 
and the Hke, the comparison is found to be c implied 9 
by the epithets with double meanings. 

In this manner, other varieties are also possible, even 
in the absence of any separate mention of words capable 
of being used with double meanings. These also may be 
illustrated in the same manner as above. 

When something desired to be said is, as if, suppressed, for the 
purpose of conveying a special idea, it is Hint ; and It is of two 
kinds, as having its subject, either (a) about to be Mentioned, or 
(b) already mentioned. 

When something is desired to be said, and is such 
that cannot be entirely ignored,— and the speaker, 
anxious to convey (or emphasise) the idea, either (a) of -its 
being something, that cannot be spoken of, or (b) of its 
being something too well known (to be spoken of),r- 


*riTf|f+rM eft ufa +i4«i' r»iPM»'ci wwiftr ar^Tf ^t r 
ai ft dj i ?<<*+** i o^snfwr *rcs w *rfro" iiyv9$ii 

suppresses it, — i.e., he makes what appears to be a suppress- 
ion of it ; and this suppression may be such as has its 
subject either (a) about to be mentioned, or (b) already 
mentioned ; — and these are two kinds of the figure Hint. 
Exampls in order : — 

(a) c O I come, I shall tell you, O cruel one ! some- 
thing about a certain person ; — or no ; I shall not say it ; — 
when she has taken an inconsiderate step, let her die !* 

•[What is c desired to be said * here is the extreme pang of separa- 
tion being borne by the girl ; and in order to convey the idea that it is 
something indescribable, the speaker suppresses it x and the subject 
is not mentioned, it is only about to be mentioned^ 

(b) c Moon-light, pearl-necklace, sandal-juice, the 
fluid flowing from the lunar gem, camphor, plantain- 
roots, bracelets of lotus-stalks and lotus-leaves — all 
these act like sparks of fire upon her, on account — Ah I — 
of yourself, who have taken possession of her heart ; — 
Woe to me ! — what is the use of saying it ? — I shall not 
say it/ 

[Here what is desired to be described is the love-pang of the 
girl under separation ; and in order to convey the idea of its being 
too well-known, the speaker suppresses it, — but only after the sub? 
jcct has been already mentioned.] 


• IX* — Vibhdvand— Peculiar Causation. 

'Peculiar Carnation consists in the mention of * the effect, 
even though there is denial of the cause. 106-107. 

When, even though the cause, in the shape of 
a particular action, is denied, the appearance of the effect 
of that cause is described, it is Peculiar Causation. 

Example. — 

'Even though unstruck by the blossoming creeper 
she felt pain ; even though not stung by the black bees, 
she turned aside ; even though not shaken by the lotus- 
leaves, she swerved round [all this by reason of her love- 
pangs.]' 10-107. 

XX. — Vishesokti— Peculiar Allegation. 

Peculiar Allegation consists in the omission to % affirm the 
effects, even when its causes are present in full force. 

When, even in the combined presence of all its 
causes, the effect is not affirmed, it is Peculiar Allegation. 
It is of three kinds — (a) having the reason (of the non- 
appearance of the effect) not mentioned, (n) having the 
fl^sorr mentioned and (c) having the reason such as is 
: ,, :iii<x>iiceivable. 


**n#OT WtA'Q ^f*T3vP*rf 3TOFTO (I \o6 II 

Examples in order — 

(*) ' Though sleep had ceased, the Sun had risen, the 
friends had come to the door, and the lover had slackened 
the impetuosity of his embrace, — yet the woman did not 
move away from the embrace/ 

[Here the reason for the non-appearance of the effect, which 
consists in the depth of the woman's feelings, is not mentioned.] 

(b) 'All obeisance to the Love-god of impressible 
prowess, who, though consumed like camphor, is yet 
puissant over every individual !' 

[Here we have the reason mentioned, in the shape of the c irre- 
pressible prowess ' of the god.] 

(c) c Glorious is the Love-god, who single-handed 
conquers the three worlds, and whose power was not 
wrested by Shiva, when he deprived him of his body/ 

[The destruction of the body would be sure to bring about the 
destruction of the power; and the reason, why Shiva did not do the 
latter when he did the former, is one that we cannot conceive of.) 

XXI — Yaihasankhya — Symmetrical, 

The Symmetrical consists in the orderly connection among 
things mentioned in a definite order. 108. 

406 kavyaprakaSa 

mi ^ #rtot ^"#r ^ 5^ 

STrJ ^ft«rffcR?m^r: U|«>|fe|iqcKU| IT II ?o% 11 

ry ,,,% _. . , ... p i. _r\ p... ri , 1 , 

M^cUqNd^^Wd^<^TTTtol<=IM<ld*l I 

CO "v 

TOfsr fM^H^d: ^rfer^ sr^pfa ^ctr; iiy^ii 

Example — 

c O Lord, how wonderful is it that, though single, 
you live in three ways — in the hearts (a) of enemies, 
(b) of learned men and (c) of fawn-eyed women, — pro- 
ducing in them, (a) pain, (b) joyous feelings and (c) love, 
through (a) the force of your valour, (b) your humility 
and (c) your amorous sportings.' 108. 

XXII — Arthdntaranydsa — Transition. 
. < Where either a Universal or a V articular is supported by its 
converse^ — either through similitude or otherwise, — it is 
Transition, 109. 

, . When, either through similitude, or dissimilitude, — a 
Universal is supported by a Particular, or a Particular is 
supported by a Universal, — it is Transition. 

Examples in order — 
; * (a) f- To persons whose minds are enveloped in their 
own defects, even the most beautiful thing appears to 


WZ% WT: ^rt%: +«U^ltacT &r srr 
qrornrm cfkkHK vjk ftf ft*pr# i 

be the reverse : a person suffering from bile sees the 
snow-white conch also as yellow/ 

r [Here a universal statement is supported by a particular case 
through similarity^ 

(b) ' Susitavasandlankarayam 9 etc. etc./ (see above stanza 
No. 266.) 

[Here a particular statement is supported through 
similarity by a Universal one.] 

(*) * It is on account of the evil nature of good qua- 
lities that the capable person is employed in a difficult 
task ; the worthless bull whose shoulder is not hardened 
by work sleeps comfortably.' 

[Here a universal case is supported by & particular one, but through 

(d) c Oh, much harm has been done by my life that I have 
had to say such a disagreeable thing ! Blessed are those that 
have died without witnessing the calamity of their friends/ 

[Here the particular is supported by the universal, through dissi- 
milarity.] 109, 

XXIII — Virodha — Contradiction 

When something is spoken of as contradictory, even* when 
there is no contradiction, — it is the Figure Contradiction* > 

408 kavtaprakasa 

wfki^w — 

Pi <±TMH *l PcRFsft 4| '^u(t| rt>S8pfttqqrnft7j: i 

When, as a matter of fact, there is no real contra- 
diction between two things, — and they are spoken of as 
if they were contradictory, — it is the Figure Contradiction. 

(1 — 4) The Universal contradicted by the four, (1) Universal 
[ (2) Quality, (3) Action and (4) Substance], — (5 — 7) the 
Quality contradicted by three [i.e. Quality* Action and Snb- 
stance\ — (8 — 9) Action contradicted by two [/. e. Action and 
Substance] — and (10) Substance contradicted by Substance ; — 
thus this Figure is of ten kinds. 

Examples in order — (1) [Community contradicted by- 

c O handsome one ! at the sudden thunderfall of your 
separation, fresh lotus leaves, bracelets of lotus — stalk 
and such other things appear to the fawn-eyed one, like 
heaps of flaming fuel' 

(2) [Community contradicted by Quality] — 

c O King ! in your presence Mountains become devoid 
of height, Winds become motionless, the Ocean, devoid 
of depth, and the Earth, extremely light* 


%m mwnaiMH'U&l w c^nr ^rt 
iM <re& i*WFrf¥*d%#w# ifcgfw 1 1 y<syi \ 

Wrtnft- ^JT^f <^fa<Ki 'n^^Tiwf^T i 

(3) [Community contradicted by Action] — 
'How wonderful it is that you perform, with the 
dust (of the battlefield) the toilet of your enemies, whose 
heart is in the battle, and by obtaining the hold of whose 
necks your sharp sword became reddened (impassioned) 
.and acquired smoothness (affection)/ 

(4) [Community contradicted by Substance]— 

c It is strange that Visnu, who creates, protects and 
•destroys the universe with ease, becomes, when occasion 
presents itself, a small fish/ 

(5) [Quality contradicted by Quality] — 

c The hands of Brahmana-women, which had become 
[ hardened by the handling of the wooden mallet, in the 
course of household duties, have, during your reign, 
become soft like the lotus/ 

(6) [Quality contradicted by Action] — 

c The words of the wicked, even though soft, burn 
the hearts of wise men ; and the words of gentiemen, 
^ven though harsh, are a source of joy, like the sandal- 


^f#rf^^ i 

(7) [Quality contradicted by Substance] — 

* Verily, Parashurama was a wonderful object of 
creation under the uninterrupted shower of whose arrows, 
the Krauiicha mountain, though hard as stone, became 
soft like the fresh lotus/ 

(8) [Action contradicted by Action] — 

c Parichchhtddtltah etc., etc., (See above stanza No. 107.) 

(9) [Action contradicted by Substance] — 

'With our hearts restless through desire (for water 
and riches), we approached the Ocean, thinking it to be 
the one reservoir of water and also the storehouse of 
gems ; — but who could know that the Sage (Agastya) 
would hold the Ocean, with the fish and alligators flutter- 
ing in it, in his hands and quaff it off in a moment ?* 

(10) [Substance contradicted by Substance] — 

* O Ornament of the Earth ! when you stand on the 
bank of the river Gariga, she becomes the Yamuna, by 

t> . r* 

- q^Ksksft wft fa «h fa fold 5T^rtaT^ptt 

contact with the rivulet of the ichor of your intoxicated , 

elephants.' 110-111. 

XXIV — Svabhdvokti — Natural Description. 

When, of the child and other things y their own action and 
form are described, — // is Natural Description. 110-111. 

c Their own ' — u <?., (the Action and the form) as sub- 
sisting in themselves, * Form * — Colour and shape. 

Example. — 

* The horse, rising from sleep, extends his hind legs,, 
stretches his body enlarged by the three dips on it back, 
brings his mouth to his chest, with his neck curved ; and 
flutters his dusted mane ; his lips quivering on account 
of his desire for grass ; and softly neighing^ he is 
scratching the ground with his hoofs/ 110-111. 

XXV. — Vyajastuti— -Dissembling Eulogy. 

When, what, on the face of it, is praise or disparagement, 
turns out to be otherwise, it is Dissembling 'Eulogy. 

The name 'Dissembling Eulogy', ' Vyajastuti \ is 
applied to this figure in the sense that it is a eulogy 
( c stuii*) in the form of, or through dissimulation ( c vydja 9 ). 



^K5ftSf^ *rctfa £W 3TTfTW ^RTCt: IIY%Y|| 
STT ^fatT: STfT$faT ^#P fpTTSRW U ?^ M 

Examples in order — (a) [Disparagement turned into 
Praise] — 

c O King, excepting yourself, none else is the foremost 
among persons whose minds are devoid of all considera- 
tion for those dependent upon you ; and apart from Laksmi, 
the Goddess, of Wealth, nowhere is shamelessness to be 
found : you are giving away the Wealth-goddess who 
has come to you in hundreds of ways, and though thus 
she has received the ill-treatment of being given up, she 
continues to reside in yourself alone \ 

(b) [Praise turning with Disparagement] — 

€ O Ocean, who has easily subdued the Bodhisattva ! 
What is the use of many words I There is no one who, 
like you, has taken the vow of benefitting others ; inasmuch 
as you help the desert by sharing with him the burden 
of ill-fame arising from its disinclination to benefit thirsty 

' XXVI — Sahokti — Connected Description. 
Where one word is expressive of two things, through the 


*rr sftfw: i tot 

jfcra? 0/ ^;//<? synonym of the word c saha ' (tf/<Mg" ;;>//#), — // is 
Connected Description. 112. 

Where, a word, which really denotative of one thing, 
comes, through the force of some word denoting ' along 
with', to bring about the idea of both things, — it is 
Connected Description. 
Example — 

*0 beautiful one, at her separation from you, her 
breaths become long drawn out, along with the nights and 
days ; her flow of tears continue to drop, along with the 
bracelets ; and the very hope of life becomes feeble, along 
with her slender body*. 

Here the properties of (a) c being long drawn out * 
[ (b) € dropping ' and (c) c becoming feeble '] as applying 
to (a) 'breaths', [(b) 'tents' and (c) * hope of life 5 ] 
are directly expressed by the words ; but to the (a) c night 
and days', [(b) ' bracelects ', and (c) < slender body'], 
they are applicable only through the force of the term 
* along with '. 112. 

XXVII — Vhmkti— Privative Description. 

414 kavtaprakasa 

WT fer T^t^RFPfef #3" ^RTTfer ^Tftpft: IIY^II 
"JJWfaW f^TT f«l fa -=\ °*\ c| $1 <M Rl 'H I M *nw*T: I 

**cf ^t^t ^^n «rn% ^miMk M «MH i 

T&sr/ /r Privative Description in iphich one thing, without 
the other, is either (a) not beautiful or (b) the contrary. 

In one kind, one thing, without the other, is not 
beautiful, and in the other, it is beautiful 

Examples in order — 

{a) c Without the Night, the Moon is not beautiful ; 
without the Moon, the Night is only dense darkness ; 
and without both these, the love-dealings of lovers do 
not shine. * 

(b) ' In the absence of the fawn-eyed one, this Prince is 
expert in astonishing feats of quick intelligence; and in the 
absence of that friend, his heart is as beautiful as the moon *. 

XXVIII — Parivrtti — Exchange. 

When there is an interchange between equal or unequal 
things — // is Exchange. 113, 

c Parivrttih' — i.e., the figure named c Parivrtti \ 


(a) 'The wind imparts graceful movement to the 
blossoming creepers and receives their unrivalled fragrance; 


(£) these creepers, on the other hand, draw to themselves 
the eyes of travellers, and give to them pain, physical 
and mental, as also perplexity and nervelessness. ' 

Here in the former half, we have an interchange bet- 
ween two equal things ; and in the latter an inferior thing 
is exchanged for a superior one. 

(V) c O King ! your haughty enemies, having accepted 
in battle the stroke of various kinds of weapons, have 
made over to you this Earth in such a manner that her 
relationship with you shall never cease. 5 

Here a superior thing is exchanged for an inferior 
one. 113. 

XXIX— Bhdvika— Visualisation. 

When past and future things are delineated as if thej were 
before the eyes,— it is Visualisation. 

c Bhutabhdvinah '— past and future '— a copulative 

This figure is called € Bhdvika ' in the sense that it 


JTTT ^T 5TR: «HfV<Pr Wrf 5PT"^FT I 

represents the poet's intention (bhdva). 
Example — 

(a) c I see that there was collyrium in your eyes ; — 
(b) and I perceive your body as going to be adcrrned with 
ornaments '. 

In (a) there is c visualisation ' of the past (collyrium) > 
and in (b) that of the future (ornamentation). 

XXX— Ta^dhhc— Poetical Reason. 

When a reason is expressed either (a) by a sentence, or (Z?) 
by a word, — // is Poetical Reason. 114. 

(a) The Reason expressed by a sentence — 

'From my bodily incarnation I infer, O Shiva, that 
in my previous birth, I never bowed down to You ; and 
bowing down to You now, and thereby becoming libera- 
ted, I shall not have a body and hence shall not bow down 
to You in the future ; both these faults of mine, please 
pardon, O Lord/ 


(b) Reason expressed by several words. — 

c Her body is such as suffers pain even on being struck 
with soft 5//fjv^-flowers by her loving friends in sportive 
jokes ; and it is against such a body that you have raised 
your weapon ; so fall on your head this arm of mine, 
resembling the missile of the Death-God/ 

[This is an instance of the reason being expressed by several 
words, — not by a sentence, — because it is expressed by the words 
* vapusi shastramupaksipatah % which, in the absence of a finite verb, 
cannot be regarded as a complete sentence.] 

(c) Reason expressed by a single word:— 
"Paintings with ashes, fare thee well! Garland of rosary, 

may good befall you ! Oh, for the line of steps adorning 
the house of Parvati ! Today I am being admitted by the 
great God, who has been propitiated by me, into that dense 
darkness, which is called ' Liberation ', which is going 
to deprive me of the light of the pleasure of waiting upon 
you !' 


^M^N"^Tl^JT%f<4dHM^R'i«i|IMK'T m 51%- 

^hi^ft — 

Here, in (a) the omission of obeisance during the 
preceding and coming births is the cause of the twofa//Ifs: — 
in (b) the raising of the weapon is the reason for the falling; 
of the arm ; and in (V) the depriving of the light of pleasure 
is the cause of the c dense darkness \ 114. 

XXXI. — Paryayokta — Periphrasis * 

Periphrasis consists in such description as is independent of 
the ordinary denotative relation between the expressive word and 
the expressed meaning. 

When a certain fact is described by words, through 
the implicative (suggestive) function, — and not through 
the ordinary relation between the expressive word and. 
the expressed meaning : — it is Periphrasis, c Paryayokta ' ; — 
so called because what is said (' ukta ') is by other means 

Example — 

'Even though long-standing, the love of residence 
was renounced by intoxication and self-respect, in regard 
respectively to the face of Airavana and the heart of Indra/ 

The particle ' api \ < even though * serves to imply 
that 'Airavana's face and Indra's heart became bereft 


3nr '^npRrcflr' wthwI" suffer ^-^Ph 

5TRT: STT^^tfrr ^^T^^^T^^fR^^TT^^TT: I 

of intoxication and self-respect ' ; and this idea so sugges- 
ted is the same as is directly expressed by the words 
themselves [the expressed meaning also being that ' intoxi- 
cation and self-respect renounced their love of residing 
in Airavana's face and in Indra's heart']. But the manner 
in which the implication is made is not the same in which 

the same idea is directly expressed. 

We have an analogous instance in the case where 
-upon seeing a white ox walking, one has the complex 
notion c the white ox is walking ' ; and here what this 
•cognition expresses is exactly what the man had 
previously perceived (in the abstract) ; but the manner 
of the later cognition is different from that of the 
preceding perception : the preceding perception (being 
in an indeterminate form) apprehended the object (ox) 
not as distinct from and related to (the other two factors, 
the quality of whiteness, and the action of walking), while 
the subsequent cognition does actually apprehend it as 
so distinct and related. 

XXXIL—Uddtta— Exalted. 

The Exalted consists (a) in the Exaltation of the thing ; 

* Exaltation ' — being endowed with prosperity. 


^fe^R% ^HMdW^ ^HlvfldlPkl^ ll^o^U 

WH^Wt^ It 

Example — 

' The pearls dropping from necklaces snapped in 
dalliance, which have become reddened by the foot-prints 
of lascivious girls walking about in the court-yard, are 
dusted aside with broom-sticks : mistaking them for pome- 
granate-seeds, the sportive parrots pick up these pearls :— 
that all this happens in the houses of learned men is the 
effect, O King Bhoja, of your munificence/ 

(b) It consists also in the representation of great beings as- 
adjuncts (to the thing exalted). 115 

c Adjunct '—being subordinate,— i.e., to the thing 

Example — 

'This is that same forest residing wherein Rama„ 
bent upon obeying the words of Dasharatha, with the 
help of his arms, brought about the destruction of demons/" 

[Here the fact of Rama being an adjunct, a resident 
of the forest, serves to exalt the latter ; it is the forest* 
which is the predominating factor [ and not the Heroic 
Sentiment ; as this latter is itself only a subordinate factor.] 


3^ M*^R±t ^T#^T M,+RrH*f *TF# fcw ^TT«r- 

3T^ f^RT^T HK+HW T^ftfcf I <r|Tft 

XXXIII — Samuchchaya — Concatenation. 

(a) It is Concatenation, when, while one cause conducive to 
the effect in question being already present, another also turns 
>out to be conducive to it. 

I. E v when one cause conducive to the effect to be 
described is already present, other causes are also 
mentioned, — it is Concatenation. 

Example — 

c Irrepressible are the arrows of the Love-god ; my 

beloved is at a distance ; my mind is extremely anxious ; 
our love is deep ; age young ; life-breath very hard ; 
family pure ; the feminine character is incompatible with 
firmness ; the season is helpful to the Love-god ; the 
•God of Death is incapable (of putting an end to my life); 
my friends are not sufficiently clever ;— how then can 
this cruel pang of separation be borne ?' 

' The arrows of the Love-god ' are enough to make 

the pangs of separation unbearable. ;and in addition to this 

are mentioned the other circumstances conducive to the 

same effect, — such as the beloved being at a distance and so 


422 kavyaprakaSa 

3PT ^TcTf *frr. i ^dUl^l c^clt #1": I 


It is this same figure of Concatenation which appears 
in the form of (a) c the combination of good things \ 
(b) c the combination of bad things * and (c) c the combi- 
nation of good and bad* [which three have been des- 
cribed by Rudrata and others as distinct figures of speech]. 
That is why these are not described by us separately. 
For instance, in the example quoted above, we have c the- 
combination of bad things '; while we have c the combi- 
nation of good things ' in the following verse :— 

"The family is untainted, appearance gentle, mind 
full of learning, the strength of arm sufficient, wealth 
extensive, sovereignty unimpeded ; all these circumstances 
are naturally agreeable ; and it is only natural that, on 
account of these, this man becomes arrogant ; but to you,. 
O King, these same only sen c as means of restraint/ 

In the following verse, there is c combination of good, 
and bad \ inasmuch as the fact of the c Moon ' (good) being 
6 dim 9 (bad) already being a c dart/ several other darts 
are mentioned (which also are combinations of the good 
and the bad)— • - 


are sifter mx srefr *MM< i unRr 5ffrHi*iY+w>u ii 
stowr: wn f^r>r: fsrw =#F^r: ^r?:^t 3 i 

■CO %, » 

' The Moon dim during the day, — the woman with 
faded youth, — the tank devoid of the lotus, — the illiterate 
mouth of a handsome person, — the master too much 
attached to wealth, — the good man always in trouble, — 
the wicked man at the King's Court, — these are the seven 
darts in my heart/ 

(b) It is another kind of the same figure (Concatenation) 
when qualities and actions are {described as) simultaneous. 116. 

The compound ' gmjakriydh ' is explained as meaning 
(1) c two qualities \ (2) ' two actions ' and (3) c quality 
and action'. 

Examples in order : — 

(1) [Concatenation of two simultaneous qualities}— O 
King, having shattered the forces of your enemy, your 
army quickly became bright, [ and clean ] and those faces 
of the wicked became faded/ 

(2) [Concatenation of two simultaneous actions]—* 
'This unbearable separation from my beloved has 

come about suddenly ; and on account of the appearance 
of fresh clouds the days are going to be free from heat 
and lovely/ 

424 kAvyaprakasa 

(3) [Concatenation of a qualify and an action] — 

' O Indra [ among the Lords of the ] Earth I your 
«eyes, bearing the beauty of the white lotus, [suddenly] 
fallen upon your enemies, became reddened, and there 
clearly fell upon them the glances of misfortune/ 

It v^ould not be right to assert, either that the factors 
K concatenating 9 should subsist in different things, or 
that they should subsist in the same thing ; because we 
meet with such instances of ' concatenation ' as — ( a ) 
'he brandishes his sword and spreads his fame' [where 
the substratum of both actions is the same, the King] ; — 
{b) c you wield the sword in the battle-field, and the gods 
-are uttering words of praise in heaven ' [where the subs- 
trata of the two actions are different]. 116. 

XXXIV — Parydya — Sequence. 

^flhen one thing occurs successively in more than one, it is 
Sequence. ■ 

When one thing (1) subsists or (2) is made to appear, 
in several things, it is Sequence. 


, ^^+^+rw^qr^^f^#^^>T: ii 

(1) [One thin existing in several] — 

' O Poison ! by whom has been ordained this success- 
ively higher series of your residences ?— First of all in 
the heart of the ocean, then in the throat of Shiva, and 
now in the words of wicked men P 

Another example of the same kind— 

' Formerly this raga (redness was seen in your bimba- 
like lips only ; but now O fawn-eyed one, the same* 
(raga attachment, love) is perceived in your heart also. 3 " 

Though here the ' raga 7 spoken of is not exactly the 
same in the two cases, yet (through the sameness of sound) 
the two are felt to be one and the same ; hence the citing- 
of this as an example here is not wrong. 

(2) [One thing made to appear in several] — 

c The hearts of the demons, that were concentrated 
entirely on the Wearer of the Kaustubha-jewel (when he- 
appeared as the Enchantress)^ were turned by the Love- 
god towards the bimba-like lips of their wives, 

(b) When the process is inverted, it is another kind (of 

When several things successively (1) subsist, or (2) 

are made to appear, in one thing, — it is another kind 
of Sequence. 

426 kIvyaprakasa 

srq- ^p^fr Tft||5^cr#crr^ ^rar^y fro g^«r ii^ii 
^rfff^ ^Rrfa% Tfef^ ^«rr^rRf fer: 

*r ^r^r *iws#r: ^fire *pfto3F *ftfqcro 

Examples in order — 

(1) * Strange it is that at first the words of the wicked, 
sweet and agreeable, clearly indicate the presence of nectar, 
•and yet they indicate also the presence, in their heart, of 
poison, the source of delusion/ 

(2) 'That low-walled hut, — and this palace which 
t eceives its light from heaven ; that faded cow,-— and 
these cloud-like herds of bellowing elephants ; that mean 
•sound of the pestle, — and this sweet music of women ; 
it is a wonder that this Brahmana has been transported into 
this condition in so very few days/ 

The renouncing (of one set of things) and acceptance 
{of another) by the same agent is not what is meant to be 
emphasised here ; hence this cannot be regarded as a 
case of * Exchange \ 

XXXV — Anwnana — Inference. 

It is the description of the Vrobans and the Vrobandum that 
fostuitutes Inference. 117. 


^ c 

' Probans \— the Reason, the ' Middle Term ', which 
fulfils the threefold condition of (1) subsisting in the 
c Minor Term ' ? (b) being concomitant (with the e Major 
'Term s ) and (3) being non-concomitant (with the contrary 
of the Major Term). 

c Probandum ' — the constant concomitant of the 
"' Major Term ' and the c Minor Term \ 

Example. — 

'Became the heart-piercing arrows constantly fall 
^^pon that object towards which these girls with wave- 
like eyes turn their eye-brows, — therefore (it follows that) 
the angry sovereign Love-god, with his hand adorned 
with the drawn bow and arrow, is always running before 
these girls/ 

The mere inversion of the premises and conclusion 
{which has been regarded by some people as a distinct 
figure) does not constitute any charm ; hence it has not 
been described. 117. 

XXXVI— Parikara— Insinuation. 

Insinuation is description ivith significant epithets. 


428 kavyaprakaSa 

^fhrcft *nwrr «Fnf%cnr 

S#FTC $3": cWluJ+fafcA^T WfTt fawIMm- 

f^r^rft- ^t Vf ^mfr srfro ^ttPt ^rt€^ 

'Description' of and object qualified by the said 
epithets. . 

Example — 

* At chers, — brilliant, self-respecting, honoured witk 
riches, who have made their reputation in war, neither 
combining nor differing among themselves, — are anxious,, 
even at the risk of their lives, to fulfil his wishes/ 

Though it is true that by the recognition of c Irrele- 
vancy ' as a defect, 6 relevancy ' or c significance ' has 
already been admitted (as an excellence), — yet there is a 
certain charm brought about by the bringing together of 
a number of significant epithets as applying to a single 
object ; by reason which this has been included under 
* Figures of Speech \ 

XXXVII— Vydjokti— Artful Assertion. 

Artful Assertion consists in concealing, by some artifice r 
the unhidden character of a thing. 118. 

When the form of a thing, not explicit in itself* 
somehow becomes explicit, — and yet such form is, by 
some artifice, concealed, — it is Artful Assertion. 


<W I £<«!*( — 

i?^:^l4^<^l%V"teclig;: for: II <\^ oil 

N C C N 

This is not the same as * Concealment y (see above 
Karika No. 96), because in the present case there is no 
possibility of any similitude between the object described 
.and that to which it is compared. 

Example (of Artful Assertion) — 

c May Shiva protect you, — he being smilingly looked 
upon by the ladies in the harem of the King of Mountains, 
when he, — having a thrill and such effects produced in 
'himself by the touch of Parvatf s hand offered to him 
by her father, and feeling confused at the consequent 
omission of the details of the marriage-rites, — blurted 
out — " Oh, how cold are the hands of the Snow-moun- 
tain I" 

Here the thrilling and the trembling (the latter being 
-among the 'other effects'), — though really appearing 
•as the calm effects (of the feeling of Love aroused by the 
•touch), are described here as the effects of cold ; and as in 
this manner their real character is ' concealed \ we have 
jhere a case of Artful Assertion. 118, 

430 kavyaprakasa 

^mPwVii i spr^^nf M^f^fo' cr^rqT^" qft^r i 
=q^rrd w: ii ^qkr^nr — 

XXXVIII — Parisamkhyd— Exclusion. 

Where something, either (a) asked or (b) unasked, on being, 
mentioned, serves to exclude other things similar thereto, — // is 
said to be Exclusion, 119. 

When a certain thing, "known by other means of 
knowledge, is mentioned by words, and in the absence 
of any other purpose, serves the purpose of exclusion of 
other similar things, — then it is Exclusion. The said 
* mention ' is found to be preceded by (in response to),. 
as also not preceded by, a question ; and in both 
cases what is excluded may be implied or directly 
expressed ; — thus there are four varieties of this figure. 

Examples in order. — 

(a) [Preceded, by question — the Excluded implied — ] 
' Q. What is it that deserves to be attended upon by 
men ? A* The excellent proximity of the Heavenly 
River. — Q. What is it that should be meditated upon in 
seclusion ? A. The two feet of Visnu— Q. What is it 
that should be honoured ? A. Virtue — Q. What is it 


?rfernf# t fcnrt ssm ^nr# *t *refw*i i^ i 

that should be desired ? A. Mercy, by the presence 
whereof the mind leads on to Liberation/ 

(b) [Preceded by question — the Excluded expressed] — 
c Q. What is the real ornament in the world ? A. 
Reputation, not jewels. — Q. What deserves to be done ? 
A. The good of a gentleman, not misdeeds. — Q. What 
is unimpeded vision ? A. Intelleet, not the eye. — 
Who else, but you, know the real difference between 
good and evil ?' 

(V) [Not preceded by question— the Excluded implied—] 
c There is obliqueness in your mass of hair ; redness 
in your hands, feet and lips ;— hardness in your breasts 
and fickleness in your eyes. 

(d) [Not preceded by question,— the Excluded ex- 
pressed] — 

4 Devotion to Shiva, not to riches ; addiction to learn- 
ing, not to women, the weapon of love ; anxiety for re- 
putation, not for the body ; all this is found in nearly 
all good men/ 119. 

432 kavyaprakasa 

XXXIX — Kdranamdld— The String of Causes. 

Where {among a number of things mentioned), each preceding 
one appears as the cause of each succeeding one, — // is the String 
cf> Causes. 

' Yathottaram \ — of each of the succeeding. 

Example — 

c Control over the senses is the cause of good char- 
acter ; excellence of qualities is obtained from good 
character ; by the excellence of qualities people become 
attached ; and the attachment of the people brings about 

The figure ' Hetu ', c Cause ', defined (by Udbhata) 
as consisting in ' the delineation of the affect as not different 
from the cause ', — has not been mentioned here, because 
such an identification, being of the nature of statements 
like c Butter is longevity \ can never be an ornament of 
speech, (a Figure of Speech), because there is no charm 
in it. In the example also that has been cited of the said 
figure, — 

* Aviralakamalavikasah 
Sakaldlimadashcha kokildnandah 
Ramyoyameti samprati 
Lokotka#thdMarab kdlah. 9 


f^WT I M«rM<^ » ?^o II 

^g^^rHr^tr^ II 

3^3>R: I vT<4l^<«l^ — 

pr°i srcf| %^ STfosR ^ srft" ^rff i 

'Now is come the lovely season, which beats the 
beauty of dense lotuses, during which the black bees 
ate humming in exuberant joy, which is a source of felicity 
to the cuckoo, and brings longings in the minds of men \ 

Hete the presence of poetical charm has been declared 
to lie in the presence of the soft Alliteration, and not in 
that of any such Figure of Speech as Cause. 

As % matter of fact, this Figure ' Cause ' is the same as 
what has been described above as c Poetical Reason'. 

XL — Anyonya — Reciprocal. 

Text — When two things are productive of each other } through 
an action, — // is the Reciprocal 

When through a single action, two things appear as the 

cause of each other, — it is the Figure called ' Reciprocal \ 

Example. — 

c Tanks add beauty to the lakes, and the lakes add 

Beauty to the swans ; these two only serve to improve 

each other/ 

[ The Wtt of fta? is given as ^ in Varna, nacarya. In the tran- 
sition the word has been omitted, ] 

Here the two things spoken of are the c cause ' of each 
other through the common action of ' beautifying \ 


* ^Tfwsrsr ^r^crr frft sf^ft ^f^sr i 

XLI — Uttara—Asxswet. 

(a) When from the hearing of only the answer, the presumption 
of the question is made, — (b) or when the question being there, 
an inconceivable answer is given, and this more than once } — // is 

(a) It is one kind of Answer, where the statement 
embodying the question is presumed from the hearing 
of the answer. 

Example — 

* O trader, whence could we have ivory or tiger-skins* 

so long as my daughter-in-law with lovely locks lives in 

my house ?' 

[Here the Implication is that my son does not go out for 
hunting. ] 

The assertion here made leads to the presumption 
that it is in answer to the request of a likely purchaser to 
the following effect — ' I am seeking for ivory and tiger- 
skins, give them to me and receive their price' 


f% ?N *JWcf f% f?# # *T55t ^W li WH 

This figure is not the same as c Poetical Reason ' ; 
because the nature of the figure ' Answer ' is not the same 
as that of Poetical Reason, as the Answer here is not the 
productive cause of the question (as it is in Poetical Reason). 

Nor is it the same as ' Inference ', as it does not involve 
any mention of the Probans and Probandum as subsisting 
in a single substratum (as it is in Inference). 

For these reasons it is best to regard this Answer as 
a distinct Figure of Speech. 

(b) It is the second kind of Answer when, after the 

statement of the question, there follows an answer which, 

being beyond the reach of ordinary comprehension, is 

' inconceivable \ — As the single mention of such question 

and answer would have no charm, it is added * this more 

than once 7 . 

Example — 

' What is perverse ? The ways of destiny. — -What 

is difficult to obtain ? Appreciative men.— What is 
happiness ? A good wife. — What is unhappiness ? 
The presence of wicked men\ 

In the ' Exclusion with question ', what is aimed at 
is only the exclusion of other things while in the present 
figure the import rests entirely in the expressed meaning 
only ; — herein lies the difference between these two Figures. 

436 kavyapraka§a 

fsftfa vfimt *&frmfcm smsm u \^ it 

ftftfq- 3||+KlfcPfj-cJlfit ^W^^^f^f tc 1 1 

<=i^^i r^^ ^f^r^tf scrqT fw f^fff ^ftr w I 

^#^r^T^FRT fas nwT f^w I 

LXIL — Suksma — Subtle. 

Where a subtle fact somehow noticed, is expressed to another 
person, by means of some property, — // is the Subtle. 

'Somehow* — Through appearance of gestures and so 

'Subtle' — Cognisable only by persons with keen 

Example — 

* A certain friend, noticing the kutikuma paint on her 

neck blurred by perspiration from the girl's face, smiled 
and painted the sword in her hand, with a view to indicate 
her male character/ 

What is depicted here is that on seeing the appearance 
of the girl, her friend understood that she had behaved 
Eke a male ; and this idea she very cleverly expressed to 
fcer by- the painting of the sword, — the proper place for 
the sword being in the hand of a male only. 


ft^TOWiRHI <**HPi*iW«1 sfteqrsiRlMlfad: II 

WK: T^pTW: SRfTO srnCTfaftffcRT ^« 
#^T f^«TF#: I 33Tf?7W — 

Another example — 

. * The clever girl, noticing from the meaning glances 
of her lover that he was desirous of knowing the time of 
assignation, closed up the lotus with which she was play- 
ing \ 

Having noticed, from a mere gesture, that the time for 
assignation was what was sought after, the girl very grace- 
fully gave him the information by the closing of the lotus, 
which pointed to the night as the time. 

XLIIL — Sara — Climax. 

Climax is the successive rising in the excellence of things ta 
the highest pitch. 121-23. 

* Pardvadhi \— that of which the 'para 9 highest pitch, is 
the ' avadhi \ * limit ; it is at that limit that the excellence, 
rising by degrees, rests. 

Example — 

* The Earth is the essence of the kingdom ; the city, 
of the Earth ; the palace, of the city ; the bed, of the palace ; 
and of the bed, the lovely woman, the all-in-all of the 
Love-god. 123. 


3TW3T m\ cPOT tapir ^TOTf cf 3p*ft srfswf I 

XLIV. — Asamgati — Disconnection. 

When there is representation of two properties > which hear to 
each other the relation of cause and effect, as subsisting? at the 
same time? in totally different places? — it is Disconnection* 124. 

As a rule, the effect is found to appear in the same 
place as its cause ; e.g., the smoke (is found in 'the same 
place as fire)) ; under the circumstances if two properties, 
one of which is the cause and the other its effect, 
are described as appearing, at the same time, in different 
places, — on account of some peculiar circumstance, — it is 
the figure Disconnection, c Asamgati \ — so called because 
it involves the abandoning of the natural connection, G sam- 
gaii\ between the cause and its effect. 

Example — 

" c What people say as to . the pain belonging to the 
person who has the sore is not true ; the cut of the teeth 
is on the cheek of the newly wedded wife, while the pain 
appears in her co-wives/ 

CHAPTER, X 43 9 

Though it does imply an inconsistency (which is a form 
• of Contradiction), yet the figure is not the same as ' Con- 
tradiction), as in this the 'inconsistency' appears only in the 
form of two things appearing in two distinct substrata ; 
while in 'Contradiction*, the inconsistency really lies 
in two things subsisting in the same substratum ; though 
this fact has not been stated (in the definition of 'Contradic- 
tion 9 given before), —that it is so is clear from the fact 
that what is of wider application (in the present case, 
< contradiction 9 ) is made applicable to only those cases 
that do not come under what is of narrower application 
(' Disconnection \ in the present case,) 

[Hence it is that when c disconnection ' is found to be applicable 
to cases where the two things are represented as subsisting in different 
.substrata, it is only right that the scope of c contradiction 5 should 
be restricted to cases where they are described as subsisting in the 
same substratum.] 

And it is under this understanding that examples 
have been cited above (of the figure of ' Contradiction/) 

XLV. — Samddhi — Convenience. 

When, through the help of other causes, the fulfilment of an 
effect is described as becoming easier x > — it is Convenience. 

When a certain work, commenced by an agent 
(with one set of accessories), becomes accomplished 
without much trouble, with the hejp of other 
accessories, — it is the figure named ' Convenience \ 


s^wft: wi^fafa *fNd^i #srfw fawfopr- 

ScH^WT — 

snip £a>4 1 Ri*w Pi* v^TFR^nr *prrcft 

Example. — 

' As I was going to fall on her feet, with a view to 
pacifying her indignant feelings, luckily the thundering 
of clouds appeared for the purpose of helping me \ 

XLVL — Sama — Compatible. 

When the connection {hetiveen two things) is considered to* 
be right and proper f—it is the Compatible. 125, 

When the connection between any two definite, 
things is regarded as right and proper,— the idea being 
that c this is commendable * — it is the Compatible. It is 
of two kinds,— (a) where the connection is between two» 
good things, and (b) where the connection is between 
two bad things* 


(a) 6 This fawn-eyed one is the touch-stone of the 
excellence of the creator's art ; your Majesty, being un- 
rivalled in beauty, have relegated the Love-God to a, 
lower position ; that a proper connection between these 
two has luckily come about constitutes the undisputed- 
sovereignty of Love *. 


'T'rf^rrRTt sflFRST «*>K«IHl 1"lf^ I 

sraW ( ? ) 2F5^ ft^RT^fnTFr: ^rf fw^T: srwrq; 

(£) ' Strange, stt ange, extremely strange is this that ' 
the Creator has, by chance, been the ordain er of one 
compatible phenomenon that when the large quantities 
of Mimba-berries had to be eaten, the beings selected as 
expert in eating them were the crows '. 125. 
XL VII. — Visama — Incongruous. 

Where — (a) between two things no compatibility can 

come about, by reason of extreme dissimilitude, — » 

(b) where the agent does not obtain the fruit of his 

action, but comes by an adverse effect, — (c) (d) where 

the quality and action of the cause are incompatible 

respectively, with the quality and action of the effect, — 

it is held to be the Incongruous. 126 — 7. 

(a) In a case where the two things are so 

entirely incompatible, that any connection between them 

is conceived of as purely impossible ; — (b) where, the 

Agent, commencing an act, does not only fail, by reason 

of the failure of his operations, to obtain the fruit that he 

sought to obtain from that act, but, on the contrary, ob- 

442 kIvtaprakAsa 

ftrfe+Wd^'i^r: srcn *[farrcrHTf*Rr: i 

tains an adverse effect, which he never desired ; — and 
(/) {d\ where, even though the effect resembles the 
cause, yet their qualities and actions are mutually con- 
tradictory ; — this is the four-fold Incongruous, c Visama \ 
so called because it is the reverse of congruity ' {Sama). 

Examples in order — 

(a) ' Where on one side is the large-eyed one, with, 
body more tender than the Shins a flower, and 'where, 
on the other, is the fire of love, terrible as straw-fire \ 

' The hare, fearing the son oi Simhikd (lioness) took 
refuge under the Moon ; and yet there also it was swallowed 
by another son of Simhikd (Rahu) \ 

(c) 6 It is sttange that touched in battle by his hand 
his sword, black like the Tamala tree, brings forth fame, 
white like the autumnal moon which adorns the three 
worlds \ 

(d) c O lotus-eyed one, thou impartest extreme joy* 
and yet the separation, brought about by thee, consumes 
mjs body % 


Here the action of imparting joy (belonging to the 
cause, the woman) is incompatible with the consuming oj the 
body (which is the action of the separation, the effect pro- 
duced by that woman.) 

Similarly, die same Incongruity may be traced also in 
such verses as the following — 

€ The Being who sleeps in the ocean, by whose exten- 
sive stomach the worlds had been swallowed, at the time 
of dissolution, was swallowed (so to say) by a certain 
citizen, with her eye only partially opened through the 
intoxication of love \ 126-27. 

XlNlll—Adhika—tht Exceeding. 

When of the Container and the Contained, both 
of which are large, the respective Contained and 
Container, though really smaller, are described as 
larger, — // is the Exceeding. 128, 

c Aslh-Ja ' is the Contained, and * Ashraya 9 is 
its Container ; when, both of them being large, their 
respective Container and Contained, though really smaller 
than the former, are described as larger, — for the purpose 



wfki£<«i*f — 

Wt dfimM d<^c4 5TclRh? Ufajtll $R% II 

3T^^5r1%i^rf^5^T^^ icT ^^^^ftw i tot 3Rt^ 

of delineating the superiority of the object described, — » 
this constitutes the two kinds of the figure ' Exceeding \ 
Examples in order — 

(a) ' O King, the inside of the three worlds is really 
extensive, inasmuch as the mass of your fame, though 
really too large to be contained, becomes contained 
in it \ 

(b) ' Visnu, — in whom, when he had withdrawn him- 
self at the time of the cosmic dissolution, the worlds 
became freely contained,— could not contain in his body 
the joy produced by the arrival of the saint \ 128. 

XLIX — Pratyanlfea — Hostile. 

It is the Hostile, when a person, unable to injure 

his enemy, is described as offering an insult to a 

relative of that enemy, — such description tending to 

eulogise this latter. 129. 

A man has an enemy who is ever insulting him, 

and whom he himself is unable to injure; under the 

dmimstaaces, if he offers an insult to some one else de- 


^T^FfT — 


pendant upon that enemy, — which action of his tends to 
add to the prestige of this latter, — it is called the figure 
c Hostile', e Pratyanlka ' ; — so called because it is ana- 
logical to the case of the * substitute of an army (atiikd). — - 
Just as, having to fight with an army, one, through 
ignorance, fights with something else that appears in it- 
self, — so, in the case in question, the enemy being the person 
to fight, the person goes out to fight a relation of his. 

Example. — 

* You are one who have subdued the beauty of the 

' Love-god, and O beautiful one, she is attached to you ; 

for this reason the Love-god, though hated as it were,, 

strikes her simultaneously with all his five arrows \ 

Another example—* 

' Being unable to injure Visnu himself, — with whom 

his enmity was brought about by the cutting off of the 

head,— Rahu even now 1 , continues to attack the Moon > 

who resembles the beautiful face of Visnu '. 

The moon in this case, though not related directly to 

Visnu, is represented as related to him indirectly— /. <?., 

being related to the face which is directly related to 

Visnu. 129- 


^q[ f%fer ^^^5 ^f^Rt^T ^??WJfT fciTt^qt 

• gr^r ^r ,*&$&: f^r^tfq" ^sw iiwm 

L. Mi/ita— The Obscured 
When one thing is obscured by another, through a 
common characteristic, innate or adventitious, — // 
is the Obscured. 130. 
Between two things there is a certain common 
characteristic, which may be either (a) innate or (b) ad- 
ventitious ; — through this, when one of those things is 
obscured, (hidden from view) by the other, by reason of 
this latter being naturally more powerful, — this is the 
figure Obscured, which they declare to be of two kinds ; 
of which the following are the respective examples — » 
(a) [The obscuring being done through an innate 
characteristic] — 

* The eyes are tremulous in the corners ; words sweet 
and artful, the movement graceful and languid, the face 
extremely light ; — all this has appeared naturally in the 
tender body of the fawn-eyed one through lasciviousness ; 
so that no sign of intoxication is perceptible in her body \ 


The tremulousness of the eyes and the other signs are 
natural characteristics, common to lasciviousness and 
intoxication,— all of them being found in the latter also. 

[And through these, the more powerful, /. e. a better known, 
lasciviousness, serves to obscure, hide from view, the intoxication.] 

(b) [Where the obscuring is done through adventi- 
tious characteristics.] — 

' When, with minds full of fear of being attacked by 
you, your helpless enemies are living in the caves of the 
Himalaya, — even though they have their bodies thrilled 
and shivering, their fright is not perceptible even to the 
most intelligent \ 

The feeling of cold, which is implied by the force of the 
character of the Himalaya, is something adventitious (not 
innate to the body) ; and hence thrill and the shivering also, 
which are effects of that feeling, are adventitious conditions ; 
and these are ' common ', being found to be present in the 
•case of fear also. 

[And here the more apparent thing, the cold due to the Himalaya, 
serves to obscure the other thing, fear.] 130 


w^nf^f^Rrfe^nr'TFf few: f^nw^rn^v^ii 

LI — EAdvali—Neckl&cc. 
Where [among a number of things] the succeeding thing 
is either (a) affirmed or (b) denied, as qualifying 
the preceding things, — it is the Necklace, which is of 
two kinds. 131 
When among a number of things, when one 
succeeding thing after another, is found to be either 
(a) affirmed or denied, as belonging to the preceding, — 
it is the figure which the learned call ' Necklace ' ; and 
this is of two kinds, of which the following are the res* 
pective examples. 

(a) [Where there is affirmation.] — 

c The city there contained excellent women ; the 
excellent women were adorned with beauty ; their beauty 
was teeming with lasciviousness : and lasciviousness is 
the weapon of the Love-god \ 

(b) [Where there is denial.]— 

'It is not water which does not contain beautiful 
lotuses ; it is not lotus which does not contain the hidden 
black bee ; it is not a black bee which hums not sweetly ; 


^ c C C 


and it is no humming which does not captivate the 
heart \ 

In the former example (a) we have die affirmation 
of a series of qualifications wjj\, the excellent women, 
of the city, — the beauty of the women through their 
body, — lascivious graces of the beauty,— and the character 
of weapon of the graces. And in the latter example (b) 
we have a denial of a series of qualifications, which 
can be similarly explained, 131. 

LIL — Smarana — Reminiscence. 

When on the perception of & thing similar to it, there 
is remembrance oj an object as previously per- 
ceived, — // is Reminiscence. 

When a certain object, with a certain well-defined 
character, has been perceived at some time,— and, 
•at some subsequent time, on the perception of a 
thing similar to it, which serves to arouse the impression 
conducive to remembrance, if it becomes remembered 
just as it had been perceived before,— this would con- 
stitute Reminiscence. 

450 kAvyaprakasa 

^41^ W — 

f^H^ir^rf^:^ q^r: "^rf^t =3^rt ^ftf^r: i 

cT^T#: fpt: ^HTTPI: ^iPwi: SR^FCWFTFT \\\\o\{ 

^^wi^spror^r w^ + u ^w 'dm^f iiv^u 

Example — 

' When the ripples of water flowed into the deep 
navels of the girls with tremulous eyes, the celestial 
damsels were reminded, by the cooing sound thereia 
produced, of the cooing issuing from their own throats 
during dalliance \ 

Another example — 

"Bow down to the thrill in Krsna's body, which 
appeared at the recollection of his Pdnchajanya Conch, 
at the time when he held with his hands Yashoda's breasts 
with his lips at the nipples ', 

LIII . — Bhrdntimdn — Illusion. 

When there is cognition of another thing, at the sight of a 
thing similar to it, — // is Illusion. 132. 

* It * and the term c another thing \ refer to some* 
thing not forming the subject of the statement ; 
— what is * similar to it ' is, in the present context, the 
thing that forms the subject-matter of the statement ;-* 
when at ' sight \ or perception of this latter, there appears 


^ * y "V 

a cognition (idea) of it as the c other \—i. e. , the thing not 
forming the subject of the statement,— it is the figure 
' c Illusion \ 

This is not the same as either Metaphor or Hyperbole ; 
•as in these latter there is no real illusion* while in the' present 
instance, the illusion is manifest, as is clear from the fact 
that the name ' Illusion ' is applied to it in the literal sense. 
' When the cat sees the moon's rays in the bowl, it 
.mistakes them for milk and proceeds to lap it ; when the 
•elephant sees them entering through the interstices in 
the trees, it mistakes them for the lotus-stalk, and proceeds 
to collect them ; when the woman sees them on her bed, 
■at the end of dalliance, she mistakes them .for her cloth 
and proceeds to pick them up :— Thus the moon, madden- 
ed with his resplendence, deludes the whole world \ 132. 
LIV. Pratlpa— -The Converse. 

(a) Where there is discarding of the object com- 
pared to, or (b) where that object itselj is treated, with 
a view to its being condemned, as the object compared, — • 
/"/ is the Converse. 133. 

452 kavyaprakXsa 

sift «r ?r?n:Tnwf#^ $t£ 5ft^ftr% #*Nft ?^ 

\» \d v? >o -\ 

5*£ t% wfer: fwr fsrf^n <JTT frfcTTfof 
f%?cTRc?m^t^t^t%^ifVTOT: f^8FTT^T: \\\\V* 

(*) When the object compared is ' discarded ' as 
being superfluous, the idea being that its functions can. 
be easily served by the object compared itself ; — or (by 
when what is known as the object compared to is treated as 
the object compared, with a view to its being condemned in 
favour of another object compared to ; — these two conditions, 
constitute the two kinds of Converse, 'Pratfpa 9 ; — so 
called because the object compared stands here as inimical 
(pratikuld) to the object compared to. 

Examples in order — 

(a) ' O King, after the Creator had created you, the 
receptacle of beauty, endowed with supreme glory, fore- 
most among the generous, and capable of bearing the 
burden of supporting the Earth, — why did he create 
the Moon ? For what purpose was the Sun created ?' 
Why too was the Desire-gem produced ? and why were 
the leading Mountains created without any purpose ?* 
, [Here all the objects compared to have been discarded as useless.], 

(b) * Come, O beautiful one, and just lend your ears 



w^^nfrr fefer ftftr ^| ?pt iftercfosTTfr 1 i VVO i 

to hear the calumny that is spreading : O slender-waisted 
■one, people are comparing the Moon to your face !' 

The idea here is that the Moon which is compared to 
the face being possessed of inferior qualities, the com- 
parison is not correctly accomplished, and this contempt 
{for the Moon) is suggested by the word c calumny \ 

In some cases, the contempt is indicated by a com- 
parison that is correctly accomplished. For instance, in 
the following — 

* O deluded one, wherefore do you entertain bound- 
less pride on account of your eyes ? There are in the 
lakes on all sides, blue lotuses which are like them \ 

Here the contempt for the lotuses consists in their being 
made the objects compared. 

In the same manner, when an object, possessed of a 
unique property, not belonging to any other thing, and 
Taence never recognised as similar (/. e., bearing comparison) 
to anything, — is represented as an object to which someth- 
ing is compared, — this also is to be regarded as an instance 
of the figure, Converse. For instance, in the following-— 

454 k-Wyaprakasa 

1% ^PSTfS m^r *TT FT ^T: I 

Tc^Rf^TTS^mt^f^^r u 
STcTTf^fTfT cTR^RRT tWsTcT ^ STSr^cfT^r^ 

^^^Wr^T^RF*^ crt^T^Tcr^TT £rs*t# <rt 

o >_ 2i —___—__ — — ■ 

c O Poison, don't you, my friend, be puffed up at the 
idea that you are tne greatest of terrible things : verily 
there abound in this world the words of the wicked, which 
are just as terrible as yourself. 

Here the Poison is represented as the object compared to, 
and this character of it is something entirely inconceivable. 


LV. Samanya — Identifies tion. 

Where, with a view to delineate the presence of 
common properties, the object described is represented 
as identical with another, through its connection with 
this latter, — it is held to be Identification. 134. 
When the speaker desires to describe an object as 
similar to another, to which it is not really similar,— and 
represents it, through its connection with that object, 
as identical with it,— though not renouncing its own quali- 
ties, — it is Identification, c Samanya 9 ; — so called because it 
Is based upon the presence of identical ' (samana) properties.. 
'The women repining for their lovers,— having 


fecRf^^r^ fWFweft ^f*ui*w rarer: t 

their body smeared with sandal-paint, adorned with 
new pearl-necklaces, their faces shining through white 
paint, and clothed in clean white clothes, — become un- 
distinguishable when the moon with its rays has whitened 
the Earth, and thus proceed to the house of their lovers 
comfortably and fearlessly \ 

Here the ground of identification consists in the quality 
of whiteness, which is represented as being of the same 
degree as — neither more nor less than,— that in the object 
described (the women) and the other thing (moonlight; ; 
and for this reason the two objects themselves are not 
recognised as distinct. 

Another example — 

'Who could have recognised the cbawpaka-ftcwtts. 
hanging from their ears over the cheeks of young women, 
with complexion like the cane-bark,— if the black bees 
had not gracefully hovered over them ?' 

Here the cognition of difference, though produced 
by other causes (the hovering of the bees), is not able to 


?t^ ^J^f #fa frorfarfire: **m: \\ \\%\\ 

srftr^^T^rfTfr^ qgr stttost ftfro %f<n> 

wrfcr sr*rf% fane: ^arfaf wfr *t ^ ^rbt: i i v\^ it 

shake off the identity perceived before (the mention of 
the distinguishing bees) ; for the simple reason that this 
identity has been recognised, and what has been recog- 
nised once cannot be completely set aside. 134. 

LVI — • Vishesa — Extraordinary. 

(a) When the contained is represented as existing 
without its recognised container, — {b) when one thing 
is represented as subsisting, in the same form, and 
at the same time, in several things ; — and (c) where, 
while a person is engaged in the doing of one thing, he 
is described as accomplishing, in the same manner, a 
different thing, which (in reality) is not capable of being 
accomplished (by that same effort) ; — it constitutes 
what has been described as the figure Extraordinary 
with its three varieties. 135-36. 

(a) When the recognised container or receptacle 
of a thing, is omitted, and the contained is described 
as subsisting in a peculiar manner (/. e., without a 
sreceptaclej, — it is the first variety of the Extraordinary. 


*n ^n[ fp« tipfl? ^rr fc^sr sr^tf *rr st^tw i 

Example — 

c Wherefore should the poets not be regarded as objects 
of reverence, — whose words, grand with infinite beauty, 
continue to rejoice the worlds, to the very end of the cycle,, 
even after the poets themselves have departed to heaven > 

(b) When a single thing is described as subsisting ia 
the same form, in several things simultaneously, — it is. 
the second kind of the Extraordinary. Example — ■ 

c She resides in your heart, in your eyes and in your 
Words ; where can there be any room for wretched beings 
like myself ?' 

{a) It is another kind of the Extraordinary where a 
person, proceeding in a hurry to do something, is des- 
cribed as accomplishing another thing, which is not 
capable of being accomplished by the same effort. Ex- 

' When the Creator was creating you, with your res- 
plendent form, dazzling glory and flawless learning, — 
he actually created a new Love-god, a new Sun and a new 
Brhaspati on the Earth \ 

458 kAvyaprakasa 

Another example of the same — 
c When cruel Death deprived me of you — who were 
my wife, counsellor, confidante and beloved pupil in the 
graceful arts, — oh ! what is there that he did not deprive 
me of ?' 

In all these cases (of the Extraordinary), artistic ex- 
pression forms the very essence ; as without it they would 
almost cease to be ornamental (figures of speech; at all. 
It is for this reason that the following statement has been 
made (by Bhamaha and others)— c Artistic expression is 
present everywhere ; it is by this that meanings become 
beautified ; it is on this that the poet should concentrate 
his effort ; what figure of speech can there be without 
this ?' 136. 

LVII — Tadguna, — Quality borrowing. 

When a thing, through contact with another possessed 
of extremely brilliant qualities, renounces its onm quality 
and takes up the qualities of that other thing, — it is 
Qstality-borromng* 1 37. 


^?i^wt — 

fwfa?rc*rf wiii^ ^ftTT«n': <rf%: s^^tt i 

When a thing, on contact with another thing, has 
its own character obscured by the superiority of the 
brilliant qualities of the other, and acquires a semblance 
of that thing, it is the figure Quality ^-borrowing-, c Tadguna y — 
so called because there is borrowing of the quality i^guna 9 ) 
>cf that, (' tat '), the thing other than the one described. 

Example — - 

c The sun's horses, having their colour altered by the 
"wide-spreading splendour of Aruna, (the Sun's charioteer, 
the brother of Garuda), were brought back to their own 
colour by the gems, green like the bamboo-sprout \ 

Here the green gems are described as possessed of 
more brilliant qualities than Aruna, whose qualities are 
more brilliant than those of the Sun's horses. 

LVIIL — Atadguw — Non-borrowing of Qualities. 

If> however, there is no absorbing by the one from the 
other, it is the Non-borrowing of qualities. 

In a case," where the thing with iaferior qualities 

♦does not absorb the form of the other thing, — even 

.when such absorption is possible, — then it is the figur 

siamed ' Non-borrowing of Qualities \ 

460 kavyapraka^a 

^n^wr — 

<fa V3 s^fcPFT ^ sifter ^ftPr fqfttiid Trcfasftw 

Example — 
. ' Though you are yourself white (fair), yet you 
have made my heart red (affected by love) ; but though, 
enshrined in my heart which is full of redness (love;,, 
you have not been reddened (made to lovej '. 

Here the expression of the idea that c though the 
man, even in contact with very much reddened mind, has. 
not become red ' involves the figure of € Non-borrowing, 
of Qualities 9 . 

In the text, the pronoun c tat \ (' the one ') may standi 
for the object ether than the one described, and ' asya \ 
( c the other ') for the object described ; so that the defini- 
tion may also be taken to mean that when, for some reasoo. 
the character of the other object is not absorbed by the bbject 
described, then it is the Non-borrowing of Qualities. 
. For example — 

c O Chief of Swans, when you dip into the white 
water of the Gangd, or in the black water of the YaniunS > 
your own whiteness becomes neither increased nor de- 
creased \ ■ * * ' 


*JIWId': I 4«I^<W — 

LIX — Vydghdta — Frustration. 

When one thing, which has been accomplished, in one way, 
by one person, is turned otherwise in that same way, 
by another,— that is called c Frustration \ 

One man having accomplished a certain object 
l>y a certain means, — if that same object is made, by 
tfhat same means, to become otherwise, by another 
person,— it is the figure * Frustration ', ' Vydghdta'; — so 
called because it is based upon the frustration (yydhati) 
of something that has been accomplished. 

Example — 

'We eulogise the women who revivify, by their 
glances, the Love-god, who was burnt by Shiva, by his 
glance, — and who are thus superior to" this latter god \ 

LX. — Samsrsti — Collocation of Figures. 

When these {figures) are present, distinctly from one another, 
it is Collocation. 138-39. 
• < When the figures of speech described above are 
present, — as far as possible independently of one ano- 
ther,— |n one substratum, — either {a) in the word or (b) 

462 kavyapraka§a 

3RR5^##^ ^fefinssRif wim^ii 

in the meaning or (c) in both,— it is called ' Collocation ', 
because it consists in the co-existence of several in one thing. 
(a) In the following we have the Collocation of two. 
verbal figures of speech — 
■ ' Vadanasaurabhalobhaparibhramad- 

.hhramarasambhramasambhrtashvbhaya v 
Chalitaya vidadhe kalamekhald 

kalakalo lakaloladrshdnyayd* 
' The sweet sound of the girdle-zone was produced, 
by another woman, with her eyes tremulous by reason, 
of her hanging locks tossing about, and her beauty- 
enhanced by the flurry caused by the black bees hovering- 
about her, having been attracted by the sweet fragrance- 
of her mouth '. 

(*) The Collocation of an Ideal and a Verbal Figure 
of Speech, we have in the verse — 

' Lmpatim tamongani etc? (see above, stanza No. 417). 

In the former verse (a) we have the Collocation brought 
about by the verbal figures Alliteration and Chime, whick 


*ft «rfw ^ *tt# aft xrsi H$H^&i3m i 
<rw«r f^^^^f ^ ^f^r^^ff fro** itwu 

stand independent of each other ; and in the latter (b), 
by the two ideal figures, Simple and Poetic Fancy, stand- 
ing independently of each other. 

(c) As an example of the Collocation of a Verbal, and 
Ideal figure of speech, we have the following— 

'So ffattbi ettha game jo earn wahamahantaldaipiatx. 

Taruqana hiaaliidim parisakkanttm nivdrei? 

c There is no one in this village who could restrain 

this young woman loitering about with her exuberant 

charm, captivating the hearts of young men \ 

Here we have Alliteration and Metaphor, indepen- 
dently of each other, and there is connection between 
these,— as they both occur in the same sentence or the 
same verse. 139. 

LXL — Sarifeara. — Commixture. 

(a) When, however, there is a relation of subserviency among 
the said figures of speech, which are incapable 
of independent existence by themselves, — then it is 

464 kavyaprakasa 

When these same figures, incapable of attaining inde- 
pendent existence by themselves, bear to one another 
the relation of helper and helped (/. e., when one helps 
to sustain the other), it is Commixture, c Sankara'; — so 
called because it involves a mixing up of the figures. 

Example — ' O King, when the .wives of your enemies 
are wandering about in the forest, the foresters wrest 
from them emerald crown-jewel, take away the golden 
ear-ornament, snap away the girdle-zone and quickly 
remove the jewelled anklets ; but on seeing the necklace 
of pearls, which has become reddened by the reflection of 
the red colour of their Bimba-like lips, they take it to 
be only a string of red berries and therefore do not 
take it'. 

Here the figure 'Illusion' appears as based upon 
* Quality-borrowing \ and vice versa ; and this comming- 
ling of the two figures is felt by persons possessed of 
poetic sensibility to be extremely charming ; and hence 
k is found that there is c mutual subserviency ' between 
the two. 


3W WF*T 3?*NtT ^R#% ^^R>T ^#^T 
3TfFf^RT5Rftw I 

Another example of the same — 
* Jatdbhdbhirbhdbhih karadhrtakalankdksabalayo 

V'jofSr) a jki /: trivet kalitavairdgyavishadah 


Shashl bhasmdpayduh pitrvana iva vyomni charati \ 

' The Moon roams in the sky, which has its surface 
marked by skulls in the shape of the moon and stars, as 
if it were in a crematorium, — shining, as he does, with the 
colour of the knotted hair, — wearing in his hand (rays) 
the bracelet of rosary-beads, in the shape of the black 
mark, — having attained the purity (whiteness) of dis- 
passion (freedom from redness) consequent upon the 
trouble brought upon separated lovers (the destruction of 
the objects of sense), — and is white like (with) ashes '. 

Here the four Figures, Simile, Metaphor, Poetical 
Fancy, and Pun appear, as in the foregoing verse, to be 
* mutually subservient \ 

When we expound the expression c Kalankdksabalaya y 
as e Kdlanka eva aksabalayam \ (the black mark itself being 
'the bracelet of rosary-beads 3 ), and as such involving the 
figure of Metaphor, — the n the fact of c being held in the 
hand (rays) ' is to be regarded as the basis justifying that 

466 kAvyaprakAsa 

^nTi^I srfcrfe: i ^Nx^|A| in ^ ^f^pq" srsttwt 
«t>«s*^^, ^^^cnrr srfcprftr: i ?r ^tt^ *fn^jcR=r 

Metaphor ; and in this Metaphor it is the ' bracelet of 
rosary-beads ' which appears as the predominant factor, 
entirely hiding from view the c black mark * ; as it is the 
bracelet (and not the black mark) that is universally known 
as c Karadhrta \ c worn in the hand 9 ; this latter factor, of 
being < Karadhrta \ — though really not present in the case 
of the black mark — is imposed upon it figuratively, through 
the force of the Pun (upon the word * kara \ which means 
both hand and rays) aided by the proximity (of the lunar 
" disc), — since it is only on his disc that the Moon wears 
the black mark. 

If, on the other hand, the expression c Kalankdksabalaya ' 
is expounded as * Kalankah asksabalayam iva \ (' the black 
mark which is like the bracelet of rosary-beads '), — thus 
involving a Simile (not a Metaphor),— then it is the 
c black mark ' that comes to be recognised most obtrusively 
(as the principal factor) ;-— but even so, as it is not possible 
for this mark to be ' karadhrta ' (worn in the hand),— if 
it is the predominant factor, for the application of this 
epithet, it would have to be dependent entirely upon the 
said figurative indication' (based upon Pun), 

Commixture of this kind is met with between verbal 
i%are$ also. As for example, in the following — 


m t*H*\Hr\JS\w\4<£\HW f^^fe: MI^AHId M<miW I 

' Rdjati tatlyamabhihataddnavardsdtipdtisdrdvanada 

Gajaid cha yuthamavirataddnavard sdtipdti sard panada/ 
c This place is glorious, where the roaring of demons 
has been subdued and which is adorned with fast-flowing 
murmuring rivers ; and this elephant-herd protects itself, 
glorious with the uninterrupted flow of the ichor, powerful 
and destroying the forest \ 

Here Chime and the Fanciful with convertible parts, 
are contained in the two feet, and are dependent upon 
each other. 

(b) When there is no reason in support of, nor any 
objection against, the recognition of any one {to the 
exclusion of the likely figures), there is Uncertainty 
(irhich form the second variety of Commixture). 140. 

When two or more figures of speech are found toge- 
ther, and by reason of incompatibility, all of them 
cannot be admitted simultaneously, — nor is there any 
reason for accepting any one of them, nor is there any 
objection against the exclusion of others, by virtue of 
which any one only could be admitted, — then there is 

468 kavyapr,akAsa 

^rr^nr — 

Uncertainty ; and this is to be regarded as the second 
variety of Commixture ; — this being the implication of the 
collective particle ' cha ' (in the text), which is meant to 
connect the c commixture ' with the present text. 

For example, in the following verse — ' Hot is it that 
the ocean was not made sweet-watered, by the Creator, 
as it was made deep, rich in gems and bright ?' 

*Hete it is uncertain what figure is meant to be expressed ; 
either (a) Modal Metaphor— involving the recognition of 
an object not meant to be described (the King), when what 
is actually described is the Ocean, — or (b) Indirect Descrip- 
tion, involving the recognition of the object to be described 
(the King), through the mention of an object not meant 
iQ be described (the Ocean), which the former resembles. 

• ,Or, another example (of Uncertainty), in the following 


.•-..•.* This disc of the moon, which is a source of joy 

to the eye, is shining ; and yet even now this darkness, 

■pervading all quarters, stands unpierced \ 


3Tfa*i4l(*[: f%>T 1 14a ft fa ^m Wm dam<1wtid 
wt^tt i ^r 

Here it is Uncertain, whether what is meant is — >(a) 
the indirect assertion of the fact that c the time favourable 
for the manifestation of love has arrived \ — thus involving 
the Figure of Periphrasis ; — or (b) the recognition of the 
Face of the girl as the Moon, — thus involving the figure 
Hyperbole ;— or (c) the imposition of the character of the 
Moon upon the Face, referred to by the pronoun "this , — 
thus involving the figure of Metaphor ; — or (d) the com- 
bination of both (Face and Moon), — thus involving, the 
figure of Illuminator) — or (e) the figure of 'Equal Pairing 
(both Face and Moon being meant to be described) ; 
— or(/)the cognition of the face, through common quali- 
fications and the mention of the evening-time, — thus 
involving the figure of Modal Metaphor ; — or (g) the in- 
troduction of the description of the face,< — thus involving 
the figure of Indirect Description. 

Thus, there being an uncertainty pertaining to several 
figures, this is an instance of the Uncertain Commixture. 

In cases where there are reasons for or against the 
admission of any one of the figures involved, there is 
certainty with regard to that one ; so that in that case 
there is no uncertainty. 


S3 V, ^ > N5. C- 

^<m*r ^r^sf srf^TOT ^r ^rftt ^t^r^tr i 

' The term c nydya ' (in the text) stands for reasons for y 
that is, favourable to, something ; and c dosa * for reasons 
against, opposed to, something. 

(a) In the following passage—' the brightness of the 
smile like moonlight, lends gracefulness to the face-moon % 
— what is recognised as the predominant factor is the 
* brightness of smile/, and this is favourable to the des- 
cription being applicable to the face ; and hence it serves 
as .the reason for the definite recognition of the figure of 
Simile (in the expression c face-moon 9 ) ; and as regards 
the application of the description to the moon, also, the 
said circumstance (of the brightness of Simile being the 
predpminant factor) is not altogether unfavourable ; 
and hence it cannot be regarded as a reason for the admission 
of the. figure of Metaphor (in the same expression < Face- 
moon \j— 

• (by But in the passage—' that this other moon should 
appeat while your face-moon is already present \ — the 
epithet ' other 9 is favourable to the moon being taken as 
the object described, but not entirely unfavourable to the 


t^waprrfa ^ftftr: t^w ii^yoii 

Ji^ being so taken ; and hence it becomes a reori/r 
Ji?r the admission of Metaphor \ but not a ri&f0# against that 
of Simile. 

(*) In the passage—' The Goddess of Wealth firmly 
embraces you, the King-Visyu V— the mention of c em- 
bracing * excludes the Simile, as it is not possible (right) 
for the wife of one person to' embrace * another who may 
t>e similar to him. 

(d) In the passage—' may the lotus-feet of Ambika, 
lovely on account . of the jingling of the anklets, ordain 
jour victory ', — the c jingling ' is unfavourable to the 
description applying to the lotus whose jingling is impossible 
and as such, it is a reason against the admission of Metaphor ; 
we do not regard it as a reason for the admission of the 
-Simile, on the ground of its being favourable to its apply- 
ing to the feet, — because the fact of its being a negative 
reason against (Metaphor) is more obtrusively recognised 
than that of its being an affirmative reason for' Simile* 

Similar deductions may be made by the learned in 
other cases also. 

472 kavyaprakaSa 

srarFsr+R^MNfe' tf^ta iiv^ii 

(^) ^4/r^ when, in a single word, both the Verbal 

and the Ideal Figures of Speech are clearly manifest* 

When in one and the same word, both, the Verbal 

and the Ideal Figures of Speech obtain a clear footing, — 

it is another (third) kind of Commixture. 

Example — 

€ Spastollasatkiratjakesarasuryabimba— 
VistJr/jakarmkamatho divasaravindam 
Shlistdsiadigdalakaldpamukhavatara — 
Baddhandhakdramadhupdvali sanchukocha \ 
'The Day-lotus, with the Sun for its pericarp of whick 
the shooting rays are the filaments, — enveloping the 
Night-bee embracing the eight quarters, has become con- 
tracted '. 

Here we have the Commixture of Alliteration an<$ 
Metaphor in single words (in the shape of the two long; 

Thus this (Commixture) has been described as 
having thee forms, 141. 


<»M«r**kMlfolM+K i& Wd szTT^cT: I M+KM<"I g 
^ ?mt sqiWT 3TFP^nrlW^RTMr MfaHlP«Mi: 

f3T: S^T^T ftspft 2Tt#^lt cj^fH <t>|oi|*iftlRl*l4~ 
^^Id^T <^<=I**IWI*M^Rr+K=I 5PT5RT: f^TtTRT- 

Thus has been described Commixture in its three 
forms — (1) that in which one figure aids, and is 
subservient to, the other, (2) where the predominance 
o£ one or the other is doubtful, and (3) where both figures 
manifest themselves in single words. 

• Any other method of sub-dividing it is not advisable, 
:as the number of such divisions would be endless. 

Thus have been described all the Figures of Speech, 
classified under three heads— as pertaining to the word, 
to, the idea and to both. 

Question.—" All Figures of Speech equally being only 
the means of lending charm to poetry, wherefore should 
there be any such restriction as that some figures belong 
to "Swords, others to Ideas, and others again to both Words 
and Ideas ?" 

{ Our answer to this is as follows : — It has already been 
explained that in Poetry, Defects,Excellences and Figures 
of Speech are attributed to Words, Ideas or both, entirely 
on the basis of positive and negative concomitance ; as 

474 kAvyaprakaSa 

vTw: II 

there can be no other determining basis ; consequently a 
Figure of Speech is attributed to one or the other accord- 
ing as it is concomitant, positively as well as negatively* 
with that. So the Semblance of Repetition and the Conse- 
quential Metaphor are attributed to both Word and Idea,, 
because their presence or absence is dependent upon. 
the presence and absence of both. Similarly with the 
'Transition' based upon words and other Figures of speech;, 
even so however the real state of things has been ignored* 
and these latter have been classed among Ideal figures, 
simply because what shines forth in them most prominently 
is the charm of the Idea expressed. 

Even if we accept the principle that ' a figure is to be 
attributed to that on which it rests ', the ultimate criterion 
to be adopted will have to be the before-mentioned 
' positive and negative concomitance \ especially because 
in the absence of these latter there can be no idea of the 
figures subsisting in anything For these reasons it is best 
to accept the said distinction among Figures of Speech, 
entirely on the basis of the said * concomitance \ 141. 


rrerff — smra"^ iiRi^wt tost f %M>i 

Defects are possible in connection with these 
{Figures) also ; but they are such as are likely to be 
included among these already described ; hecnce they 
are not dealt with separately. 142. 
For instance, in connection with Alliteration, three 
defects have been cited ( by the older writers) as 
specially noticeable ; these are — (1) absence of general 
recognition, (2) uselessness and (3) incompatibility of 
diction ; and these do not differ in character respectively 
from (1) being opposed to accepted notions, (2) Irrele- 
vancy and (3) Discordance of letters ; as they have the 
same character as these. Examples in order — • 
(1) [Absence of General Recognition] — 

6 CbakrJ chakrdrapanktim harirapl cha barw, 


Aksam naksatrandthorunamapi varut}ah y 

kubardgram knberah 
Ra///bab samghah surdi}dm jagadupakrtaye 

nltyayuktasya yasya 

Stauti prltiprasanmwahamahimarucheh 

sovatdtsyandano vaL y 


476 kAvtapr,akAsa 

' May that chariot of the Sun bent upon benefitting the 
world, protect you, whose line of spokes is daily recognised 
with pleasure by Visnu, the horses by Indra, the banners 
by Shiva, the wheel by the Moon, the driver Aruna by 
Varuna, the poles by Kubera and the speed by the hosts 
of gods r 

The series of Agents and the Acts attributed to them 
here are all such as have been assumed for the purposes 
of Alliteration, and no such acts are found to have been 
described in the Itihasas or Puranas. So that this is only 
a case of ' contraxity to prevailing notions \ 

(2) [Usekssness] — 

' Bhana taruni rama^amandiramdnandasyandi- 

' sundarendumukhi 
Yadi sallilollapini gachchasi tat kirn ivadiyam me . 


Parisaranamarmmcharane ranaranakamakd- . 

ranam 'kurute.* 
c O young girl, with face as bright as the joyous moon, 
who converse sweetly and whose feet are red ! at the time 
that you are" going to your husband, your movement, 
accompanied by the tingling girdle2one and jingling 
anklets, produce without, reason, a peculiar anxiety in 
my heart ; — tell me why this is so \ 


The idea expressed here is one in which, however 
much we ponder over it, we perceive no charm; hence 
the * uselessness ' of the Alliteration is only what has been 
described above as * Irrelevancy \ 

(3) [ Incompatibility of Diction ] — 
c Aku&tbotkaptbayd<&c. } <&c.,(ste above, stanza No. 207). 

Here, the bombast of harsh words is incompatible 
with the delineation of the Erotic Passion, in accordance 
with what has been said before (in Chapter VII) ; so that 
the defect of c incompatibility of diction ' in this Allitera- 
tion is nothing more than the presence of ' discordant 
letters '. 

The presence of chiming in three feet of a verse, which 
has been mentioned as a defect in connection with Chime y 
is only 'opposition to usage'; <?. g., in the following 
verse — 

* 'hhujangc masyeva manih sadambhd 
Grdhdvaklrneva nadl sadambhdh 
Durantatdfmmjayatopi jantoh 
Karsanti chetab prasabhath sadambhdh! 

478 kAvyaprakAsa 

^f^t^fj- ^ "*rFT"^f ^^Tfer im^u 

m 4*i , i*ni*n«i^'Mi+> r=i<Nd i 

TTTCt ^T^PT t«TT feftft^rf^T SRT: IIV^N 

c Deceitful people, though* beating testimony to their 
wicked heart, yet succeed in attracting the hearts of 
simple people, — just as is done by the pure and brilliant 
hood-gem of the serpent, and by the clear-watered streams 
full of alligators \ 

The defect mentioned in connection with Simile is 
the inferiority or superiority of the object compared 'to (to 
the object compared), in point of kind and degree ;-^and 
this is only what has been described as ' Impropriety* of 
meaning ;— while the inferiority and superiority as regard 
the properties (of the two objects) do not differ from what 
has been described as c deficiency of words ' or c redundancy 
of words \ 

For Example — 

(1) [ Inferiority in kind] — 

c You took a very bold step, like Chatjddlas ' 

(2) [ Inferiority in degree ] — • 

c The Sun is shining like a* spark of fire \ 

(3) [ Superiority in kind]-— 

c This Chakravakabird, seated on the lotus-seat^ looks 
beautiful, — just like the revered Creator going to create 
the people at the beginning of the Cycle \ 



*r turrit: snj^cRri iff *Fft?nffrf q^m t w \ • t 

(4) [ Superiority in degree ] — 

' Thy navel is like the nether regions, thy breasts are like 
mountains and thy looks like the stream of the Yamuna \ 

In all these instances, the objects described, by being 
compared to the things mentioned, have been very much 
depreciated ; and this involves the defect of ' impropriety 
of meaning * (already described in Chap. VII.) 

In the passage—' The sage, wearing the girdle and the 
skin of the antelope, appeared like the sun interspersed 
among masses of blue clouds ',— it is found that in connec- 
tion with the object compared to (the Sun), nothing (like the 
lightning, for instance) has been mentioned as correspond- 
ing to the c girdle ' of the object compared ; and this is only 
a c deficiency of words \ 

In the passage — ' Krsna, dressed in yellow cloth and 
holding his bow assumed a body at once beautiful 
and terrible,— like the nocturnal cloud accompanied by 
lightning and the rainbow and the Moon \— in the absence 

480 kAvyaprakAsa 

wfw<t ;p% i rr^r 14+d <*4«i d4*Um«m[e|4id: 


of any mention of the <r<m# and other things in connec- 
tion with the object compared (Krsna), the mention of the 
moon is superfluous ; and this involves the defect of 
* Redundancy ' (already described under chapter VII). 
Further, the diversity in gender and number, of the 
object compared and that compared to (which has been des- 
cribed as a defect of Similej,— if it bring about some di- 
versity in the form of the word mentioning the common 
property, it is only the defect which has been described as 
c Broken Uniformity ;' because in such a case the said 
property belonging to only one of the two objects, the 
objects could be regarded either as * the object compared *" 
or * the object compared a to > on the basis of that property 
only in a qualified (and not original) form ; and this would 
mean that the idea started with could not be sustained* 
For example, in the following instances — < 

(a) c Chintdratnamiva chyntosi karato dhin mandabhdgyasja 

me 9 

' You are fallen from my hands, like the Chintdmam,— 
unlucky that I am l' [ where the past-participle ' chyutah 9 
being in the masculine gender, can be, construed only with 
the man described, and not with c ratnam \ which is in the 
neuter gender,[ ;— and also in the passage — (b) * Saktavo 

-CJtAPTER. X 481 

^"KHW?: srfwt <hPw ^l«W: 11^11 

%m w qrr sftof cretaT f^n" ^r iik^ii 

bhaksitd deva sbuddhdh hdavadhuriva, — ' The clean barley- 
meal was eaten, like pure women ',— [ where the past- 
participle 'bbaksitai' in the plural number cannot be 
construed with ' kulavadhuh' in the singular,] 

In those cases however where, even when there is 
diversity of gender and number, there is no consequent 
alteration in the word denoting the common property, — - 
it does not involve the said defect ; as the common pro- 
perty remains. capable of being connected with both the 
objects concerned. - For example, in the following pass- 
ages — (a) c Gunairanargfayaih prathito ratnairiva mabdrpavab ' 
[ He is famous for bis valuable qualities, as the ocean for 
his gems] [where though the genders of the nouns 

* ratnaih 9 and c gunaih ' are different, yet that does not 
make any difference in the form of the connected word 

* pratbitah '] ; — or in the passage — (b) * Tadveso ' sadrshonya- 
bhih stribhirmadhuratdbhrtah dadbate sma pardm sbobbdm 
iadlyd vibbramd ha' — Her apparel was lovely as her 
graces, sweet and unequalled by other women ' ; [ where 

..the compounds, ending with c sadrshah* and * bbrtab 9 
are such as can be made applicable to both nouns < vesah \ 
singular and ' vibhramdh \ plural.] 


3#fo ^TFT ^TfcFfTcr 4/HI4 f^ft I 

Diversity in Tense, Person, and the Imperative and 
other endings interferes with the clear comprehension of 
the idea ; so that this also would be included under 
* Broken Uniformity \ For example, in the passage — • 
' Atithim ndma kdkutsihdi putramdpa kumudvatl, pashchimdd 
ydminlydmdt prasddamiva chiand ? — c Kumudvati obtained 
from Kakutstha, the son named c Atitbi ' — just as Intellect 
obtains enlightenment from the last quarter of the night ', — 
where the verb as applying to the Intellect should be in the 
present tense — € dpnoti \ — and not in the past, ' dpa 9 ; hence 
here we have diversity of tense (which mars the clear 
comprehension of the Simile). 

And in the following passage—* 

* PratyagfVi/j.^JJrKif'. Krhw^&tMvstrtih 
vibhrdjase makaraketanamarchyantl 
bdlaprabdlavitapaprabhavd lateva \ 

c Having the body brightened by a fresh bath and. 
clothed in a dress coloured red with Kmtmbba, while 
thou art worshipping the Love-god, thou shinest like a 
, creeper growing out of the branch of a tree with fresh 
leaves \ — the proper verb with 6 lata ' would have 
been * vibhrdjate \ in the third person ; and as this would 


i^fr sre^i # srt^r #%r r 1 ^ % ^ \ \ 

^wft fa#: I l^STRfhT^PT ^T^TFTPT^T ^M^H^<HW- 

mean a change consequent upon the last portion of the 
verb referring to the person addressed being applied to 
-an object not addressed ; and thus there comes about 
•a diversity in the Person. 

In the passage c Gangeva pravahatu te sadaiva klrtih ' — 

< May your reputation flow on for ever like the Ganga' — 
the form of the verb applicable to ' Ganga ' would be 

< pravahati ' and not c provahatu ' ; so that the text involves 
the diversity of the Imperative, whose function lies in 
urging that which is not already engaged in the work 
(which in this case is the c Reputation \ and not the Ganga, 
which is always flowing). 

Many such diversities of the injunctive and other 
factors are possible, as most of them are not applicable 
to the object compared to. 

An objection is raised—" As a matter of fact, the con- 
ditions of the Simile are fulfilled when a property common 
to the two objects has been comprehended, either as ex- 
pressed l>y the words uttered or implied ; and when the 


object compared is found to be possessed of this property, 
there is nothing objectionable in any diversity that there 
may be as regards the tense and other details. Even in 
cases where the Simile is comprehended through a directly 
expressed common property, — e. g., in such expressions 
as 'he tells the truth like Yudhisthira ',— the idea we 
derive from it is that—' this person, who is as truthful 
as Yudhisthira, tells the truth *. It need not be argued 
against this that such an expression as 'the truthful 
man tells the truth ' involves a tautology. — Because the 
idea derived is that ' by telling the truth this man is. 
truthful like Yudhisthira *; and this stands on the same 
footing as such (seemingly tautological; expressions as 
* raiposam pusndti \ ' he develops with the development 
of wealth 9 \ 

All this is quite true. But this can be a justification, 
only for such expressions as are actually found in standard 
works ; but such usage cannot be regarded as entirely 
unobjectionable ; for in reality it does mar the due com- 
prehension of the thing meant to be described. 

On this point the only right judges are persons endowed 
,with poetic sensibility. 

"- As regards the defects of 'absence of similitude" 



3TW m^m ^fwn srqrfai ^ Tforftr: m^' 

scWPrmfa ^nrr^f sr#5rrc*r ^ ^r ?m ^t 
t qr«mr5^tfq- ^^wtft gTspwr 3T%<rrcfw Vrfcr- 

and * impossibility ', which have been attributed to Simile,— 

these are included under the ' Impropriety of Meaning \ 

For example, in the expression c I am stringing the moon 

of poetry with the rays of ideas ',— Poetry is described as 

similar to the Moon, and Ideas to the rays ; while as a 

matter of fact, no such similarity is known to any one ; 

hence here we have the defect of the ' Impropriety of 
meaning \ 

Similarly in the following verse—' Out of the mouth 
of the king who was occupying the centre of the bow- 
circle, there fell resplendent arrows, like the flaming 
■showers of rain from the encircled Sun occupying the 
.meridian sky ;'— the c falling of the flaming showers of 
rain out of the solar disc 9 is an impossible phenomenon ; 
hence the expression of such an idea only serves to lend 
support to the idea that it is c improper \ 

In Poetical Fancy also, the fancy or imagination or 

486 kavyaprakAsa 

assumption can be expressed by only such things as 
6 dhruva ' ' iva ' and so forth, — and not such terms as 
4 jathd ' and the like ; as all that the latter, by itself, signifies, 
is the presence of a common property, which is not in- 
tended to be expressed in Poetical Fancy. Hence when- 
ever the assumption involved in this latter figure is ex- 
pressed by c yathd 9 or some such word, it involves the 
defect of * In-expressiveness \ For example, in the 
following verse, — 

' * The tender lotus-bud rose from amidst the tank,— 
shut up as being afraid of the superior elegance of the 
girl's eyes ';— • [where the term c yatha\ c as ', is not ex- 
pressive' of the idea of ' as it were ', which is what the. 
Poetic Fancy requires]. 

Another defect attributed to the Figure of Poetic- 
Fancy is ' objectlessness ' (' nirvisajatva ';, which has been 
found in those cases of Poetic Fancy where what is imagined 
(fancied, or assumed) having no real existence, and hence- 
being as good as non-existent,— <a ' Transition ' is put 
forward for its justification, and this * Transition ' is- 
as improper as painting in the sky. — But here also the 
defect is that of € Improper Signification \ For example^ 
in the followiag verse— 

•CHAPTER "X * 487 

r^f%?ft'rfi¥^N'f^T^l«dr+i<=iirfc|chK^ i 

8|£ft^TOT 5TT# ^H+h^ : fi | <q|*kOc| n^oolt 

' Who, during the day, protects, from the sun, Dark- 
ness, which, is as it were, afraid and hidden among the 
caves : Persons with magnanimity (high heads J sympathise 
even with an insignificant thing that seeks shelter with, 
them \ 

Here, in the first place, it is not possible for Darkness* 
which is an insentient thing, to have any fear from the 
sun ; wherefore then could there be any protection by the 
mountain, incited by that fear ? And yet there is no 
incongruity in the imaginary semblance of fear (which, 
is all that the Poetic Fancy has set forth) ; so that the attempt 
(made in the second line) to justify the preceding state- 
ment (by means of ' Transition *) is entirely unnecessary. 

Another defect attributed to the figure of Modal 
Metaphor is ' anupadeyatva\ ' unmentionability % which 
has been found in cases where, — the particular object 
compared to, which is not expressly stated, is indicated 
by the figure (Modal Metaphor), through the force of 
common epithets,— yet the said object is mentioned again, 
for which really there is no use at all This however,. 

488 kAvtapraka^a 

^d^*< mm Pm $n i few ,^R <q i ftrenfi" forfarer uwu 

tfa^l^HKM^ II 

is the same as the defect of either c Irrelevancy 'or c Tauto- 
logy" (already described under chapter VII). For 
example, in the following verse, — 

c Sprshati tigmaruchau kakubhah karair 

Dayitayeva vijrmbhitatdpayd 

Atanumdnaparigrahayd sthitam 

Rnchirayd chiraydpi dina$hriyd\ 
* On the sun touching the quarters with his hands 
(rays), day-light oppressed with grief (heat), continued 
to be indignant j or a long time (of long duration), just like 
a girl beloved of him '. 

Here, through the force of the common epithets, 
and through the choice of the genders of the nouns 
used, it is clearly indicated that the Sun is the lover .and 
the quarters, the loved woman ; equally clearly would 
it also be indicated that the Summer Day-light is the 
rival-beloved ; so that where was the use of his being 
mentioned directly by the term ' dayitayd 9 c girl beloved ' ? 

[ It would not be right to contend that the use of the 

addition of the word in question serves to make the figure 

* the Pmning Simile ; because [ as a matter of fact, it is a 

case of Pmning Simile .where, even on the mention of the 


^ ^ *&vew#& *ll*«M><£KI&kll 1 
5TH Id-H til cj Kc( m 4-^^«Q f^d M < I II VR lllfrll 

sm^M^wRft T&wm sr^" Ttwr srcftcf ?r 

common properties, the Simile is not comprehended, 
unless the object compared to is also mentioned. For example, 
in the verse^ — c Svayancha pallavatdmra etc. etc. ' (See 
above, stanza No 377), [ where, if the ' dawn ' had not 
been mentioned, the Simile could not have been grasped ]. 
; Similarly in the figure Indirect Description also, the 
object compared should be comprehended in the same 
manner (/. e. by the force of common epithets;, and 
should not be degraded by being directly mentioned. For 
example, in the following verse.— 

c On flying objects being invited, even the mosquito,, 
if it comes, is not prevented ; even the coral lying in the 
bed of the ocean bears the splendour of a gem ; the firefly- 
also is not excluded from among shining objects ; — fie upon 
this unintelligent and indiscriminate classification, 
which resembles a dull and unappreciative master ',— the 
unintelligent master being already indicated by the mention 
of such common properties as are not meant to be des- 
cribed, — it was not right to mention him by name. 


^fww ^rrerr sRnrffon': ^r t^f srRi'mwrt- 
^r HPff ftgqf »f^: srfr w w i 

Thus it is found that the defects that have been attri- 
buted (by older writers) Figures of Speech, as aUo other 
similar defects, are all included among the general defects 
already described (under Chapter VII) ; and as such, 
they should not be described separately 142. 
Thus is the Exposition of Poetry concluded. 
That this high-way (of Rhetoric), though divergent, 
through the agency of learned writers, yet appears to be 
one, is nothing strange ; as the reason for this lies in a 
properly planned collation. [ Or, that this work, though 
composed by different authors, yet appears as one organic 
whole, is nothing strange ; as the reason for this lies 
in a properly planned execution of the work.] 

Thus ends Chapter X of the Kavyaprakasha dealing 
with Ideal Figures of Speech 


Alphabetical Index of Sanskrit Terms 


3T3ST*t is: (star) (Untimely Interruption) . . 284 

mv*i 5C«R (st° ) (Untimely Introduction) . . 284 

* vmmt (sto ) (Absence of Uniformity) . . 239 

3WMf(*| (Explicit Suggestion) . . . . 28, 120 

aqfFrcf^regfcT: (s>o ) (Profuse Description of 

the Subordinate Element) . . . . 285 

STfrF^m^: s>pt: (arsfarrc) (Commixture) . . 463 
^rf^SR^^TR (itoy (Neglect of the Principal 

- Element) . . .. 285 

3*cre*pr: (sro) (Non-borrowing of Qualities) .. 459 

^Rmtf^cr: (3To) (Hyperbole) .. .. 390 

3Tc?T^^?^^^T5^e^r: (Suggestion wherein the . . 

Expressed Meaning is altogether neglected) . . 48 

^sttrstsw (Third Class Poetry) . . , . 7 

srfrot^ 3T° (The Exceeding) . . . . 443 

sfwrorr (st<>) (Redundant Word) .. . . 216 

SCffer^TOcTT ^fa**[*T: • ; . • . •- . . . 275 
aw$*wiftrartf (**°) (Celebration of an Unim- 
portant Object) . . . . . . 288 

araranr; (sto) (Comparison Absolute) .. 365 
8Rfa%WM<u (sto) (Omission of a Neces- 
sary Statement) . . . . . . 225 

sH<fl$dc4 (*>o ) (Monotony) . . . . , . 250 

srfasft rtmm (st° ) (Specification of the Un- 

specifiable) . . . . , . 250 

^ m ^ H^rrcstam (No Defect in Imitation) . . 263 

^feETTOtT (*t° ) (Improper Significance) . . 169 

3PT5rm: (sr°) (Alliteration) .. .. 219 

492 kavyaprakAsa 

^radsT: ^»pRfantntf*OT (Defects in Al- 
literation) . . . . . . . . 477 

OTf^ w^qm (do) (Far-fetched Significa- 
tion of the Ensuant) . . . . . . 282 

wwm («ro) (Inference) .. . . .. 421 

^^rar^^RTT (do) (Improper Adjunct) , . 433 

apifcFT (^°) (Reciprocal) ♦ . .. ,. 216 

st^^st (do) (Misplaced) . . .. . . 254 

amr?F«q^n| (Subservient to something else) > . 121 

src^far (Concealment) .. . . . . 377 

^sot<tt (Irrelevancy) . . . . . . 242 

srecftacsf (do) (Unintelligibility) «. . . 175 

sretfta^ wfar^jq: . ^ . . . • . . 271 

WR^TrrT (do) (Non-usage) .. . . .. 168 

STJR^TcTT W^f^Rr H d*T. . • . . . . 268 

wjwsratat w^fardsnr • . .. «. 207 

sm^TSRTHT (sto) (Indirect Description) .. 383 

SWtrgtfM^l^rP^TT: . . . • . . * . 383 

3T5rctpr$T5f smrc: d<*:, wpft&&&fom . * .. 489 

snr^TcnTk: (do) (Want of Intended Con- 
nection) ,. .. .. .. 219 

srf^^nf^rrc: (Denotation) . . . . . . 17 

SFRNTMm (do) (Undesirable Second Inten- 
tion) .. .. .. .. 241 

*arf^nwhPTT: (Non-acceptance of Excellences 

of Meaning) . . . . . . . . 311 

artftpRPWW (Fanciful Meaning) .. .. 161 

m f^r^r srgWT (Many Forms of Fanciful 

Meaning) .. ... .. . . 164 

srffWhn^rc^ (Example of Fanciful Meaning) . . 163 

m$mt (Defects of Sense) .. t . . 241 

**fan (Kinds of Meaning) ».. .. 9 

INDEX 493 


amoirf^T: (wirvr:) (Expression of Meaning as 

belonging to Meaning) . . . . . . 310 

sT^NrfecT: (stsstit:) (Expression of Meaning as 

belonging to Words) . . . . . . 31 1 

3T#3*3=3TcflcTT (Suggestion belonging to Meanings) 10 

ctfats^re^rert wsz&t m^xwH (Help of Words in 

the Suggestiveness of Meanings) . . . . 39 

sR^cT^«^rf%>TR: (Divisions of Sugges- 
tion based on power of Meaning) . . 82 

^^q^^^^PTPj^T^TTpT (Examples of 
Suggestion based on the power of Mean- 
ings) . . . . . . . . . . 82 

3r^^^c^sgrf?Tsr^5T^f RSFwac^ (Do. occur- 
ring in context) . • . . . . 103 

sr^Rrc^TS: (3*0) (Transition) .. .. 406 

3T^a^^r*TcRT^s^{?r: (Suggestion where the 
Expressed Meaning is transferred to an- 
other) .. .. .. .. 48 

wfaarOTTOOT (s>°) (Isolation of an Expres- 
sive Word) 219 

^CT^r^^ssrfa: (Process of Suggestion 
where the order of sequence is imper- 
ceptible) . . . . — . . 50 
^^^^TOW^^a^': . . • . . . 475 
«i^rc35$r»r*| (Definition of Figure of Speech, . . 301 

sT^Rrof $Ts?mcrc% fwiTOHl (Grounds of dis- 
tinguishing Figures into Verbal and 
Ideal) , 336, 473 

witHkIC (s><>) (Inexpressiveness) . . . . 170 

^^ssfaw^ (Hoy (Suppression of the 

- Predicate) ** ♦ . ♦ . ♦ . 177 



^f^fecf^w^: (Suggestion where the Ex- 

pressed, Meaning is incompatible .,. 


^f^r^f^iisr: (sto) (Restriction of the Un- 



src&fcfflrr (sto ) (Indecorousness of word) 


3r53?fas?rT f3f%$iy»i: 


sre^teTwr (?to ) (Indecorousness of Mean- 



^sqffa: (sro) (Disconnection) 


^^%fa^rewr: (Difference between Discon- 

nection and Contradiction) 


3Rm%T (sto ) (Incapability of giving Sense) . . 


srg^arfftra (Non-beautiful Suggestion j 


s^m^Rcn (*o) (Misplaced Word) 


*lFmw*wram (Ao) (Misplaced Compound) . . 



stfess^^W (Abstruse Suggestion) 


arr^T: (sto ) (Hint; 


3TT«ff 3W (sto ) (Indirect Simile; 


siT«ff w«!»^*rr (Suggestiveness of Meanings; 


4tW<m*U4* (First Class Poetry) 


OT*j(«ro) (Reply) 


g^fT^r mwrf^rasawfw: 


z&m (are) (Poetic Fancy) . . 


^^T^K:, yW^'swHfap* 


3*T?T*$ (*©) (The Exalted) .. 


w<\\m (sr^pr:) (Fanciful Grouping— of 



s^Kdi (^nmipc) (Fanciful Grouping — of 

Words) .. .. 


^ffTOi%fl^fE[^5t% HifasW^l^ddT 





sq^rreforr (slfa:) .. .. '.. 321 

^tot (arc ) . (Simile) . . . . . . 349 

w?^ wfcm * sgrfcT^: . . . . . . 396 

^toto! ^T^Tfw^to: .. .. .. 482 

3«rarot ^sif^s* ^fact ^tac^m; . . .. 483 

wmrtt f^^wssfa: . . . . . . 482 

SWFGff f^^WSF? 3T^t^<TT . . . . 483 

^nR'Tsrr : qs^f^faMsfoW (Twenty-five Forms of 

Simile) . . . . . . 363 

src%s?>RT (sto) (Reciprocal Comparison) .. 365 

^l^f^fcn" (s>o ) (Bluntedness of Visarga) . . 210 

^qreffiHOTT (Inclusive Indication) . . . . 19 

^m&i (3*o ) (Necklace) . . . > . . 447 

stMi^spjw (Floridity defined) . . • . 306 
aTfaftqprcq' sets^t: (Letters Suggestive of 

Floridity) .. .. .. 312 

^f^re^*? ($to ) (Repetition of Words) . . 217 

^f«rcT<rec3TO ipm . . . . . • 233, 276 

qpirfsrefcnftHt * «tfNw*sta: .. . . .. 258 

^e^cfT (?>o ) (Obscurity of Sense) . . 243 

qro^ra**^* (Suggestion manifested by 

Emphasis) . . . . . , 131 

sffTfnT: (Brilliancy) . . . . . . 308 

sfrrrwrarc (st°) (String of Causes) . , . . 431 

^osrf^^Rf (sfo) (Poetical Reason) . . . . 416 

sn^F? spTWr (Cause of Poetry) . . . . 3 

m&m snftsrc*? (Effects of Poetry) . . . . 2 

spi^'R *sr¥<FT (Definition of Poetry) . . . . 4 

3far?JT (ft?&) (Softness of Diction) . . . • 321 

firearm (sto) (Obscurity of Word) . . * . 177 




Tf^Tcre^r (3>o ) (Parenthetical) 

n^srvre (Definition of Excellence or Dic- 

*T*rf^iTC (Forms of Excellence) 

n*TFrf ^OT s (Excellences belong to the 

^isrp^fafe: (Difference between Excellence 

and Figure) 
q^cTs^^f^T^ (Poetry of Subordinate 

*[f s*t^t*t (Abstruse Suggestion) 

^>tWrt (Qualitative Indication) 

^mrrsf (st© ) (Vulgarity of Word) 

^TRH ("'ftflr:) 

<n*gT*?erT (*>o ) (Vulgarity of Sense) . . 
f^w (3?o) (The Pictorial) . . 
f^r^T^ (Fanciful Poetry) . . 

^mfonr: (s>o) (Lacking Correctness) 
i^ram: (sto ) (Isolated Alliteration) . . 
a^pr: («r° ) (Borrower) 
m^reH: (Import, the fourth kind of meaning) 
^qsrT6U*n«4^*T (Suggestion of equal Pro- 
g^nftPTcn (s?o) (Equal Pairing) 


csrfcrg?r:scft$ cRTT ( «>© ) (Resuming the Con- 

*lro*r (Illuminator) 

gs^*r^ {il° ) (Irregularity) . . 

%*zt?3x (sto) (Exemplification) 

staynTO^rcrof 5r^T^^rcTc% ftrcro^Fr (Grounds of 
distinguishing Defects, Excellences and 
Figures into Verbal and Ideal) . , 

^^§i*rsr (Definition of Defect) 

S>n*Tf wfaj ST^STcfT w*m\ m . . 

^tPtpiwht (Suggestive Poetry) 

^^^^^^q^: sN?t: (Combination of Sugges- 
tion Poetry and Poetry of Subordinate 
Suggestion) . . . . . . 

s^flfewfe: (10455 Forms of Suggestive Poetry) 

ssr#: sja^sa^jww (51 Pure Forms of Suggestive 

&&: tf^fe^Tretof mm (Number of Combina- 
tions, etc., of Suggestion : 10404) 

faSSfaT (3To) (TmU=(-im{- : o*i) .. 

f^r^fm sTTxrfesfT (sr©) (Another Form of 

f*fT*hRWfl[ (£to) (Useless or Redundant) 
frffcTT (€to ) (Inconsequentality) 

fapT^cn(sto) (Suppression of Meaning) 

$m$%T (sto) (Presence of such meaning as 

has to be guessed out) . . 
s^rc^ (sto ) (Deficiency of Word) . . 














WTC^sf ^f^RT * *T<rft rfTfq ^: . . 

TcTcJT^: (s><>) (Receding of Excellence) 

TSStafaflTO (Defects of Word Enumerated) 
M4«flqp»ii %f^T qi«W M< *ra i *rai : (Some of the above 

applying to the Sentence) 
^RFT?R>n'nw?T|Tmf'T (Defects in Particles 

of Words) 

«rf^iT: (aro) (Insinuator) 
Tfr^f%f: (sto) (Exchange) 
•rfts^wr (sto ) (Special Mention) 
"rem' (xfizt'.y > 
TOfa: (aro ) (Sequence) 
<roWta?nT (Periphrasis) 

gr^^fer. (ito ) (Repeated Heightening) 
g?ns^ra*TOTO: (3to ) (Semblance of Repetition) . 
qfaww (£t°) (Tautophonous) 

swiRad^aSaT (?^<>) (Disagreeable Second 

srffaPwfa: (i>o) (Perversion of Characters) . 
srfa+<a3«??n (sto ) (Discord of Letters) . . 

^^^flfl^rftsg: (3*0) (Admission of 

Conflicting Excitants and Ensuants, etc.) 
vfcm: (sro) (The Hostile) .. 
wfa«W|<*m (sto) (Typical Comparison) 
sr^cm (3T» ) (The Converse) . . 
MtmH^ (aro) (Hostile) 
WH^<wm«m (Defeiitiaa of Lucidity) . . 







INDEX 499 

srftrfafWNt (tto) (Opposed to Popular 

Notions) .. .. .. 247 

srfsrfef^rctero ^^f^cT sretacrc . . • . . . 247 

srfafepcsw (sfto) (Disregard of usage) .. 231 
vnreTOT (*><> ) (Violation of the Uniformity 

of Expression) .. . . . . 232 

VTm (Emotion Defined) . . . . . . 70 

WW* ^^r: (Manifestation of Emotion) . . 73 

^T^r^f srasRTT (Variegation of Emotions) . . 73-74 

^TT^^r ^n^cr; (AUayment of Emotion) . . . . 73 

^tt^^t ^T^rafaf w^rt storf* (AUayment, etc. 
of Emotion sometimes the Predomina- 
ting Element) . . . . • . 74 

*rurw afar: (Mixture of Emotions) . . . . 73 

TOnrrcr: (Semblance of Emotion) . . . . 73 

?nfaram (aro ) (Vision) . . . . . . 415 

^TTfcRFr (sjo) (Mistaker) . . .. . . 450 

^^rerwRT (Invocation) . . . . . . 1 

ireiiTOPKpr (Middling Poetry) . . - . 7 
*nyfri*iw hwhj (Sweetness of Diction 

"Defined) " 305 

*n«pfrpTOT bqo^ctw (Letters Suggestive of 

Sweetness) . . • . . . 311 

*u»rfta«MT (sto) (Stringed Illuminator) .. 395 

*rofTORT (sro) (Stringed Illustration) .. 382 

TTT^T^q^T (sro) (Stringed Metaphor) • . »- * . 372 

*ito*tot (sro) (Stringed Simile) . . ^- . . 363 

ifflfctaj («ro) (The Lost) , . . . . . 446 

qf^sfiT«r: (sro) . . *• . . 345 

«lWOTfc ^T^T^f^TT^T^^cfl^K: .. ♦ . 194-95 

trarossm; (sto) (The Symmetrical) . . . . 405 

*WP*[ (aro), (Chime) .. .. .. 324 



t^ttot: TOfaR{ #tOc$r (Occasional Perversion 

of Diction, etc.) 
T5PTO<wi| (3To) (Girdle-Metaphor) . . 
TSTCtam (sto) (Girdle-Simile) 
^rc^«T*r (Definition of Rasa) 
T^sW^row: (Defects of Rasa Enumerated) 
THftnw: (Rasas Enumerated) 
T^r^r ^5Ts?^i^cTT (sto) (Mention of the Rasa 

by Name) 

Tsrmra: (Aberrations of Rasa) 
TOtaHpOTrf 5 * (Examples of Rasas) 
^q^r (bto ) (Metaphor) 
srfsr^STO' (Indicative Indication) 
^OTT«y$m*r (Indication Defined) 

«wrwt sr^^Frsrcftfe: (Comprehension of the 

Motive of Indication) . . 
*wmn: irefesRcw (Six forms of Indication) 
«?aWRf^ftw^ (Three-foldness of Indication) 
^^faresrss: (Indicative Word) 
mroqar^teffc (Suggestion, -whose Order 

of Sequence is Perceptible) 
[ HTarHsriH: (sro) 
s&atan (sr°) (Elliptical Simile) 
^cftwrcsr. (Different Forms of Elliptical 

swtftat ^Ifiaw^ ^s^sif^TO (Suggestion 

based on speciality of Speaker etc.) 
snitfw; (sro) (Equivoque) . . 













. 29 








9TOretar: Defects of Sentence Enumerated) .. 207 
^T^Pro:qi^>«srTWT^T5^Tf?r (Defects of Words 

occurring in a Sentence) .. • * 184 

stress: (The Expressive Word) . . • . 12 
*l^TO*r*q^ (The Suggested Meaning 
being a part of the accomplishment of 

the Expressed Meaning) . . . . 119 

■sn^^fanfa: (What is the Denoted Meaning ?) . . 12 

^T^^cnT^T^lT^^^^^^ — .. •• 104 

^m^T^aR^rf^r^^T^T^V^R: .. .. .. 307 

^TT^rr^cr^rf^T^trtT^^TT: . . .. •• 307 

firenfarta: (s>o) (Unscientific) .. .. 248 

f^qrrftnre: (sto) Non-discrimination of the Predicate) 177 

ftrajpRRrr (^rto) (Improper Predication) . • 255 

f^ftfer: (sto) (Privative Description) .. 413 

fsrsn^fawr: (Erotic in Privation) . . . . 64 

fencer: (Excitant) . . . . . . 52 

fcnusTCT (sr°) (Peculiar Causation) .. .. 404 

fsnn^R speep^RT (^to ) (Far-fetched Signification 

of the Excitant) . . . . . . 282 

f^Swfc^nfTcrT (*to) (Repugnant Implication 

in Words) .. .. 181 

f^stfftfa iwft: wfez stfsrcte: . • • . . . . 294 

f^l^rftfq ^swftqrar wtt^st^tt: . * .. 293 

f^g^ss^fw^'taf m^%*>fa=rc*F: . . .. 289 

f^ncte: [fajtanrro] (sro) (Contradiction) .. 407 

fWt«rfWR: (Forms of contradiction) . . 408 
f^ms^^bflfe: (Difference between Contradiction 

and Disconnection) . . . . .. 439 

fg^ftf^srqTWT^^^: . . . . . . 50 

fasN: (s?o) (Extraordinary) .. .. 456 



fM^srfsreN': /?><>) (Non-specification of the 

M'Ttftxr: (sto) (Peculiar Allegation) . . 
fosw: (The o Incongruous) 
fcmfH?: (?>o) (Cacophony) .. 
ffT^srm: (sro ) 

su*^*: 5TS5T: (The Suggestive Word) . . 

ars^rHTwfrr^^sntR^T (Arguments in favour of 
accepting Suggestion as a process apart 
from Indication and Denotation) 

ssrfH^P: (sto) (Dissimilitude) 

arfc^Hsfawrr: (Twenty four kinds of Dissimi- 
«qrf?RTfTt»r: MM^ci ' im^ (?><> ) 
sorfa'STfT'Ji: . w4i«4'««T«if«f ^T'sm $&: 
sarfwfbugT: (Accessory Emotions) . . 
STTST5T: (sto) (Frustration) .. 
sarrsrcffa: (sro) (Dissembling Eulogy) . . 
«nsftfa?r: (sro ) (Artful Assertion) 
3trT^rm?n (?t°) (Inconsistency) 
Sissfa-srea a^fr %t: (Forms of Fanciful Word) . 
5Ts?f^f?gre^ (Definition of Fanciful Word) . 
sre5 fa ?itei% W T (Example of Fanciful 

srsrfor. (Three kinds of Word) 
5t 335P R sj*isgrfjr: (Suggestion arising from the 

power of Word) 
st^gT fan a ^ srs^fa: (Suggestion arising from ■ 

the power of both Word and Meaning) 
WcTwr: (The Quietistic) . . v • • 














%gT sjswt (Pure Indication) .. .. . . 19 

^fcR^R* (3>*) (Unmelodiousness) . . .. 166 

#^; (sma:) (a*o) (Ideal Paronomasia) . . 379 

#cr: (stsstcT.) (sto) (Verbal Paronomasia) .. 330 

#*HFt: (3^*TCT:) . . . . . . 310 

x, (sTssnsr:) .. .. .. 309 

#qf«rarc: (Consideration of the character of 

H^t: (st°) (Commixture) 
s^fWcH (^>o) (Confusion) . . 
afawrwfr («>°) (Ambiguousness) 

Hfr^srsn^T^c^^-^ (Suggestion of Doubtful 

Predominance) .. .. .. 117 

sfMn*n (s>o ) (Dubiousness) . . . . 246 

H^H^gT: (3T©) (Second form of Commixture) 467 

*F*rnro5tesT (3>o) (Indecorousness in Euphony) 210 

swfta (Erotic in Enjoyment) . . . . 63 

^mfs^T^fazwr*? (Causes of Suggestion) . . 57 
^*TT^3^irs^frr: (Suggestion where the 

order of Sequence is Perceptible) . . 76 

sfafe (sfo) (Collocation) . . . . . . 461 

sftra^sforo (?>o ) (Non-restriction of the 

Restrictable) .. .. .. 251 

*nrm ( wro:) . . . . . . 308 

WW (SR&mt) . . . . . . 308 

OT*r (sjo) (Equal) .. . . 440 

H*nfa: (sto) (Convenience) .. .. 439 

n (3m*pr:) . . . . 310 

tt (stf&m:) . . . . 308 



*Wk^H<W<TT ( s>o ) ( Resuming the Con- 

$*n*ftftfcT: (3To) (Model Metaphor) 

^npapr: (sto) (Conjunction) 

W%%: (sro) (Dubious) 

H^^nd^crr ffio) (Mismatched Associates) 

^irtfiET: (sto) (Connected Description) 

*H*l* H flrciT (q>o) (Incompleteness) 

^«I(IHWW (Intro-susceptive Indication) 

^rr^ (sto) (Sameness) 

^tr::(3To) (Climax) 

HTV>qT^^TT ( Super imp onent Indication) 

$*m (sro) (Subtle) 

*fl$»rr4*T (wpr:) 

„ (5Tss*pr:) 

^nftn?r: H4M«imc^t (sto) (Mention by name 

of Permanent Emotions) 
^^^tot; (Permanent Emotions) 
^w (ar°) (Reminiscence) 
3*r^t%: (g^o) (Natural Description) 
IcTfa'cfT ($>o) (Marred metre) 







Prepared under the direction of 
Prof. S. M. Mukhopadhyaya. 


Sanskrit Versions of Prakrit Verses 
P. 10, L. 3 iTTcf'f^f^C^^FRI *T5J TTCcftfa wfos cgPTT I 

warm f% ^affa^^ ^ msre smvft u % u 
P. 10, L. 7. ST^cft sf<sr g*F? spt $r*f «prTs% *rc$& i 

P. 11, L. 4. qOT fas^fw^ST fafigpfa^ TT3& aRSTCJT I 

fo^WZ^^C^^Xi^m ST^STfecrft^ II £ II 

P. 38, L. 2. qdN^ w dftrenr ^T^Fm^mm^^q^^Tm? i 

P. 41, L. 3. ^f^^WijM^^wnwfo i 

P. 41, L. 6. sftftnra *WN*r fatdi^^ ^fewftRnj i 

P. 43, L. 1. creT *r*r n^^^WRf |fef ?n^c^ i 

P. 44, L. 2. ^twrrararo ^sref Tfpft h^ i 

$E*mT3r srfs *H-srref ^srfsr^r sr ^ar ferret n^u 
P. 44, L. 5. «j5& ^FrftwfcT en* Tswts® ^m^f i 

P. 45. L. 6. ^^Rq^rsrfinrf^ ^nfirrRH^^TpFft si^^w i 
srer srsra ?Rfe sr s^ra^ sffatfsr wv^m ir ?ii 

P. 80, L. 3. tfpTO ?Tm ^^cR^cT Wtf 5R5RW% Sl% I 

OTcR^frnC sot Vfci 3#H r^T srarn^u 
P. 82, L. 4. 3TH^f^>ffwf^H^: gfa *ro*rfaFTO i 

P. 84, L. 9. %^k ^^T^T^r Sft ^ *r*ft 'snTMW^fT i 

P. 85, L. 6. thtF^^h w*Jkt^ sfa^ 1 ^ smTOTfcr i 

*RfeRn: *tr: ^nfta f^ i^othh^u 

lv kavyaprakasa 

P. 86. L. 1. st wfarfoer §*reft ^f^^TO^sfgf^OT i 

P. 86. L. 6. 3 ^^TpTft%^ng ^fem: tf^frifereftatf- 

P. 87, L. 3. sc% felspar *tt^ *ft sfkc^^gnsR t 

P. 87, L. 7. # ^sff^^^r^f^R #sr*Mst 3rm i 

^m*p %m& %$r s?rf^ t^t^h^ou 

P.. 88, L. 4. l^TOfTOftSf OT f3$ §^FT ST SPTRflt | 

P. 92, L. 5. 3WQU4gra' <|5$n% «u w i sr^faf cr^nfa sftawj i 

fs^wsrafererr t *se| stercoral f^jigfirF u\3*n 

P. 97, L. 1. cf^ ^^7^ snSTfl" STOtesRt WH**|W^ I 

P. 97, L. 6. rNfaj ^Rf^m^Tg ^fceraraflR? *resrm i 

*j*^Mfw *'Ofic ^p^ra^* fopwro ii^vii 
P. 98, L. 8. ^rnwmtsfqf §*r: ^m^^i^T f^r i 

;R|?nRrera#T fop/STTfapf Wc MW £R: ll^ll 
P. 99, L. 2. ST *p*BWm$t wfrR^: qrl^a fo flftgfcff I 

error; ^r?TO^ *pftc3T s^^tasr^: sprftnuten 
P. 99, L. 8. ?r^fiw wiTfjesr gwr ^?^q% vr it?? Hczt*t i 

P. 100, L. 3. <a% H^f^^«iHH^^s^qrr^r9n fafsreqT \ 

fR> fenftcT q ^figWIWfl : «CT tf*CT? Il^ll 
P. 101, L. 1. 5jfeRft^JpiT faqfeWdl fa**l<W *fto*t \ 

^^ w?3T w |T fr ?rs£ ?th TTRt^r ?eto TOraftni^ou 

P. 101, L* 6, f^j^^^l ?37 S% fCTTT §^ cTORTCffer I 

v P* 102, L* 3, wIwott *tf$ftr * fed>tdiwl c ^*Hu *rr i 


P. 105, L. 6. ^%%f^^ f ^^ ^ f^^^ ^^ ^H ^ ^?T i 

P. 108, L. 6. quM^ifa * <n*r ^raTfH T^Rf^fe 5T srHTfa \ 

P. 109, L. 5. ?faf ^pr^FRT cTORc^«5Hf cfFT ***: I 

P.117,L.2. ^yuMi^f^r «&T vhi^hh gw fiFrftr cf srfarcrr i 

P. 132, L. 2. ^rr^^ ; sft^tH^f^t^T^ sp^TT: > 

P. 151, L. 4. ^q'^^^^ar^^f^^f^rmHOTH^^ \ 

P. 154, L. 6. ^sjRsr fa^ssrfcr sn^ fem% sr^t^sr 1 

P, 156, L. 3. finrftartclr wift^rm fsasrr ^^jtsrfw 1 

P. 158, L. 4. ^*t snf*w fw«rs^: *r 5r?refcsr mftcreta t 

P. 213, L. 6. stct ^f^cf ^^ T^rmftr ?r g^Tc^r^r \ 

P. 273, L. 2. jpfterc ^»m^W ^ar 

P.277,L. 1. cRT ^n^F^r *ptt: stst ^ ^fw*fi|i% 1 

Tfaf^ir^j^mft srefo wsrftr sara^ \\H\w 

P. 278, L. 7. wnww^ftrohft fTO^sft^ fo%^cftsfa 1 

P. 283, L. 9. fwcR^T ^FPrt ^f^ n^**rs$ i 


P. 302, L. 7. fere fwct * srssrfcf *t i% 

P. 357, L. 2. ^^eh^^rrf^n^^^^^ * ^mrs^sr \ 

P. 361, L. 2. CT^rnr ; RTrft srf^strf^r <$ud*sf?fodifa ^d^cHT^ \ 

P. 371, L. 1. STC* ^T^:i^ ^ f^cft ^S^SETR \ 

P. 380, L. 5. 335S3T ^ arqprar *rem: sr ^s*spmr: * 

P. 391, L. 2- sF^c^gpRTW sRhr ^ ^nfir ^^rs^pcnr \ 

P. 395, L. 1. f*TO3ff «r m^FTf <5*T*rfa: %spct fa$pm \ 

P. 403, L. 2. q tjfg %*rfa ^psm scftc f& fa*f*r ?r*nfa s^m st \ 

P. 413, L. 3. 3^ fesrfosnfasfstf: 5^9TO^^T: 

P. 425, L. 5. cmtsrf M^h^^rro^ i^^wt \ 

P. 433, L. 8. pT?rt srctfqr: sfb siro* srsr srcaf $& i 

P,434,L>5. snfarsre? ^fer^nr: gpftswrav sutst^tTO^ \ 

P . 435, L* 4. *rt f^THT t^rfcr: f% s^stf *ra «Rt ^rar^r \ 

P. 438, L. 5. w®% %*m&& %s*n irofir ^^ssjfanr i 

$?cra<f ^% *wro %«rt srasfann \ws\\\ 


P. 452, L. 9, stfir q% wm g^Pc ^? srsrr sr*pr speF^w \ 

ere mn frsfteft: ^ ssrofact sR*nivv*H 
P. 457, L. 3. sit srcrfcT ere f^ #srTfsre «nr * *rw* i 

P. 460, L. 2. «re*ftsfar toPt <g*rc cRifa rem *?*r tffero ^wj i 

P. 463, L. 2. s^rcc^ vft $r ipt ^|tw^t^*w \ 

D?. 468, L. 2. «wr«nM *rer T^Gnret *ret^r forowro i 


Index of the illustrative verses occurring in 

the Kavyaprakasa 



3^v gR^Wt^MHWftfiT 

iro mo qo 989; sfto ^to q 3; 

*ffo ^TTo 5To p. 49. 
*To TTo cfto xTo II 30; Tfto ^lo 

so P. 230. 
sffo ^ro <to 107, 325; *t>o a^o sro 
P. 204. 

*fto ^To 5To P. 348; ^fto *To Sf7o 5TT, 

1. 12; 50 to^tto 103/62. 
5T0 ttto sro969; ^0 ?To so P. 39, 
sro ^o i$o 315; jro ^o sfto 1.66. 
sfro ^ro q-o 49; *fto ^0 sro P. 109 

%o ^o ^ro 253/5. 

«fto sFToTo 337; *fto ^To 5To 399; 
sfJTo To ^o XVII. 1. 

sfio^n-oq-o 102; *fto ^j sr© P. 
202; 50 to ?rro 57/134. - 

«fi"o ^To q-o 126; ^fto cftTo So P. 

232; 50 ?ro ^rio 27/3. 
^ro *rro *o VII. 67. P. 339; mo 

«5To 5RT0 P. 24 ; *fto ^ro sra P. 55. 
feo ^o $ro 1.39; ^fto qrro sro 

P. 311; 50 to ^to 110/143. 



^6 a^nfr ^R^'^s^f 

^3 BrfspSTcRKIOT 

^rrartlr; ^ffo s*o ^o %no III. 37; 

Tfto ^To STo P. 136; ffo go ^To 

102; 30^0 mo 110/232. 

TJo STTo TJo X. 20; *fto ^PTo 5To 

P. 181. 
Tffo ^To 5To P. 181; sfto sFTo 

To. 88; 50 to mo 188/41. 
TfTo ^7To sro P. 143; sffo ?To 

To 69; $0 to mo 291/1. 
%o To %o 5; |o m II, 41; 

^g^FFT ; tffotfo ^ofTTo ;sfro spr© 

To 118; *ffo ^to sro P. 223. 

sfto ^TTo qfo 114; Jo cfo 3pfo 

1.109; *ffo ^ro^oP.212;5o 
^o *rro 286/12. 

«ft© ^to to 73, 94; *fto ^to 
sroP. 171; %o to mo 259/72. 

sfto spr© To 179; TfJ-o sf>To 5To 

P. 284. 

TiO SftTo STo II. 23; fio cfo vffo 

I. 10;7fro^Tosro P. 396. 

STlo ^o *To I; *fto ^?To 5fo 

P. 293. 

*fto ^To STo P. 240. 

sfto ^ro qo 222; Tfto ^to #0 
P. 319. 

TfTo SFTo STo P. 319. 

$n*o ^[0 $fto 1.9 ; *ft© ^t ^ToP. 302. 

50 to mo 91/35. 

^■o ?7o cfto «f L35; *fto ^ro sro 

P. 253; 50 to ?TTo 366/5. 


33 3FTO Sulcftfft OT 

W6 srarrcaT mxz^Tt%«i 

^ffo ^ro sfo p. 53; <jo x° ^tto 
Tffo ^ro sro p. 80; ^o to vno 


TfTo ^To STo P. 210; 50 To ^To 


5To fo Tfo 102; ^o efiTo 5fo 

P. 275; 50 T o ^tto 275/7; 
^■o 50 mo 1071. 

3To Jo :f?o 102; ■ q=to ^To 5To 

P. 275; 50 to ^ T o 275/7; 
*° %° mo 1071. 

*ff o ^ro 5To P. 380; To ^-o ^fo 
P. 94; 50 to ^tto 253/27. 
Tfro ^fo sfo p. 193; 50 to ^rro 


ifto SRo 5To P. 250. 

^To T(o cfto ^o II. 39; qft ^ To 3 

P. 121; 50 to vrro 360/28. 

*ffo ^To 5To P. 340; go To Ttfo 


«ft*o ^ro q 267; *t>o ^ T o sfo 
P. 353. 

*fto vto 5To P. 99; 50 To ^TTo 

102/36; fro ^rro $0 IV. 7. 
*ffo ^To 5To P. 333; 50 To ttto 

268/362; ^o 50 mo 1558. 
fo^To^ToqoGh.153, SL 65(1) 

y.vfto ^To q-o 54; Tfjo ^o 5To 

P. 121. 

qfo ^To ^To ^o * Q HI. 2. 10; 
#0 EFTo q-o 110; Tfto «pr 5To 


P. 209; 50 to ttto 252/50.. 
H?? 3f^3R% am ftr^ftq": ^TTo fro 3*0 IV. 10; 9To sg-o 

STTo P. 156; fo qo sfto II 
109; «fto ^To <To 101; ^rfto 
^JTo 5To P. 365. 

\6%_ 3^ tr^tf msfta: ' *rr° ^t© II. 25; 3To ^no ?ro 

^o <jo IV. 2. 11 ; iffr© sro ^0 mo 
I. 61;«fro ^TTo q-o 329; nt© ^To 
5To P. 397. 

*?<£ 3TJfwT^:f%H^ ^0 ?to 3*0 P. 30; *fto ^To <?o 

P. 325. 

v^o ^^raSfcrtfro* ^o ^ 108; ^0 $r ^0 p. 72; 

Tfro ^rro sto R 356; 50 to trto 

m 3WHT5Fftwfl Tfo ^TTo, Fffo, Ch. 24. SI. 19; 

ifto sfn-o 5To PR 135, 271. 

^ m snsrffar wrwTfar *ffo ^to <to P. 296. 

*o<: ^rofirf^wrehp ^fio ^To sto p. 317. 

3^ ^^erfelfk: ^o ^]o sro ^tTo #o I; *fto ^To 5To 

P. 306. 

*^ ^fafawfoTT *fto ^ro 5To P. 358; %o To mo 

^3 gft r w i^ n reqr ,^to fao ^o ? ; «fto ^to qo 143; 

Tflo ^To JTo P. 248. 
^\S\3 srf^tfi^^sfa Tfo cfro ^o II. 9; sfto ^o <q 

138; ^fto ^to so P. 244. 
3^ bt^^k: 3Tfm %o to *?to No. 1344; *fto spro 

5To P. 295; %o to mo 93/ 94; 
snfa?tFcr:; ^rt; f^FT 58. 

xn kIvyaprakISa 

nv9 ^m^m^m **ftfa; V o*o *» ; firo Wo 58; 

*fto ^ro jto p. 280; wto cro 
No. 566; go t» ^o 252/44. 

ifTo 3TTo STo p. 102;*fto ^To 5To 

P. 102. 

*fto ^To STo P. 121. 

v^ sritftaigrete ^ ^ ro 5ro R 331 _ 

?v* to^ ^ o feo ^ L 33 . ^ ^ jro 

P. 175; 50 to mo 152/40. 
*3° ararotsn^ ^ „,. ^ p 332; ?o To mo 


W ^a-wroft-mis * ^o ?ro VII. 83; sfto *pto qo 

P. 293; ifto ^ro jto P. 372; 
50 to -mo 331/13. 

XRo st^^t^j ^ 3^0 jto p. 127; .fa, *rro *, 

X. 94; 50 to mo 104/94. 

*$3 3*^*1^1^ afro *F?ro 5To p. 347^ 

*V atf*mT3rcrsmfcfa ^> ^ ^ p 347 

?^ 3Wt?Tc!cTO5te^ Jfro tf e 5To R 137; 50 To iffo 

5/50; $rojo^ro 60. 

Uo sKft'res^ra * ^ fr P> 206; 30 "?rro VI. 

4;. %o <to %o 5; *fto ^- sr 

P. 196; 50 to *nro 331/51. 
3K^ s^r^mMtesr^ „- * ^ IIL 7 . ^ ^ o ^ 

P. 236; 50 to wo 361/50. 
Vt 3fFTT:^#ra^^^ai 14; *fto 

^To Sfo P. 249. 



V^o 3TWT: Snfrsft 

?^?K sthrst H«r% fa%r 

tfrro f^-o 3*0 I. 8; ^o ^o $rr<> 
1467; mo qo No 3268; 
fo ^0 sfro III. P. 140; *o 
?To Ho P. 40; ?fio ^>To STo P. 

326; ttto ho ^o sn© 175; 
sr o 3[o ^-o IV. 2; fee HTo ^o P. 
156; 50 to ?rro 254/42. 
Tffo spjo sro P. 384; 50 To TTTo 

^o %o H* P. 99; *fto ^TTo 5To P. 

287; 50 to HTo 205/3. 
50 %jo mo IJ. 297; ,sfto EfTo 
qo 304; *fto ^To so P. 378; 
50 to mo 134/6. 

^o $To Ho P. 65; *ffo EfTTo Sfo 

P. 353. 
^TSTTsr:; *ffo ^0 5To P. 90; 

#0 sfto f%o ^o 16; %o To mo 

sffo ^to sro P. 80; ^ o to ?rro 


*fro ^to sro p. 313. 
sfro^otfo 67; *fto ^fto sro P. 

140; go to 10 327/7. 

TJo c(To TTo I. 36; «fto SfTTo qo 

139; Hto ^ro sro P. 245. 

sro P. 390; 50 to mo 133/43. 
^■0 %o ho L 23; 'ft , ^° %* 
P. 257. 

Hto cfTTo ^o P. 302; ^0 To Hlo 




WK ansr* mft qfor: 

Cited by Ksemendra in his 
^f^Tf^rrrg^f as belong- 
ing tOTCSsprR"; Tf) *p(o 5To 

P. 339; 3© ^0 *rro 216/17. 
Tf]*o sjrr© st© P. 201 ; %o \o ^o 

Tro^rro,^To ^o ch. SI 19; *fr© 

^ro sr© p. 121. 
^o ^>To 5To ix. 47; *ft© ^ro 

5ToP.378;goTo^ T o 278/23. 
*tV -^ro sr© P. 183. 

^|WTW:; 37© c3To f^ro P. 350; 
sfto ^ro q© 234; *fi© ^ro st© 
P. 330; 50 to ?tto 109/211. 

Sfto ^ro qo 84; *fto q>r© $T© 

P. 179. 

Tfto ^ro 5ro P. 263. 
sfro spTo qo 277; it© sfjt© sro 

P. 360. 
^To ^ro 69; tWt© ^ro P. 402; 

ito ^0 69; 50 t© ?tt© 180/1053. 
Tfto ^rro sto P. 212; tto ?[o $r© 

27 ;$o^o*rro 205/7 
*fto ^ro 5fo P. 238. 
^© $T© H*o P. 30; *fto ^To sr© 

P. 326; 5© To ^to 312/22. 

3fo SfiTo $To ^TTo *fo ; sfto Eftf© q© 

255;*ft© w© sr© P. 347; 5© T© 
^TT© 262/168. 

fr© *tt© sr© I. 4; sfr© q>T© q© 9; 
*fto ^r© sr© P. 19. 



^rrocfTo 3*0 II. 16; *fto spr© sro 

P. 104; §o To mo ? ; ^rT^"^T 

P. 131; 

^oirro^To V. 16;sfto ^ro -cro28; 

T>o ^T«> 5To P. 83; ^o To Wo 


sfto ^7To qo 155; *fto «PT° SFo 

P. 256; go ^o^tto 371/119. 
^o rfTo mo I. 14; 5fro ^to sro 
P. 175. 

*{*o Tfo efto ^o II. 16; TTfo sfH" 

5To P. 95. 
Kro ftro qo IV. 20; ^ft© ^t© sro 
P. 336;^>to wo 327/5. 
- spio ^ro cfo 237; q>o ^tto sro 
P. 334; %o xo ^o 327/18. 
sfto 37T0 ^o 123; i>o ^ro sro 
P. 227. 

Jo qo vjfto 1.93; *fto ^Tfo 51*0 

P. 52 

sftospro ^o 340; *^>o c5jo 5To 

P. 401. 
«fTo 5fn*o tfo 242; *fto ^To sro p. 

336; 50 to wo 59/214. 
$0 ^0 ssfro II. 3; wo *to 3736; 
. ?fto ^j-o ^0 P. 134; 50 to 

wo 327/8 
ifto ^to sro P. 323; 50 To wo 

9pto scfo ?rrovfto P. 56; sfto^To 

<io 8; ^ffo ^FTTo 5To P. 58. 
tfo ^TTo "STo P. 239. 


?? q^*^f*T3TT 


^o efrro %(o II. 10; sfto ^To q> 

324; *fto ^rro sro p. 208. 
ftlo ^o STo I. 24; *fto SR*o #o 

P. 98; goTo^ro 133/10. 
^jo tito tfo VII 2; ^fYo cjtto <To 
260;Tfto ^tto sto P. 349. 

froTTTosro 972; tfowojr© P. 383. 
3* To *tNo. 1438; sffo ^ tf 

264; *fto^sro p. 352; 50 to 

mo 105/136. 

3To ^"o 22; Tfto SfTTo 5To P. 95. 

T>o 3rro 5ro p. 338; 50 to ^tto 
358/65; ^ro^ro 94; ^o ^ro ^0 
P. 61. 
^5*rar;sfon:o sro 5po IL 376; 

Tfi'o SfTTo 5To P. 172. 

5fo Tfjo *r° 973; ^fto ^o ^o 
mo P. 166; *fto ^To sroP. 46. 

s^w?;; *fto ^ro sro p. 121. 
3^-0 scfo srro vfto III 44; Tfto ^io 

sro P. 272; 30 to mo 65/5. 
^To m© *ro 956;^fto ^rosro p. 49 
|To ^tto $•<> 971 j'fto^TosroP.lOS. 
§0 to srro 1 2;Tfto ^0*0 P.263; 

go to mo 12/26. 

'ffo SfTTo 5fo P. 213; %o To mo 


3WK J'fto ^To STo P. 91 ; *fro ^TTo 


*fto ^To 5To P. 160; 50 To mo 



W^i ^TT% *f»^I<: *W 

ms^fa:; T>o ^ro 5To P. 382; 

3*ogo STTo ; ^fto tfo «£o 3RTo III. 

38; 50 to sfto 905; mo qo; 
50 to mo 301/79. 
^fW*r.;^o 5To tfo P. 39; *fo 

cq-o f^To P. 387; «fto ^TTo STo 

P. 341; go to mo 363/10. 
sftosFroqo 225; *fto ^to sro P. 

323;f^o^o^oX. 27; 50 to 

mo 104/83. 
gro ttto ;g-o 974; *ffo f?ro sro 

P. 382, 

Tfto ^To 5To P. 314. 
*fto ajro STo P. 197. 
«fto 3>To qo 154; ffto ^>To 5To 


^o ^o tfo P. 74; TTo STTo TTo 

III. 11; T>o 3>to sro P. 351; 
go to mo 250/5. 
*fto sfto sro P. 264; go to mo 

fro mo ^o x. 85; go t© mo 


^To mo mo I. 4. 
m^d¥^Ff: ; f ^0 sfto. L 25, 

P. 16; ^0 sro 62; *o go fo 

866;go to m© 216il9; *ftowo N 

^o 137;»ftoWo 5roP. 244. 
%(o «cro mo ^fto IIL 51 ; ^o 5To 

*ro P. 64; *fto ^to sro P. 340; 

mo q No- 1046; go to mo 




m w^f^t *taft 
%6\ W*f %3**T *ft%: 

sffo ^TTo To 106; Tffo ^TTo 5To 

P. 203. 

«fro ^TTo To 115; go To WTo 

231/48; Tfto ^ro sto P. 213. 

$To Scfo ?TTo ?fto I. P. 23 ; %\o Tfi o 

tfo 886; Tto ^to 5ro p # 160. 
^foftro^o XV. 96;*fto ^riosro 

P. 229; go to mo 126/22. 
Hfno to ^o XVII. 47; *ffo ^"To 

5To P. 194. 
fFo WTo Wo 975; sfto ^TTo To 

296;Tfto^rro sro P. 373. 

^o ?To W© P. 87; Wt© sjWo STo 

P. 371; 50 to mo 17/1985. 

^0 ^To ^o VI. 42; Wt© ^TTo 5To 

P. 224. 

*fto ^To 5To P f 203; sffo ^To tfo 


irro WTo wo 976; sfto ^r To 262; 

Wio spTo 5To P. 344. 

^0 5fTTo 5To VIII. 50; Wlo sfTTo 

sroP. 331. 

»ft o ^To STo P. 371; feo WTo So 

X. 82; go to wto 176/948. 
wo &fo f^o P. 253; ^ro ^o ^o 
III. 29; Wo 3*0 tto ^o ?; nto 
^ro 5To P. 199. 

»ft SFTTo 5To P. 346. 

V ^ f^faT^flfa ferfWcTOfa 5To Scfo ^lo sfto P. 211; %(o STo 

WTo IIL P. 150; wto ^ro ^o 
P. 328; go to mo 310/3; go 
Wo 51.15. 



^% fft^^f fGa: m *r: 

?o<£ ?ffcf ^ T^ff f}T*Ftsf 

%\ %&g ^rarotfear 


m© %o ^o m<> V. 368; Tfto 
^To 5Jo P. 364. 

<T>o qrTo 3?o P. 188; go To m° 


sfto SFJTo qo 262; "to ^To 3To 

P. 350; 50 to mo 275/13. 
q-o %o tfo, III. 24; sfto ^To cfo 
22; Tfto tffo 5To P. 81; 30 To 

mo 366/4. 

it » » 

^0 sjo tfo p. 45; Tfto ^To 5To 

P. 128; 50 to mo 105/118. 

|To mo tfo 971; Sfto ^To qo 

46; Tfto q> T o 5To P. 105, 

sfto^TTo t?o 45; Tffo sf>To STo P. 

64; 30 to mo 136/34. 

*fto sjrro sro P. 135; go to mo 


^o ^To 5To VII. 81 ; ssfto *f>To 

qo 291; ^fto ^tto sto P. 371; 
go to mo 312/24. 

mo «ro mo III. 20, P. 169; v© 

«T© mo Sfto III. 20; Tfto cf>Jo 3*o 

P. 272; go to mo 132/29. 

«fto ^To qo 116; TfTo qn"o JTo 

P. 214. go to mo 26/202. 
^To jo tfo HI, 32; Tfto fro o 
P. 266. 

Tfto qTTo 5To P. 355. 

sftto to ^o L 2; «fto qrro qo 259"; 

Tfto q?To 5To P. 335. 



<^ ?*^TO SRT^SiW: 

*\6 %^% ^fa %?**% 

^>To fao 3*0 IV. 4; ^o *fo tfo ?. 
106; sfto ^ro qo 39; 'ft© ^rro 
5roP. 96; go^omo 281/113. 

it j; « 

^o to mo 103/74. 

stotjto, 2;sfto ^>to qo 172; *ft° 

^Tosro P.273;^oTo^to8/109. 

^o * T o *o VII, 90; ^o *ro 
P.48;^o^To^roP.347;Wo^o . 

%no 161; %o to mo 305/11. 
^o^ro XL 2; *fto*To ^o 26; 
^fto^ro sroP. 82; *o 50 srro 
2283; 30 to mo 361/49. 

^Jo TTTo STo 963; 5To sgfo mo 

^fto III; sfto ^To qo 60. 
Tfto ^TTo STo P. Ill; '^ro TTo Sfo 


50 to mo 317/3. 
ssfto ^to qo 339. 

*fto ^To 5To P. 142; $To ^0 ^To 

155; 50 to mo 24/154. 
^o ^yo sq-o VIII. 78; vfto ^t© 

5To P. 384. 
^o sto sro P. 96; grfm; sfto 

^to tfo 317; Tfto ^?to sro P. 388 ; 

go to mo 221/12. 

«ft© ^To q*o 44; Tffo ^To STo 

P. 104; fro mo so IV. 9; %o 
to mo 104/85. 



\\ ^miT^^ix^^i^H * irro *tto sro 934; *fto spr© sr© 

P. 106. 

*R\o JIT^crf **ffS7 f^WR 

%\o qjo ^ro 705. 

*fto ^JTo 5To P. 312. 
3^0 5T© ^to II. 6; tfo «^o 1%o ; 

5fto WTo Wo P. 229; go To TTTo 

*fto ^ro 3To p. 354; ^ ^o wro 

^fto sro ^o sn-oIV. 125;«fto ^to 

qo 266; *fto ^ro *o P. 352; 

go to ?tto 234/140. 
sflr© 3n*o <? 335. 

fTTo T[To 30 851; *fto ^ro 5To 

P. 79. 

sfto <$Jo cfo 191; *ffo S£To q[o 

P. 283. 
^5To To Sfo VIIL 67; sffo zfto qo 

21; Tfto epTo sto P. 386; go to 
mo 362/15. 
^fo %o *fo, III. 19; sfto ^o Cfo 

131;»fto w«5ro P. 237. 
ifto ^To STo P. 186. 
cfto ^nro 5ro go ^o II. 4. 16. 
^o ^to 5To, VII. 39; «fto ^ro *ro 

11 ; Tffo «pTo 5To P. 14; go To ^T° 
' 352/20. 
Wfo ^o 5fro L 7; f o ^o sffo III. 31 ; 

*fto ^ro $ro P. 83 ; sfto 3>to <to 27. 

sffo ^Tfo <To 207; nto spTo 5T» 

P. 306. 


3^3 ^fca^^^t^RTm: «fto ^ro io 211; ifr© ^ro so 

P. 311. 
\^o xr# xrspreqfifcr t(o g;o T%o 71 ; *ffo ^r© sr© P. 395; 

^o ^o tto 27/14. 

K<£* ^^T^fe^Tf^T: 3To Wo $To ^o «r©, IV. 2.9. 

?3? wwrxt ^mjftcrsr; to %o tf©, I. 25; *fto ^t© sr=> 

P. 220. 
RV* wi tot <rer*pira ^rTo f o ^o L 43; To *To fro ? ; 

tto ^ro 5ro P. 252. 

W *aKmtfxW1*t Tfo ^To sro p. 251. 

^o ? ^rantf*^ tto ^ro tto II. 37, P. 42 ; j o ^ 

*ToL 66; To ciro fro P. 234; 

^fto^Tosro PP. 202,296. 
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xxxiv kavyaprakaSa 

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%c\ $TR%ftrf^ ^o irro *rro 1.7; *r© eiro ft-o 

P. 200;^o^rosroP. 196. 

w ^ren^ta to jft© ^tto sro P. 339. 

V<£Y $5ff W3qfttf§ Tfto sf7To 5To P. 354. 

^vs $^ mftsR^N^FT *To c3To fcfo; sfto sfrro q© 124; 

Tfto ^To Sfo P. 215. 

?oy jfof shafts yfe Tfto ^To STo P. 126. 

m *ffefaqRqfa^ *f© o^© {%© P. 208; Tfto ^to 

5To P. 197. 

^\ ^Vs^cqTTft^Twf sffosfrro qo 201; Tfto ^Jo STo 

P. 297. 


V9 T*%ftrft*fasnw ?ro *rro *o V. 53; $o *r<> sfto 

I. 58 ; *T° *Q° fa° ; ?° ^° 607 ; 
sfto ^PTo To 55; *ft° ^T° 5T° 
P. 122. 

151; *fto ^>to qo P. 254. 
m *«mft* i*rt w ™° ft° *° IV; *° * Tocro 151 ; 

TfTo spTo <To P. 245. 

3<* wiwwuw *° *r° * HI. 399; *ft» w 

qo 206; *ft° ^To 5To P. 303. 

6* Tifg *w*rg ir° tt° *° 992 i ^° ^° *° 

P. 116. 

v<^ Twrnm^l ^ ^° * r ° *° p * 342 ' 

? VL *wi&*w<tarac ^° ^ f° 86 5 *• ™° *° 

P. 180. 

*% TWH^m^V ^° ^o *o 34; *ft° Wo 5To 

P. 94. 

P. 391. 

HW TOTO**^: ^ ^° *° ^° *° *° fwo 

P. 46. 
v*„ Ti^t*gm*qiwrfH ^ *° *• P- 63; »fto ^o sro 

P. 338. 

^? TmfMTft* w. ^° ™° i° 109 ' ^ w ° *° 

P. 207. 

H^ th*«ott*3* ^° ^t° *° VIL 97 » ^° ^° 

sro P. 375. 

Wr wwa** arf&n *pt° ^° *° XL 20; ^0 ^o sro 

P. 232. 

t<* TPftaft <S**5 f«nrraR*r:; f° *° ^° L 43; 

II. 30; *fto 30 mo mo P. 341. 



^o 5fo P. 128. 

\a\s ^f«r^^5rmf«Tcr / ito ^o sro P. 113. 

?o^ ^ ^^sft^nfs 1 ^ ffto ^To 5To P. 125. 

^Y? ^R=f <MINr11^-M T %° q©%o II; *fto ^n*o sr° P. 224. 

^?K3 s^t wmtH^ t %© ^o %o II; *fto ^ro 5To P.247. 

^o c*fff TPTT^tTT^TT %° ^ %o IIjTfto 3H-0 5To P.247. 

^^V H^f WH^dlfpn %o qo %o II; ifto ^To STo 247. 

^\3 555^: %f%5^nST5r5 'ft® ^° 9*° P- 223. 

v^ ^ d Hifr dia wfc r t>° ^ro sro P. 359. 

y?y srf^smr fssr 5fif «&r ^ro ttto *r° 428; «fir© spro ^o 

238; ^fto^To sro P. 334. 

V3^ ^W«M cTC^ ^T%: MTo^Totfo 5; TtoHFTo 5To P.112. 

KK3 ^^fasrsrcm' *pysrarfer:;'ft° *pt© sro P. 383. 

?oo fe??f *tT*% Tjftr sr° wo 6; sfto ot© <To 57; *fto 

qprro 5ro P. 124. 

Y?V9 feTqcfNr cR"^^ Wo 1|o ^o I. 32; ^Jo ^iwa I. 

19; ^TTo ^T^^fTcr L 15;«fto 
^tocto 318;^toTTo5roP. 324. 
H^ faptfta trifr?^ wo *jo wo I. 32; ttto *rrarcr I. 

19; ?rro crr5r ^fcr I. 15; *ft© 

^To <To 318; *fto ^TTo 5To P. 

324; Tfto ^o sro P. 389. 
?V? «tanm*ncHqpit ^o sr© 70;*fTo *to sro P. 178. 

<\3 o ^F5T^rf^%?fe?| ^o ^-o g-o P.97 ; «fto ^To <To 297 ; 

7ft o ^To sro P. 474. 
^v sramstftw msgrsifa ^o?fto5ro230, P. 51; sfto wo 

<To 135; ifto Wo 5ToP. 243. 

\\s\ *m*s\ cr^r asm %o x° m* III. 23 cd ; 

H^v9 ^rcfh^sfo? *rto two ?c VI. 14; *fio ^rro 

5To P. 389. 


*\* ^V&fc&WZ&n. «ffo ^T° >• 194 *> ^ w ° 5ro 

P. 290. 

*« ^ *z fsRT. « «?. *° * To *° VI 3 °; * fto * ro *° 

160; Tfto ^TosroP. 260. 

V? wsnwfaw* I^m ?oTo^o36;*fto W osr« 

P. 360. 

«? OT&WWWWT ^To f o tfo V. 12; *fto *To *o 

P. 183. 

*<:? TO**N*fc *° * To * 87; ^° ^°*° 

P. 191. 

VK ^fl^^f ** *° *° *° m ° L 51 ; ,T ° ^° ?r ° 

g|o ^o IV. 2; sfto «pro T° 


Vtf #wrifi«iw * r ° WTo *° 951; *° sro m ° 

^ftoIII. 17;^o^osroP. 373. 

;^ *rffe5«n*Air fro mo *o 876; *o ^o mo 

«fto P. 116-120; Tffo ^rro sro- 
P. 144. 

*fto 5f?To 5To P. 248. 

^ .nf^Rrtf^goft ®° tto *o 994; *ft. *pto *o 

P. 117. 

O9o ftRfe?ra^Tf^ ^o^TolTo VII.28; ifto ^Tosro 

^ P. 365. 

^W#^i^ arTo^Tojrogo^oIT^.lS; 

Tfro ?pto sto P. 250. 

™ ftg*rmfa *° *° *° p - 27 ' ^° ^° 7o 

233;^o ^tosto P.329. 

w fin**** *° * To *° p ; A f\ 

P. 203. 



^o q-o ^>To $l*o HI. 5; *fto Sf>To 5To 

P. 292. 

Stroll ^nftem; *fto ^>ro sro 

P. 16. 

?rro %o sro II. 14; *ro sq-o fro; 

Tffo ^To 5To P. 228. 

§ro tto ^ro 816; sr© ^*o sro 611. 

TfTo ftro sro XIII. 40; ifto ^>To 

*o P. 378. 

'fto ^ro sro P. 378; *tto ftro ^o 

IV. 14; «fto ^to to 316. 

5TTo Scfo 5RTo III P. 178; 3To S^o 

srro ^pfo III, P. 178; *ft© grro sro 
P. 271. 

ifto ^Xo 5To P. 71. 

^Tottto^o 880;*ffo^o5roP. 119. 

*fto *FTo Jfo P. 203. 

«fto ^TTo C[o 311; *fto Sf7To 5To 

P. 385; §w 223/64. 

Tfro ^ro sro P. 231 ; ^rr 

2596; 5W 148/80. 

sfto ^TTo To 40; *ffo ^To SToP. 

101; $w 103/73. 

*fto spto sro- P. 180; qpn 


IT© ^Pfo 3To 45; *ffo sfrfo 5fo 

P. 364; ^rr 177/993. 

qfo ?To ^TTo Tfo, I. 28; sflfo ^Jo H* 


T?o ^0^06; ifto WTTo 5To P. 255. 

*%q sro 77; sfto ^tto ^o 15; sfto 

2f>T*o 5To P. 75. 


^o 5To ^-o P. 98; Sfto ^TTo CTo 

289; Tfto 3?ro sro P. 370. 
tjo feo ^tto *r<> HI. 1 ; sflfo ^rro 

cro 136;Tfto sjho sro P. 243. 
sfto jVro cro 97; *fto ^n*o sro 

P. 199. 

Tf^F^r:; ^o^o $tto ; *fTo ^jo sro P. 
38; go ^o^To P. 62/13. * 

Sfro ^TTo Cf 140; *fto SflTo 5To 

P. 249; go to ?rro P. 174/899. 

^o *rro *rro V. 1 ; *ffo spro #0 
P. 258. 

^To ^TTo tfo 995; *ffo ^To 5fo 

P. 314. 

trTo VTo sr<> III. 24; ^o %o ^0 
P. 74; %o ^?to 5ro p.351 ;f^o^rro 
^ol 67; go to mo P. 250/4. 

Sfto ^To qfo 334. 

sro^o mo^fl'oPP. 250, 431; 

5TTo Sefo 5TTo efto II. 36;*ffo spTo 

So P. 374. 
^o 5To tfo P. 81 ; ^ffto ^*o Bfro ^n*o 
P. 70; *gu^lfi:d:; «fcn:o tfo 

^To; ^fto SfTTo STo P. 217. 
^o $To tfo R 81; ^o tfo ^o %Ro 

P. 70; OTBrarfer:; sfNro sro 

^o; ?fto ^To 5To P. 217; *fto 
^TTo 5To P. 345, 

*fro ^To sr. P. 355. 

Sfo S^o $TTo ?fto HI. 30; sfto 3>Tq 

*o 170; ifto ^TosroP. 269. 




^o ?FTo s^o HI. 18; *ffo 3>T° 5To 

P. 293 . 
^o ^ o ?ro III. 19. 

sfto spTo To 127; *ffo ^ro 5To 

P. 234. 

sfto ^To tf 132; *fto ^To 5To 

P. 239. 

tfo ?fo ^n*o ^o I. 62; sfro ^To 

qo 269;*fto ^0*0 P. 378. 

^o^TTo Sfo X. 27; *fto ^To 5To 

P. 292. 

^TTo ^>To STo II. 58; Sfto ^To qo 

332; *fto ^ro sto P. 397. 

*fto ^>To 5To p. 356. 

cfTo ^To STo g;o ^o IV. 2.9; 

«fto ^ro q*o 331; *ft© ^ro sr© 
P. 397. 

sfto ^TTo q> 167. 

iffo ^To^To P. 179 ; sfto ^Toqo 85. 

^o ^To 5To V. 19; Tfto ^lo 5To 

P. 304; go ^o ^ 205/9. 

^rTo^oTTo 50;Trfo^ro5ToR293; 
go tottto 205/51. 

^fto ^?To *o P. 188. 
Tfto ^To 5To P. 297. 
«fto^o<To219; *fto spio 5ToR 

316; go to ?tto 171/800. 

sfto a5To qo 164; *fto ^To tfo 

P. 262; go ^ ^ro 12/41 
Tfto^ro 5roP. 271. 

xlii kavyaprakasa 

3^ ^r^tost*t 

3* ht Tc$r: s^mTTT«r 
V9 gi^tft ^ g|sr 

_„ _. r»> . 

^o ^Tfo ^ToIH: 35; TfTo ^To To 

P. 294; gS to ?rro 205/6. 

TTo 37 o To IL9; »fto ^TTo 5{o 

P. 358. 

^t° tto sro 996; *ffo Vr© to 
P. 118. 

^Fottto %o 936; *fto spro to 
P. 108. 

Tfto ^To To P. 137; go To TTTo 

«fto SffTo To 93; *fto 3To 5fo 

P. 186. 

Sfto ^"To To 81 ; *fto ^To sr'o 

P. 177; go to mo 79/12. 

$fo TTo ^o II. 95; ifto spTorfo 

P. 195;^fog;oiTo 53/34; go 
To mo 262/178. 

v(o Wo 29; *fto ^T° STO'P- 78; 
go to mo 358/64. 

ifto ^ro To P. 188; goT© ttto 

5fto 3>To<sro P. 114; go To ^TTo 

|To TTo tfo 947 ; sfro c^o To 314; 

Tto TTo To P. 386. 
|To TTo tfo 840;Tfto TTo To P. 19. 
sftospToTo 195; T>o EfTo. 5Fo 

P. 260;«ftospio5ToP.290. 
« )) n 

sfto ^To To 303; Tfo TTo To 



yy<s ntsgpf Tsmfawr 

P. 185; mo ?o 1102; 
^o to wo 218/67. 

Tfto ^7To 5ToP.190. 
fffo Wo tfo 962;»fto ^TTo 5To 


sfro ^To To 121; *ffro ^TTo 5To 

P. 239; 50 to wo 136/38. 

^0 spTo ^To Wo tfo *o fcfo P. 43; * 

*fto spTo 5To P. 338. 
*ffo ^To 5To P. 355; 50 To Wo 


tffsp; Tffo ^5To £0 P. 64; 50 To 

Wo 273/6. 

^ToWo tfo 997; *fto ^>To 3To 

P. 389. 

^"0 ^|o I. 2 ; Tfo ^ro 5To P. 187. 
^■o $ro 18;*fto ^To 5To P. 341; 

50 to wo 224/110. 
^Towo^o 998;sno feo wo *fro; 

Tfto ^To 5To P. 118. 

«fto ^ro Ro P. 250. 
Tfro 37To 5To P. 329. 
^o^o To 321. 
«fto ^To To 33 ; *fto -^to sto P, 93 ; 
%o to wo 313/64. 

sfto 3?fo q-o 202; *fto SfTTo 5To P» 

299. To <jo I. 161; 50 To wo 

?fTo s^o Wo II ;TTto ^ToSToP.131 ; 

^outo^o II. 1, PP. 61-62; 


^o rUoV. 7jf tffr^r^asr on 
3^, P. 86^; jo *r© sff© L 42; 
P. 30; sro ^o ^o P. 11. 

\*% Vtzift^vZKZt To %o fro XIX. 1 ; *f © sq-o fro ; 

*fT© ^To 5T© R 394. 

V>? ^^rfcTf^^^: -^o^ofro in. 37; *fr© ^r© sr© 

P. 401 ; 50 to ttto 336/38. 

W ^fe^T^fcrPw^: *fto sfTTo 5fo P. 210. 

K*? ^w^pt^jB^ sfto ^io q© 315; *ft© ^o sr° 

P. 386; 50 to vtto 104/89. 

?^o STSctf facn*CT^ 3>T© Jo tfo III. 55;*fto ^T© 5To 

P. 182; 30 to *to 268/381. 

V &F5&rit s 5&&&® *ffo q>To 5To P. 15; *Jo To TTT© 


YV90 ^^kHdM^HH *ffo *f>To 5To P. 348. 

^\l ^fqfamsrcsffa^s «ffo^To qo 130; *ft© ^t© st© 

P. 237. 

W *^Spf *W^| 35[t *fi© ^o 3T© P. 311. 

3v9\a f*4 ^ q^srrara ^o spro sr© ttto sf© IV. 15; *ft© 

^To 5To P. 298. 
^ &®^ qf^^TcTT5r ^o cfiT© 30 STI© tfo IV". 15; *ff© 

^T© 5T© P. 402. 

^K ^^WSPpaW ^TTo SfTTo %o 1.41. 

^ ^sresrofa |§ *tt© fir° ^ol. 26; *fto q>i© sr© 

P. 91. 
*^<S fnsst fa^fe; sft© 3>t© qo 256. 

? U f**§ ftfftiwf^r " ^to j© sf© III. 67 ; «fW> ^t© q° 70. 

V*\s f^rotftfgfoft ^t© *tt© *ro 953; *ft© ^nr© sr© 

P. 372. 
\*\ ft fa* si fen *ft© w© fto P. 179. 

^ n ?r ?rq $r m ft *fa *fr© ^r© *o P.210. 



3<£ ft TT*rec3ftcnfia\ 

^TRFPinif:; T>° ^To $To P. 81 ; 
50 xo ?rro 362/37. 

Tfto ^7To STo P. 357. 

P. 152. 

fosfo 96, P. 23; sfro ^ro cfo 
°248;Tfto^To sroP.342. 

f o 3"o *fto I. 90; ^IWT^TdtoT 

js^ncrsri^T II. 249 ; ^o %o ^o 
P. 67;^o^to5To P. 357. 


Index of the first and second lines of the Kat ikas 
of the *Kavyapraka6a 

vfatiQtt awfort fiw*rt i 
sFFrot farofa ^Jriton cR>: ii 

^^TTC^^^^^^^fNf^J *T: II 

ar^wfw sr^s* *isro% frof^^r i 

3T?qcr 5Tf&T: ^*ft|eWHIW4«^r: I 

^\*rf% tari f3f f^ oft tom 

3F*Wf «W& STcHT ^OT^^T fW II 

SWSR^ffH'^sr , 3T*cmr<^ , WR It 

3T^5R?fWsf!TO«ff sqs=SR>: sprat *«r5T: \\ 

sttot 5irs^>?% «*^«*w sr^rftcn ii 
m flcar^firerHf ^tH ht 5* *|fer: 1 

sraffa uj*-4<Wtra ^PTfTOTT im: II 

swfs^: *<*> angmrafln*vn«rc n 





f^^^^j^^f^m^rq; I 54a 

3^<|;TTfar ^Fc%^ ^«3T£NlcWH^ 1 1 38b 

srfinpafWskf f^5^fafSHms<Tcr^r u 51b 

srfk^TcT^Tssft tor^crsr ^t^ n^wpfti 24a 

srafraf sresw^TTC wra <r§rn:*r i 122a 

3TC#T OT<TTC$*T 3*^^*1^ I 133a 

vwzm #* $*i ^ fa^T ^: ^jfinf % u 31b 

qi^nfo'ffcraf to to^t ?r«n u 74b- 

3TT«RT«rftnjft FTTcrr a^&arfro § cr<ni , 128b 

stt«^ fe^Y m sr ^Rf fw^«r^: I 64a 

sn|pr^ m^f *f*nt ffffonwn n 68b 

f^tf*mf^faft mffi ^rrnrrqwPr^t: vfara: u 4b 

^wrt*rW^ *t i*r? srfcnrTfirm n 142b 

3^|ffqrc% s$OT^ft*RTOt *pn: ii 66b 

^nc^R^wff vftftnrc; Tcwftr: n 123b 

^Trf STSfF* tfRff TT^rf ^^<WII 115b 

wg#cr * ^ ^si^r sngfaji ■ 67a 

^t^tfhiw^'w «^fcr^: sr qsr s: i 105a 

^rmm^r^T^ ! tott«( otkmt ii 88b 

^TRta^*c% t^^t^cTTW^ I 91a 

<3TOH wm %<ffcTT 5pN STT fgS{7ll 10b 

wrctaftftFr: to ^p^rorccfr &srflr to ii 49b 

t^ ^t*n3^feF{ qqf^^d^snr i 117a 

mow ^ #| ^m^^^TRRf^w: ii 140b 

ij$ic*n ^nrfffri^wH 1 ^^ i 135b 

q^^r 5rs^T cwr ^rWt^ii 86b 

1£ftMta?qpr wre *n *J^OT^Tft*ft i 17a 

q^rf star crroN tfroreftft fc^r i 142a 

Tim vzt «t«trW tferstn^r ^focrii 46b 

Q*kwf Sfsq% i frlMctfWWfa fif s*jrFni 134b 

«rtar: swrpN^i qpwt ^m <rcn 80b 




wnscf *rer%%?* aj^njrcfaft f$T%<n:$rera 

lifted 44t«TM*S, ^RtnTTPT^ fa^T: 

%«Ufaftdl' iU^M^W ^ftcpft *RTT: 

«nnfiwi»qt ^t^bt w<«iw qvrfM) 

»M ^ ^ fMNft 'swart <ta tufam 

^5»=BfT fe**W^fd wflWMK sw^rtt: 
¥HW fipwl' jfyRfc , K*5*RIf3T{|?P| 
ajff : 51«ft <jfd<wj »TWB 3<^d sftafftf 
3w«r 'Tf^nre 3T cft^T ^NtfT fa*rt 



































Tfe|cTT^f^R *I^WTtc^ *T^T I 116a 

WK*i %fa ftreNrffc&riw: ^r: \\ 136b 

qfttBftftr *F *mWR ?fa W5H I , 139a 

W^NIlfr* ^>TS5prf%^ l^fw^r^cTT II 114b 

^nre^PuwrW «mm'«ft «irs:«rqTcT^>: i 14a 

<rectfr srs^rof ^ u« M**gs ft gpr: ^nfir i 4a 

s^fler ««*g*$ gwfi ffi c ^ ts^shii 99b 

cRT ^TRq'm^T ^fTrj; ftaranr 3 TO^T* II 120b 

<reroft s^s^^r: 5^ q"^ft«ifrcrcw ww 1 20a 

^HPwrWt sr ^m^Jr^: i 93a 

^TT^|5K^4^ SET HH*cK*] qr: I 138a 

ags wsr ^Wf smsr «ft?fV ?rfe^ cTCT I 88a 

ct^ ^fe m ^m fwztwtifazFZFm II 133b 

OT^rarapftfra 1 qrftsferc § *n si^tt ii 119b 

*far qr^fjq-T ?vsm: srtan: stss^to^ $ i 73a 

5TOfc3rarc*ft sttstt: * wwiwKg *tot: ii 34b 

m^sr fgcf^^r fw&n arfwrnfT^: » 34a 

^cm^f^^fd^ trtorfCTfc ii 69b 

f*r re stfcf^ ^d ^ ft^M ^ cTTO^w i 50a 

zmz& g^cfaf *mt 5r%f^R^u 102b 

m*t %#re ^ ^ |^ tf^rctff i 123a 

^Tqwmte^ *frfii ^t^$ <* fn* i 90a 

«r star: wqWt-wwft #arrft*F: ^tf%<r i 63a 

T S^H^dlWf *T ^ 51*5: S^ST%: It 16b 

swwsfxKi fafar d^Meft ?m$t w*rfir u lb 

*nfw wwmmi^ccwicim ^wmii 15b 

*n*Fr: w ^^thIw a&f <Ts*sm ^rer: n 82b 

fMfclfow* % wgzm c^rr brt i 100a 

ft^OTi«j>« *ifir d<-*flP**dfa % *f=F| ii 130b 

f^RTRf *T$3W?: Hf gTC^TOffiGIT II 104b 

forarT^q>TTO: tUMK'tac VCW *T: I 95a 

fMT^^f Rffppwiiti m I'ffi r w^«rt: i 31a 


srejercsr *uhm nsro'fafft <* ^*pti 

5ftMHH4»Jd«*A ^cM'<A '^TS^ ^W: SfflT: I 














55«rt ^ ws Hmrer grat tftir: *5%r ^ 






















^^r^TO^«THm1:f^?r s^c^facj i 77a 

^q , TTOt^TFW5r: ST 3?T^> fgSTT <RcT:/ 107a 

^w^^totost i^fftmcft fzm{ » 79a 

^rf: swrat Xxrtt ^rf ^s^crifircrTj u 73b 

*rcg ere ^rr*rf<c wft sr § af^pi: 11 137b 

^ift^JT^p^^T^msrcT: i 121a 

sr?g ^ffaffa ire^Jteft ^JTfear iq« 40b 

*wr**iwwt staro gre$n?*rer: 1 41a 

srr^ gqw qfcaro sw^Msrfarou 42b 

^Tf^fq 1 Stat: sre$?t qs^fsrfa %** II 52b 

srraw&r ftrsrr ^ wwz w^wsr: 1 84a 

^TOSScretf: *f=mwrf*tffa %*faaii 6b 

crT^Jf^ *c*n% *n ^Tf«rR^rf^ w*rfe i 89a 

fer^feRWtf^cT: m 5T%5T^m § HT It 101b 

f^^^KIM^dc^^rj^^frcft^t^: II 57b 

ftr*TT 5r%s^FT^R*n^w «irgrfei%: " I 135a 

fsnftfsfcr: m fircwr arsrF*: *m %*♦ 1 113a 

f^rr^T 3T*04i«u*dd ^ef% ssrF^r^rrfT^r: i 28a 

ftr>r: ^f^Ct^Pr fsFSgc^ *?*: i HOa 

farsrf$r?f wrarc ^re^f srscmsj w i 25a 

Fwr«^:$%^fiF^ hi s«nwr«*TOifwr u lib 

farf^ swot *& fsreNT: ws§ sfectii 18b 

f«refa*TcroT *re ^g #prarsft %«n n 131b 

f^^^f^rr^af^r: *tft*re?§ st: i H8a 

fir^cftf^rt^tBr ^R% q^w^f; i 108a 

%^^Tfs^%r^^T: sftfSWW: II ^4b 

sspsfrf: H ^raraTSr: WPflnTOt Tfl: <TOT: II 28b 

m^vOtii *pfcjdei4 f^jomtcst f^T^T: ^RHT: 1 46a 

w^*r ^r^crr ^ Hr^cTT § snftsrc i 13a 

*rfvnnfc3^4TO^ q Mer rew T r 60a 

sqperf^cf ^ cfaTSft f^<T: ttft#feRC: It 141b 

3qn^g%#t Ofst s§%3? ^f^wr i 112a 

r^r . ii 118b 


sqr^>ERT?r srcrorM m% f^%rfwfcr: I 71a 

5f^T ^q^cTT ^ |TTNt SffcTT cT«TT I 32a 

srf^fag^crr ^T¥*H^*i«gm%sT*iTft i 3a 

3^5nrr*ritefHf oqAc^ ! #cR srt: i 23a 

5TS5T^f^5f q"cg[# ^T^WSTfcH? I 48 a 

sassrcfaiTwfa^ festsg cTgfcsrcre era; i 106a 

srs^^ro^Nft #n s^r^tt^t <rcni 41b 

qwpffre*i«fc yM fc*isrr s ^rf^cfr sstfa: * 38a 

5JT«3Sg ^IdRMIsfi" ^ cTTcW^n^frT: it 81b 

gn ^!H»rH <4 d H^^oMcK^fa m II 70b 

^^RfT^P^R^^^T^TrT^^pT: I 29a 

fejssrfar 5T3ST: ^^sft^R^nafefWT^^T II 84b 

5%isr: s* error q^f^R *r^fnr*fcTT *?%cf u 96b 

5^*T 5|>T^T 5T ifaT STT ^facfScT^r fesTT II 78b 

^fcT*rrt<ir srsgrre ^rafcrerat *r%ff i 76a 

sfterr 3*rstf?er ^f «rfa#B*&fiwfir cTct i 94a 

«ffamfl tT ^%FF$ *T*mt cTfe& cT«TTII 87b 

sfo$*r fsr^r ^H^qr #^^nn t 44a 

^%%cr^^> ^R2TTF^fcT^ ^tt t 8a 

^rmf^flrw^T ^^^sfrf^cw^m^T u 63b 

sffereft f?rf§: srfHfefegrftr^s^sr i 56a 

tffN^Tfestare fer^cTcj swfairu 58b 

tf^?m>$$TT STfcT^ S%* «TcT i 92a 

^^lr^Twr^^f^n<j^3^r?riT u 19b 

Sfffffrcg swf*T srfCTsrsarc*Mfl? t 103a 

srer: «rcfMhra * m wftvcKPfr&fflfft u 2B 

Hf^^srsn^n^ ^Tf^Tf^nrg^c'T u 45b 

*fan*pRft& vtvtii %m*w ^%?r fa®&H t 51a 

H*T sffaETCTT #ft srfe tfmfacr: ^ff^ II 125b 

wrecT^sfiwf «ftcTT 3*rctfiRn *rcr ii 93b 

swifa: ^R fro ^m*cRsftacT: I 125a 

*r ^^ft^arsr w^ft sroT^fasft 5 ^ u 8b 


tprerafeft *r c^r> wrs m n^rf^TT: n 116b 

sfa?r ^otgtc w*§ srcg^TT ^f?nj^^ i 130a 

sr^faf srosfterfarf ^^^wflfaict \ 7a 

srcfl^g ^sfacft OT^Rft ^ /farou 92b 

HTO^sftas^cf: STefaRfarsr: S^Tfocpfe^S: l 57a 

Hrerrc*f%fc*cf ifW*rfiw^ sr srre^ni 7b 

nr^ptaR fa^tf § srg msr g ^<ni 94b 

w«Fq^nrr ^ s*tf ^rtt ^ sTfimr i 87a 

tfnsrrc*r: smarmr sr sr^rr^r *mt *rar:n 76b 

HWI«f m fireWt ST <re?&T ot^ i 109a 

HWTOFT fifasw ^ snw$ Twfa: \ 102a 

Hrctawr 3 TOtaraft fasrtft faqtflsrar i Ha 

HWcfcHS^wU"* sfta: sfafefart: I 47a 

m ^ffiffi: W$V$K% 3^T^fl %<M-eHW II 112b 

gttf ^^>q , ^Tti^c»r^w j 2Thicrr i 33b 

%<sn tf$fc$?taf ^r *fe§ f^%;u 139b 

&r fwg *r§#5 ^na^fa sfaG^u 103b 

$pfam s$?3* ^wictowj TC ii 79b 

WTOcl'ftsift srcfa trargtf qrc <¥T*r t 131a 

FfsJhpsr fiww wwWtto<( i 141a 

*Trc*i *sn%H Mwwl«Thi*M<tt(^ u 132b 

CTW*ft fircatfa 'anffcrror fiRftra: i 65a 

<wwm*> ^rerf^: 5T«sta sqwraffswr i 6a 

^orvncftftcR5 ftwnfc ^fa*m^H*r it 111b 

FCTSBOT *T*T tft»n*?«rsWRflPIOT *rcr i 137a 

esfiw^ *ro#«T: to* *arcwrfip| I 10a 

WRT^r«wfiWRii f^am^r w $mr i 98a 

Ic^^n^cfVrt *ft wm fa%fi$r u 105b 


3TCR — Abhinanda's Ramacarita, Gaekwad's Oriental 
Series. 1929. 

3?3mT — Abhinavagupta's Abhinavabharatl, Gaekwad's 

Oriental Series. 1926;1934. 
afSTORst — Abhinavagupta's Dhvanyalokalocana, Nirnaya- 

Sagar Press. 1928. 

3Tf $T — Appayyadlksica's Kuvalayanandakarika, Nirnaya 

Sagar Press. 1927. 
3TJ — Agnipurana. Published by Mansukhrai More, 

srt — Amarusataka, ( also Srngarasataka ) Nirnaya 

Sagar Press. 1954. 
snfer — Anandavardhana's Devisataka, Kavyamala 

IX. Nirnaya Sagar Press. 
zoom — Anandavardhana's Dhvanyaloka, Nirnaya Sagar 

Press. 1928. 
s^srerrcf — Udbhata's Kavyalankarasarasangraha. Bombay 

Sanskrit and Prakrit Series. No. LXXIX. 

1925. . 

fsrsft _ Kuntaka's Vakroktijlvita, Ed. S. K. De. Pub. 
K. L. Mukhopadhyaya. Calcutta. 

*xts — Kalidasa's Raguvamsa, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 

s&Tfsf —Kalidasa's Kumarasambhava, Nirnaya Sagar 

Press. 1927. 
qnft|3 — Kalidasa's Meghaduta, Uttaramegha. Nirnaya 

Sagar Press. 1935. 


^f>F3T^T — Kalidasa's Abhijfianasakuntala, Nirnaya Sagar 

Press. 1922. 
sppFTTsc — Kalidasa's Malavikagnin|tra. Nirnaya Sagar 

Press. 1924. 
gpjfsre — Kalidasa's Vikramorvaslya. Nirnaya Sagaf 

Press. 1922. 
tiaftfav — Ksemendra's Aucityavicaracarca, Kavyamala 

I. Nirnaya Sagar Press. 
*ffaro _ Govindathakkura's Kavyapradipa, Nirnaya 

Sagar Press. 1912. 
3R*T — Jagannatha's Rasagangadhara, Nirnaya Sagar 

Press. 1930. 
s^sr — Jalhana's Suktimuktavali, Gaekwad's Oriental 

Series. 1925. 
S^tstt — Dandin's Kavyadarsa, Jibananda Vidyasagara. 

* 1925. 

srfsr — Damodaragupta's Kuttanimata, Gujrati 

Printing Press. 1924. 
«rs* — Dhananjaya's Dasatupaka, Gujrati Printing 

Press. 1927. 
spg^T — Dhanika's Dasarupakavaloka, Gujrati Printing 

Press. 1927. 
snTO* — Nagesabhatta's Paramalaghumafijusa, Chow- 

mtvtT — Patanjali's Mahabhasya, Chowkhamba. 
«RHR — Padmagupta alias Parimala's Navasahasankaca- 

rita, Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit. Series. 
jarro — Punjaraja's commentary on the Vakyapadiya. 
sffita — Ballala's Bhojaprabandha, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 

1932. -" 
srjfat — Bana's Harsacarita, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 1925. 


^T%H — Bhattana^iyana's Venisamhara,, Nirnaya Sagar 

Press. 4 1925. 
*re^r — Bhavabhuti's Uttararamacarita, Nirnaya Sagaf 

Press. 1925. 

vrarato — Bhavabhuti's Mahavlracarita, Nirnaya Sagar 
Press. 1926. 

vmm — Bhavabhuti's Malatlmadhava, Nirnaya Sagar 
Press, 1926. 

^RT^tT — Bharata's Natyasastra, Kashi Sanskrit Series 
No. 60. 1929. 

H^srsrrcff — Bhattenduraja's commentary on Udbhata's 
Kavyalankarasarasangraha, B ombay Sans- 
krit and Prakrit Series. 1925. 

^mrrsr — Bhamaha's Kavyalankara, Kashi Sanskrit Series. 

?nf%3C — Bbaravi's Kiratarjunlya, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 

***ftar — Bhartrhari's Nitisataka, Subhasitatrisatl, Nirn- 
aya Sagar Press. '1957, 

war j — Bhallatasataka, Kavyamala IV, Nirnaya Sagar 

sntsr -^Bhartrhari'^s VairagyaSataka, Subhasitatrisatl, 

Nirnaya Sagar Press. 1957. 

W5T — Bhrtrhari's &ringarasataka, Subhasitatrisatl, 
Nirnaya Sagar Press. 1957. 

,#srt — Bhoja's Srngaraprakasa. 
vm — Bhattikavya. Nirnaya Sagar Press . 1 920 
tfta^sCT — Bhoja's Sarasvat-Tkrt^t^ab'Tiirar.ji. Nirnaya 
Sagar Press. 1934. 

*rer&nf% — Mammata's Sabdavyaparavicara.. Nirnaya' 
Sagar Press. 1916 


T^pr — Mayura's Suryasataka, Nirnaya Sagat Press. 

1927. § 

Trsirf^ — Mahimabhatta's Vyaktf.viveka, Trivandrum 

Sanskrit Series. 1909. 

«rrfiw — Magha's Sisupalavadha, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 
^aryrr — Mukulabhatta's Abhidhavrttimatrka, Nirnaya 
Sagar Press. 1916. 

*nn — Mahabharata, Gita Press. 

Tff% — Ratnakara's Haravijaya, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 

xmft — Rajasekhara's Kavyamlmamsa, Gaekwad's 

Oriental Series. 1934. 
xv*m — Rajasekhara's Karpuramanjarl, Kavyamala, 

No. IV., Nirnaya Sagar Press. 1927. 
X^m — Rajasekhara's Balaramay ana- Jibananda Vidya- 

sagara, Calcutta. 1884. 

trf*r*r — Rajasekhara's Viddhasalabhanjika, Jibananda 

Vidyasagara, Calcutta. 1883., 
<wrsf J — Rudrata's Kavyalankara, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 


^3TO — Ruyyaka's Alankarasarvasva. Ed. Gauirnatha 
Pathaka. Banaras. 1926. 

mgW — Vallabhadeva's Subhasitavali, Bombay Sans- 
krit and Prakrit Series. 

%q% — Venidatta's Padyaveni, Calcutta, 

^t^tst^ — Vamana's Kavyalankarasutravrtti, Vani Vilas 
Press. 1909. 

f^m — Visakhadatta's Mudraraksasa, Ed. K. T. 

Telang, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 1935. 
|%s^ — Vidyanatha's Prataparudriya, Balamanorama 

Press. 1950. 


torn -Visvanatha's Sahityadarpana, Nirnaya Sagar 
Press* 1931. 3 g 

ftj -Visnupui.ana, Gita Press, Gorakhpur. 

WT -Sudraka's Mrcchakatika, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 

-Sarngadharapaddhati, Bombay Sanskrit and 

Prakrit Series. 1888. 
-Sivasvamin's Kapphinabhyudaya, Lahore. 

*&** -Srivatsalanchanacarya's Kavyapariksa, Mithila 

Institute, Darbhanga. 
g™ -Subhasitaratnabhandagara, Nirnaya Sa R a> 

Ptess. 1952. • 

*"" ~ H cScmtf g " nanda ' J!Mnanda Vid ^ ara > 

EH ~2 ar?a ' S Ratnavali > Nirnaya Sagar Press. 1925 
iWTT -Hanumatkavi's Mahanataka. (Also Hanuma- 

nnataka). Jibananda Vidyasagara. Calcutta 


I^H -Hala's GathasaptaSatl, Nirnaya Sagar Press. 
|«m -Kavyanus-asana of Hemacandra, Kavyamala 
Nirnaya Sagar Press. '